Free Essay

19th Century Art Education, Industrial Art or Fine Art?

In: Historical Events

Submitted By taylort2
Words 4170
Pages 17
19th Century Art Education, Industrial Art or Fine Art?

Varick Taylor

East Carolina University MAED
Art 6800 History and Philosophy of Art Education
Abstract
As an art educator in the today’s public school system, I feel that it is my responsibility to introduce and allow my students to explore the arts from the past and the present. I want them to learn a variety of art making techniques and art history. I also want to prepare them for future by giving them exposure to possible career choices that utilizes the arts. Therefore I feel it is important that my art classes allow students to be exposed to both the fine arts and design fields of the 21st century. 21st century technology like 19th century industrialization has influenced art education methods. The use of technology in classes is increasing each year. We are using design software to create both designs and fine art assignments on computers. In the 19th century, industrialization was one of the most important reasons why art became a part of public school education. Government leaders and the industry wanted America to able to compete with the superior European imports. As a result they felt that requiring drawing as a subject in public schools would help the U.S. in competing with Europe and balance trade. Knowing how much they wanted America to produce better products, I was puzzled when the Massacusetts did not model its art education after the France, whom was considered the best in producing superior product designs. Instead the American art education system was modeled after the British and German education systems. So why did America choose the German influenced British art education system over the perceivably better French art education system? What changes in the art education system occur as results of industrial and society changes by the turn of the 19th century.

The industrialization of the 19th century societies had a great influence on art education. It caused split in art education. Education of the fine artist was separate from the education of artisans in most nations. France was one nation that did not separate its schooling of fine artists and artisans. Life drawing was actually considered the heart of its schools of decorative art. The schools’ industrial design studies were built upon an existing base of academic drawing. It objective was to give elementary instruction in art with a view to the improvement of French Goods. Because its artisans were trained like fine artist, the French Industry maintain a level of superiority (Macdonald, 1970, 2004). German states on the other hand, found that it was to their advantage to prepare artisans in craft schools separately from the fine art academies. Their Kunstgewerbeschule were considered trade schools that also focused on industrial application of the arts. These were the two nations that the British were looking at to model their art education after. They eventually choose the German model even though the French model produce better designers and design products. British kept using their German based model even after the Schools of Design were taken over years later by Henry Cole. In 1890s, even the German recognized the success of the French art education model that place attention on the fine art. (Smith,1996)
Now lets look at how art education became a part of the American school system. First of all how did some of our leaders view the purpose, values and goals of art education in the 18th century. Horace Mann believed that drawing could be use to train the mind for other things such as writing. Others felt art education can use to support American democratic principles. Art education can also conceive as a way to prepare students with technical skills need for the industrial society in America. Finally art education could be use to prepare immigrants for social acceptability and to adjust easily in the American industrial work environment. These viewpoints give reference to ways of showing the nature of art education in the United States in the 1800s and 1900s. They also made it plausible to seek an art education supervisor that is concerned with industrial art and who knowledge will give the program viability (Freedman & Popkewitz, n.d.).
Adapting to needs of society and labor selection were given as reasons to introduce art education in the late 1800s. So as the Industrial Revolution took place in the United States, art education became a practical subject in schools. Industrial hands needed basic artistic training. Industrialists with the help the newly formed laboring class promoted the cause of art education. Corporate leaders felts that Americans were competing under a disadvantage with European manufacturers. They felt they had to hire artisans trained in Europe. Therefore a drawing act was created so the United States could develop artisans to make American industrial products more productive (Freedman & Popkewitz, n.d.).
Since the United States art education beginnings is tied closely with British 19th century art education, I will like to take a look at British art education and how it played a role in the American art education. British’s Royal Academy of Arts was established in 1768. It was intended to have a School of Design, but only taught academic painting and sculpture. Shortcoming of British arts and craft as seen at international trade fairs lead to the opening of the Normal School of Design in 1837. This school was to train teachers of artisans and it was noted for avoiding the fine arts. Other schools of designs were later opened with the help of the British government. Things really changed in 1851 at the World Exposition at Hyde Park, London. It was there that the British realized their artisans lacked the skills and artistic training of other European nations (Wygant, 1983). It was evident that the drawing method taught at the Beaux Arts and the French ateliers were superior to the British Royal Academy's methods. It was then that Henry Cole established elementary drawing schools and more design schools with the purpose of improving the manufacture of arts and crafts. Its design schools consisted of a 4 year program that was usually organized into 23 stages, with ten in drawing, seven in painting, four in modeling and two in design. Programs similar to Cole’s system were general throughout Britain by 1854. Also in 1854, students and students were encouraged to take drawing examination, which teachers were compensated upon completing it. These efforts were taken with the intent of improving the quality of English arts and industrial designs. By 1867 British schooling and industrial drawing had improved and it was evident at Paris Exposition in that year. By 1872, there were 122 design schools in operation.
Economics factors after the Civil War lead to industrial drawing being pushed in the United States. Art education was first introduced in the United States when Horace Mann, William Bentley Fowle, Amos Alcott, Rembrant Peale and Henry Barnard introduced the practical educational drawing methods of German, Swiss and British. All these men visited Europe and became intrigued with educational methods used in Britain and the German States. They especially Mann prepared the groundwork for Walter Smith, a British instructor who very instrumental in the beginning of our art education (Macdonald,1970, 2004).
By 1867, England's products have improved dramatically and America came to the realization that they were still lagging behind. As a result, Charles Callahan Perkins and John Dudley Philbrick begin to formulate a plan for the introduction of industrial drawing into Boston schools (History of art education 1851-1870: important figures, n.d.). Thus art education in public school began three years later when Massachusetts passed an act requiring drawing to be one of the subjects taught in public school. This act also established drawing classes for adult in all towns with over 10,000 people. The purpose of requiring the teaching of drawing was to train artisans and designers for American industries so can compete with international industries. There was an urgent need for the training artisans because American industrial products were considered inferior by design when compared European products(Kern, n.d.).
When Charles Perkins asked Henry Cole for a recommendation for a candidate for director of drawing for Boston public schools, he chose Walter Smith. Therefore Walter Smith was given the title Massachusetts Art Education Supervisor and Director of Drawing for Boston Public Schools. He was also the first principal of the Massachusetts State Normal Art School, which was claimed to be the first public school of art in the United States. Smith whom was a student of Henry Cole’s system and educator from South Keningston school, brought an strong industrial drawing background and. He strongly believed that anyone who can learn to write can learn to draw, and that drawing is easily to learn than writing. He did not want to children to make artistic pictures. He believed they should learn to draw by copying outlines from manuals and learn mechanical drawing theories. The passion for drawing from real objects rather Smith’s copying exercise later rose with Kindergarten Movement and Oswego Normal School‘s object teaching methods (Macdonald,1970, 2004).
As the State art supervisor, Smith planned to supervise the development of evening drawing classes, develop skills of teachers to teach drawing and improve the instruction in drawing at the Normal Schools. As Director of Drawing for Boston Public Schools, Smith create a plan of study for all grades that will be taught uniformly to all students. He also wanted to have plan of study to be coordinated with programs in both evening classes and teacher prep classes. He also had to convince the industrial leaders and the public that his system and its educational content was what they needed.
Smith’s plan of study was probably the most complete and documented art education program that was dedicated to preparing students for industrial society of 19th century. Art studies in the primary and grammar schools consists having four kinds of drawing activities that usually involve the same forms, concepts and technical problems. He wanted the activities to be complementary techniques for teaching the designated weekly lesson. Freehand drawing, dictation/memory drawing, design, model/object drawing, geometric drawing and perspective drawing were kinds of drawing activities taught at the primary and grammar grades. Theses activities last about 30 minutes each and was given once a week. Primary and grammar students were in class for two hours per week, which was the same weekly class period as high school students. The high school program lasted three years and students were required to have two hour weekly lessons. The subjects in the first two years consist of perspective, model/object drawing, freehand analysis of botanical forms/decorative styles and applied design where students use freehand analysis to plan their decorations. The final year subjects were historic ornaments, light and shade, color and applied design rendered in color. Students were also taught coloring with watercolor washes in the final year. High School unlike primary and grammar school uses specialist teachers, who were also used to supervised the regular education teachers who were teaching art in all grade levels (Wygant, 1983).
Under Smith’ s leadership, the State Normal Art School was known for having a greater industrial bias than the British schools. The school was claimed to a training school with the purpose of qualifying teachers and technical drawing masters. Smith also known for following the French system of mechanical drawing because he orthographic projections of furniture, machines and buildings instead of the cones, cubs and cylinders used in British schools. That was another reason why he was chosen, because he was familiar with France, Belgium and German teaching methods. He was noted for including the best elements of those nations along with South Keningston system (Macdonald,1970, 2004). His program consisted of 4 year long courses. The first course was elementary drawing and the second course was form, color and industrial design. The third course was constructive arts and the final course was sculpture and design in the round (Wygant, 1983). Some argued that Smith’s industrial based educational system was driving art education away from contemporary movements in American Art. Some also argued that industrial drawing did nothing to prepare students for an understanding of the world of nor the heritage of art (The history of art education time line 1870-1879, n.d.). As society and the industries were changing throughtout the last quarter of 1800s, so was art education. There were number of movements and changes. The Oswego Movement started by Edward Austin Sheldon also gain national and international acclaim with use of his methodology called “object teaching. Behind the theory of object teaching is the notion that education should develop all the powers of the child. This method employs the use of tangible and visual objects such as charts and blocks, to help the development of the child's senses. This method was praised by many of the prominent educators and some felt it could be most widely approved new method of teaching. Object teaching still had it doubters. Even the Oswego Board of Education was critical of it. Hermann Krusi, one of Oswego teachers, coined it “objective teaching” and stated the lessons do not connect with each other. Others felt the method will do away with textbooks (Wygant, 1983).
When Sheldon founded the Oswego Normal and Training School in 1861, his integration of subject matter and art was the focus of the Oswego movement and led “Totally Integrated Curriculum” being implemented in their elementary teacher training. He incorporated the Prussian Normal School, Pestalozzi’s object teaching, Herbart lesson planning, Frobel’s Kindergarten, Sloyd’s manual training, Rousseau and Della Vos’s manual training philsophies the Oswego school curriculum. Industrial art became a major focus of the school as the manual training developed in the school. This movement relegated the fine arts to virtual nonexistence in the school. This shift in focus at schools also lead to growth and development of the “applied arts” in schools (Stark, n.d.).
Industrial drawing as the initial step toward practical education but it being included did not mark a change in the general purpose of common schools. A change did not really occur until Manual Training came about in the 1880s. The Manual training Movement became the method to answer the educational problems caused by the Industrial Revolution. Manual training in elementary schools was an educational experiment conducted in 1882 to determine the feasibility of teaching manual training in elementary schools. This training was a manual method of teaching a subject with emphasis on drawing, modeling and form study. After 1887, manual training had developed quickly in elementary schools throughout the nation. The 19th century manual training programs have developed into some of industrial art programs of the 20th century. The development of manual training programs was influenced by the Russian manual training system, Sloyd system, arts & craft movement, vocational and industrial movements (Ambury, (n.d.).
The Russian system was a formalized manual training system based on the principle of logical method of procedures where exercises were assigned in order of increasing difficulty. The teaching method had three stages: study of tools & materials, acquisition of skills in assembling materials under study and construction of the project. Freehand and mechanical drawings were emphasis in Russian manual training. This method of education provided little chance of self expression or chances of individual differences.
Sloyd was an individual method of instruction that uses a series of models. It was noted for growing in difficulty and complexity that the students were supposed to accurately reproduce without interference from the teacher. This method encourages student initiatives and self-direction. The sloyd system was more suitable for needs and interest of elementary students. American educators eventually make two changes to Sloyd system: a course in drawing and improvement in the design of the model. Sloyd also placed more emphasis on the study of form with use of the models. This cause the students be involved in judging shape and proportion rather than the testing of tools. It also stimulated greater student interest with it offering of a variety of models, exercises and tools.
The arts and crafts movement which originated in England also had an influence over manual training program. This movement started out as a protest against poor craftsmanship and to correct the wrongs of the Industrial Revolution. This movement placed an emphasis of aesthetic/creative side of the work instead of the skill side as stressed in Russian and Sloyd system. The movement intent was to have design to be an important part of the training process like was in the Renaissance. It also stressed the importance of industrial drawing and a variety of decorative work. The ultimate goal of this movement was producing work of a more artistic nature that was better adapted to the interest of the student ( Roberts, 1965).
The arts and craft movement produced five societies that were intended to promote artistic craftsmanship in England’s industrial arts. It was also during this movement that design studies became foundation course in the designer curriculum at some of the design schools in England. This movement eventually occurred in America, and the focus shifts from industry to furniture making, ceramics, china painting and needlework. This eventually lead to wood making, ceramics and other arts & crafts being taught in American schools. Women are highly employed at this time and find great success working in furniture and ceramic production. Even though this movement fail to change productive processes, it did help the taste. 1882 was the year that manual training educational experiment took place. It was also the year that a movement to beautify the school through reproduced art images took place. This movement was called Picture Study. It was known for promoting art appreciation and aiming to develop the ability to discern what is tasteful. Technology made this movement possible with reproductions of the Renaissance and later European artwork that usually had a moral message. This movement was really helpful for immigrant students who were more visually literate than they were in English. This movement also helped aesthetics to become a subject with its being used as a way to provide moral educations for the large number of immigrant students. Henry Turner Bailey, whom initiated this movement, wrote many books dedicated to picture study with poetic responses to works of art, often extolling the nature beauty represented in the work. The picture study movement also provided assistance to unskilled teacher by providing info such as the picture’s representational content, artist info. This provided material enable all teachers to able present the information to their class and develop their students ability to appreciate art (The picture study movement, before 1930, n.d.).
Smith concept of industrial drawing for children dominated the American art education until the end of the 1800s. With influences from Friedrich Froebel kindergarten movement and later the efforts of Arthur Wesley Dow, art education was drifting from industrial design towards more creative and aesthetic values (Macdonald,1970, 2004). Women who were the primary supporters of Froebel, expressed that ideas and gifts of the kindergarten movement provided a foundation for industrial education. This is one of the reasons why it was place in the Boston schools in 1870. The kindergarten movement was noted for stimulating imagination and self expression. As I stated earlier, this movement along with practices at Oswego Normal School led a trend of drawing from real objects. It started out as drawing from geometrical solid to drawing from all types of solid models. Object drawing was noted for improving a student perception of form, space and structure of objects. Kindergarten along with the help of progressive educators like Arthur Dow and Denman Ross, art education had changed to a more aesthetic and expressive for students by the turn of the century.
Art Education around the turn of the century had reached a characteristic equipoise between the society, the individual and subject matter of study. The emergence of individualism was a general throughout the century but individualism in the culture was not fully evident in art until the appearance of new art styles following Impressionism. The public’s attitude about art and art in schools changed throughout the nineteenth century. By the turn of the century the public had accepted art and was ready for it to bring culture to America and its school (Wygant, 1983). There was also another change in art education. Educators wanted to separate the fine arts from industrial arts in school curriculum. It had expanded its scope. It was not just drawings of geometric solid and household utensils. There was also self-expression, composition, 3d modeling, construction, home decorations, art history and aesthetic education. The fine media changed from just slate and pencils to chalk, inks, paints, colored paper, clay and lastly wax crayons. Media for the manual arts moved from paper cards to photo-lithography, four color printing, stereopticon projections and picture study.
Industry and society also played a part in getting industrial drawing into schools. The United States population moved from forty million to seventy-six million between 1870 to 1900. One third of the new population were immigrants. Manufacturing jobs and production had increased dramatically. New products and technology changed the way people lived. This led to a push for vocational education. All these changes were not good. During this time the work of artisans was not the same as it was earlier in the century. The new technology and assembly lines did replaced watchmakers with some who made the wheel of a watch. Workers only needed to know how to follow instructions and perform simple, repetitive tasks. These skills had little to do with practical education in industrial drawing. This meant manual workers were artisans to some degree, which it what Arts & Crafts movement protested against. Progressive educators were arguing for instilling “industrial intelligence” in students instead of manual skills. Many were pushing to move art education from manual skills to self expression. These changes in art education at the turn of the century were a reaction to vocationalism and the fragmented, alienating conditions of industrial society (Wygant, 1983).
In conclusion, I believed American art education came about as way to train artisans with the most important purpose of producing better commercial products. In other words, art education was a way to compete with Europe and to balance trade. Now the adoption of Smith’s German influenced British methods were the results of friends doing another friend a favor. The high regards and attitudes of the French could also play a part in America not adopting their method. Amercian leaders did not want to risk American artisans to develop the same arrogant attitudes that the French were known for during this time. Smith’s methods were praised and successful in the beginning. But as time past and need of true artisans diminished, art education experience changes as the result of several movement. At the turn of the century, art education was more than just drawing technically. There were more fine arts and aesthetics in art curriculums.

References

F. Wygant, (1983) . Art in American schools in the nineteenth century. Cincinnati:Interwood Press
Freedman, K., & Popkewitz, T.S. (n.d.). Art education and the development of academy: the ideological origins of curriculum theory. In B. Wilson, and H. Hoffa(Eds.), The History of art education: proceedings from penn state conference (pp. 19-27)

Stark, G. K. (n.d.). The oswego movement 1861-1903 (education in art). In B. Wilson, and H. Hoffa(Eds.), The History of art education: proceedings from penn state conference (pp. 138-148)

Kern E.J., (n.d.) The purpose of art education in the united states from 1870 to 1980. In B. Wilson, and H. Hoffa(Eds.), The History of art education: proceedings from penn state conference (pp.40-49 )

Ambury P.M., (n.d.). Culture for the masses: art education and progressive reforms, 880-1917. In D. Soucy, M. A. Stankiewcz (Eds.), Framing the past:essays on art education (pp. 103- 114 ) Reston:The National Art Education Association
Macdonald, S. (1970, 2004). America Import of cole’s system. In Macdonald S., The history and philosophy of art education. (pp 253-262) Cambridge:The Lutterworth Press

Smith, P. (1996), The history of american art education:learning about art in american schools. Connecticut, London: Greenwood Press

Roberts, R.W. (1965). Vocational and practical arts education: history, development, and principles 2nd ed. New York: Harper and Row

The picture study movement, before 1930 Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_education_in_the_United_States

The history of art education time line 1870-1879 Retrieved from http://www.personal.psu.edu/mas53/timln870.html

History of art education 1851-1870: events and movements Retrieved from http://art.unt.edu/ntieva/HistoryofArtEd/1851-events.html

History of art education 1871-1900: events and movements Retrieved from http://art.unt.edu/ntieva/HistoryofArtEd/1871-events.html

History of art education 1851-1870: important figures Retrieved from http://art.unt.edu/ntieva/HistoryofArtEd/1851-figures.html…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Art Education

...Arts Education Art is important in education and can provide students with a great education. It can make a person unique in their own way. I had art in junior high and high school, and I learned a lot from my art classes. Art taught me valuable things, such as creativity and social skills. It helped build my skills up step by step. I always had fun in art education because it relaxed me and reduced stress. Art can help students before they take a test by relaxing them. I like drawing because it helps me be more focused. Many other people may think that art is not necessary in education but I think it can help students everywhere. I believe that art education is important because it improves academic performance, reduces tardiness or truancy, and helps students grow into creative ways. Art education improves academic performance. Art can help students achieve better grades in their classes. Students improve test scores just by taking art classes. Art makes students unique intellectually and socially. “They develop skills and judgment they didn’t know they had, whether it is drumming in time or acquiring the knowledge to differentiate between Pavarotti and the tenor in the choir loft at the Sunday service” said Education Secretary Arne Duncan (as cited in Baker, 2012, p.257). By this he is saying that students will soon gain skills they didn’t know they had until they took art. The skills they develop will help them with other classes. They will be more focused on the......

Words: 775 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Museum of Fine Art

...The Museum of Fine Art I went to Boston in this spring break and I visited one of the largest museums in the United States, the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts. The Museum of Fine Art attracting over one million visitors a year. It contains over 450,000 works of art, making it one of the most comprehensive collections in the Americas. It is also the 54th most visited art museum in the world, and the twelfth most-visited in the United States, as of 2010. The Museum was founded in 1870 and opened in 1876, with a large portion of its collection taken from the Boston Athenaeum Art Gallery. There are tons of different exhibits; some temporary and some more permanent. I went to see some of the temporary exhibits- Degas and the Nude and Aphrodite and the Gods of Love. The permanent exhibits include items of Paul Revere, silversmith, which are really cool. Their early American collection represents a wide variety of art and arts, craft and crafts. I tend to love their artifacts collections. Their permanent modern art gallery is cool but for me, is not as strong as some of their other offerings, like their collection of priceless musical instruments from around the world, throughout history. Their permanent pan-Asian art gallery is strong for its location. I'm not a big fan of their restaurant, but their cafe is open, airy, and pleasant. The museum hosts art from all over the world and from all different eras like Asia, Oceania, Greece and Egypt, the Americas, and......

Words: 322 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Intro to Fine Art Assignment 3

...Intro to Fine Art Assignment 3 Question 1. In order to fully understand Roman art, we must understand that “Roman culture was modeled on that of the Greeks.” (Lewis 228) More specifically our textbook states that “while the romans absorb their artistic ideals from the Greeks, they were more realistic than idealistic, more active than philosophical, more pragmatic than creative.” (Lewis 228) One example of the more realistic art contributions made by the Romans is “a tradition of realistic portraits.” (Lewis 228-229) The Roman sculpture of Cato and Porzia exemplifies this realistic portrait sculpture. The portrait is very realistic and descriptive of all of their features despite their somewhat unattractive nature. By contrast, the Greek’s would have preferred a much more idealized sculpture of the couple. Another aspect of art introduced by the Romans can be seen in their architecture. The Romans used many of the Greek techniques but also “borrowed the idea of the arch from the East and exploited its possibilities to construct public buildings of great size, feats of ancient engineering.” (Lewis 230) The Roman Coliseum could not have been built using traditional Greek architecture due to the weight of the structure. In addition to the use of the arch in Roman architecture, “The Romans developed the architectural feature of the dome.” (Lewis 233) The Roman Temple the Pantheon is a great example of the Romans use of the dome in architecture. The Roman use small stones......

Words: 774 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Fine Arts

...Arts and Crafts A few weeks ago, I made my first trip to an art gallery, the Tucson Museum of Art, in Tucson, Arizona. I went in ready to take notes with my notepad and pen not knowing what to expect, but hopeful that I could find a few pieces worth writing about. At the entrance, the ladies at the information desk were very helpful in getting me started after I explained my mission. After relieving me of my pen and giving me a pencil, I walked through the gallery. I found many pieces that I really liked, and only very few that I didn’t. Throughout my visit, it became more and more difficult to choose only two pieces that I like and one I do not. Fortunately for me, the day I visited the Museum was the last day of Judy Miller’s exhibit called, Imaginary Dioramas. Miller’s dioramas involve taking pictures of celebrity’s wax figures (normally from Madam Toussad’s Wax Museums), and superimposing the pictures onto an unlikely background. Imaginary Dioramas is about dichotomy. One of my favorite pieces from the exhibit was titled, Outtake #26, Uma. The background of the picture is a serene forest in autumn, showing trees and many leaves on the ground. On the left side of the picture is a close-up of Uma Thurman in her part as The Bride, Beatrix Kiddo, from the movie Kill Bill volume 2, looking more than ready for the director to yell, “Action!”, so she can continue to cut bad guys in half with her sword. On the right side, the director, Quentin Tarantino, is shown......

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Art in Education

...Art in education The arts are an essential ingredient for any child’s education, allowing every student to accomplish important things in life. I disagree that arts no longer holds a place in education. By imparting important life skills, providing character education and better appreciation of the arts, arts become essential to students in both the pursuit and achievement of excellence. Yet, many students have little or no opportunity to learning arts as arts is devalued as a core element in the curriculum. Education, without arts, is an incomplete education that fails to develop the full potential of individuals, communities and societies. Hence arts are of great importance in the students’ learning experiences and should hold a place in education. Arts may no longer hold a place in education because some parents oppose arts as part of their child’s critical learning. Parents feel that arts do not provide their children with essential learning experience; rather, taking up time to learn the arts will be at the expense of their academic performance and results. They also believe that arts cannot be used to make a decent living as they cannot find good jobs through arts. However, the creative sector of the economy has grown in significance in recent years, as arts are a magnet for a skilled and creative workforce that all countries require to compete in a global economy. Arts can help compete in the high-stakes race to attract new businesses and generate money from such......

Words: 2877 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Humanities and Fine Arts

...there is a digital-like granularity to how we analyze and store experiences. We don’t remember every single point in time as a discreet instant—rather our memories are aggregations of a number of instances we have grouped based on some consciously or subconsciously perceived similarity.” (Ryan Wolfe, 21c Museum) III. Aesthetic Value What attracted me to his work was how he was able to capture that instance of nature and bring it indoors on a wall for everyone to experience. It is inspiring by how he was able to engineer the experience through electronic devices that gave the wall life. It means a lot that someone experienced something so small but yet brings us to that experience that we are alive. I personally think this piece of art has its place, but I was not a fan of the exposed wires connecting one device to another. I would not purchase this piece. References 21cmuseumhotels. (2009). www.21cmuseumhotels.com Retrieved October 6, 2014, From Web site: http://www.21cmuseumhotels.com/museum/exhibition/3/field-of-grass/...

Words: 322 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Art Education

...Art ---Syllabus for primary classes (1-5) 2012-13 CLASS I Colours I – III : Plastic / Wax / Pencil / Oil pastels IV – V : Plastic / Wax / Pencil oil pastels/ Water colous * Introduction of geometrical shapes ( free hand ). with colours / pasting of coloured paper. * Drawings / sketches based on above said shapes e.g * Introduction : Colours , Names , use of colours. * Free hand drawing / painting with own imagination. Class II Colours I – III : Plastic / Wax / Pencil / Oil pastels IV – V : Plastic / Wax / Pencil oil pastels/ Water colous * Drawing / sketching using Geometrical shapes. * Paper folding ( Origami ) * Composition using two or more shapes / forms and colouring. * Colour paper cutting and parting or tearing , shapes like leaf, ball , cloud or Geometrical shapes Class III Colours I – III : Plastic / Wax / Pencil / Oil pastels IV – V : Plastic / Wax / Pencil oil pastels/ Water colous * Drawing / sketches using Geometrical shapes. * Introduction of colours : Primary colours : Red , Blue , Yellow Secondary colours : Orange , Green, Violet * Composition / pictures of : 1. Domestic item : Cup plate , glass , jug , top pot etc. 2. Landscape( Simple ) 3. Cartoons 4. Paper cutting and folding Class IV Colours I – III : Plastic / Wax / Pencil / Oil pastels IV – V : Plastic / Wax / Pencil oil pastels/ Water colous * Drawing / sketches using......

Words: 324 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Fine Arts

...Fine arts and music education should continue in public schools. Anyone exposed to the arts and/or music benefits from life-long advantages. Education in these areas is associated with improvement in mathematics, reading, cognitive ability, critical thinking, and verbal skills. These are very important aspects in life, all of them necessary in order to make a mark on society. Studies also show that involvement in the arts increases motivation, boosts confidence, and also improves concentration and teamwork skills. Again, these are very important aspects in life. Students who are exposed to the arts generally perform better on standardized testing than those who do not. This is due to the academic gain in important subjects such as math and reading, which have a tendency to be tested the most heavily. Also, as stated before, students exposed to the arts gain important critical thinking skills, which is included in most standardized testing. Unfortunately, some school districts fail to recognize the importance of education in the arts. Over the past three decades, art education has been gradually slipping. The result? Lower test scores. I’m sure you can see the correlation. On the bright side, a majority of the United States realize the importance of art education. Forty states require art education in order to graduate from high school. Those 80% of high school graduates in our country more than likely have better jobs and better communication skills. Why? Because they......

Words: 286 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Fine Art

... Name Instructor Date Compare and contrast pieces of fine art Fine art has been considered as the major source of history, which has articulated several formatives that depict on the essence of humanity. Based on different sources, fine art has navigated some comparatives that portray the nature of history that equally aligns some prospects that site on the major differences on art. To start with, the major goal of the fine art is mainly to promote a unique active and thoughtful approach towards analyzing some specification of art history. Therefore the process requires taking into consideration by comparing and contrasting some essentials of the two pieces of art that attempt to approach the critical thinking analysis. This assumption invites availing the simple analysis of the information that ideally addresses the craft of an effective subtlety that is undertaken on the process. Every step that is articulated on the preparation of the early course on the fine art is depicted as an informative exhibit that is consolidated in organizing the discrete bits in a larger notion. This is well crafted on the practice of the fine art that distinguishes the level of thinking in the history of art. Based on that note, the major exercise that reviews on fine history has added the benefit of the emerging success on the concepts of well-crafted images of fine art. This equally announces the expected comparison that focuses on this practice. The completion of the moral abstract by......

Words: 614 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Fine Arts Describing an Artwork

...Patric Rooney Intro to Fine Arts Gary Towne The fine arts are comprised of multiple forms of arts, two of them being visual art and music. I decided to analyze one piece of visual art and one piece of music, based on several different elements of the respective categories. I chose to begin with the visual art piece, The Arnolfini Wedding, because of its many small and intricate details hidden in the artwork. Jan van Eyck (Flemish, before 1390-1441), The Arnolfini Wedding, 1434, oil on oak panel of 3 vertical boards, 82.2 cm × 60 cm, National Gallery of Art, London, is an intricate piece of art with many minuscule details that contain an abundance of symbolism and meaning. One of the first things to catch your eye will be the man and woman standing in the forefront of the image. At first, one may believe that the woman in the velvet green robe is pregnant, but it has been found that this was actually excess fabric from her robe creating the bump on her stomach. Both the man and woman have their hands in positions that imply that they are taking some type of oath, more specifically an oath of marriage. The clothing worn by the wedding couple is common clothing of their time, for people of the upper class. If you were to zoom in on the picture, you begin to realize the realistic qualities of all of the textures in the painting. One use of this skill that jumps out at me is the lifelike beads that sit beside the circular mirror. If you look closely at the gear...

Words: 874 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Are the Arts Important in Education?

...ARE THE ARTS IMPORTANT IN EDUCATION? 1. Introduction British fashion, publishing, theatre, film and TV, literature, visual arts and music are internationally respected and renowned for their prestige. People from America to Asia dance to our music, read our books, purchase our art and wear our designer’s latest creations, with London being recognised as the world’s most influential city by Forbes in 2014. The creative sector represents 5 percent of the British economy which is valued at around £76.9 billion and provides more than 1.7 million jobs, as reported by Warwick university. These industries have an impact on us as individuals and adds to our rich heritage by contributing to our British culture. Our arts are constantly being shaped by new trends and our consumer choices are influenced by clever marketing and visual branding. The arts also improve the enjoyment of the environments which we live and work and shape the way in which we are perceived by others around the globe, whilst also contributing to how we view the world. However, the Arts have been left to suffer within the UK educational system in order to accommodate the severe budget cuts and restrictions being hauled at schools and colleges. With more time and focus being placed on academic subjects such as science and mathematics, there is an implication that they are more important. Subjects are placed within a hierarchy with the Arts taking the largest hit, as more measureable subjects are favoured so...

Words: 5441 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Liberal Arts Education

...Liberal Arts Education With the economy the way it is today, there is much more pressure for students to get a good education and be able to have a successful career. Students across the country have a few different types of high schools that they can choose to attend, including vocational and liberal arts. A vocational school focuses on training for a specific job, while liberal arts schools teach general information about many different subjects. Both liberal arts schools and vocational schools are a better fit for different types of people, but a high school that emphasizes liberal arts would better prepare students for a global economy because it teaches skills that are valuable in any career; it makes graduates more desirable to some employers and helps students to find a career that would suit them best. A liberal arts high school teaches skills that are valuable in any career, instead of just one. Newsweek magazine found that the average American changes careers eleven times before they reach age forty. People have to change careers more than ever because the job market is becoming increasingly competitive. A liberal arts education would allow students to change careers more easily because they wouldn’t have been trained in only one profession. Liberal arts not only teach students general information, but they also teach them how to think and learn. In A Talk to Teachers, James Baldwin says, “The purpose of education, finally is to create in a person the......

Words: 1359 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Cutbacks in Physical and Arts Education

...Palmer Cutbacks in Music, Art and Physical Education School is where we all gain basic knowledge. It is where we learn what we need to live and then get interested in what we will excel at later in life. Many students want to grow up to be a lawyer, doctor or a teacher but for some students, it is the dream of being a famous musician, artist or athlete. With education budget cuts and the motion for higher standardized test scores on the raise, many schools have been forced to cut some of their programs. Those hardest hit are music, art and physical education classes. The issue is that cutting these programs may do more harm to students than good. Studies have shown that music, art and physical activity have many positive effects on student development and learning. Physical education has become especially important today. With childhood obesity become an increasing problem, physical health and proper nutrition has become a great concern. Music and art also have also shown to have an impact on physical development. These are the classes and programs that promote creativity, self-expression and individuality, and for many students are the classes that they look the most forward to and are often the highlight of their day. By taking them away are we not robbing our students of the opportunity to learn through different mediums? What about the future musicians, artists and athletes? Are we not robbing...

Words: 1956 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Arts Education

...diverse educational institutions on the planet. Here at AUP, everyone is a language learner; here virtually everyone is a foreigner in an international environment in which all feel “at home.” AUP is a true 21st-century world university with an incomparable urban location in the most beautiful city in the world, and a curriculum designed to produce global leaders by focusing on the comparative and the cross-cultural, the international and the interdisciplinary. Over the past decade, the University has made tangible progress toward its founder’s dream to create a community of learning that crosses and indeed effaces cultural boundaries. By mounting rigorous Master’s programs, articulating increasing numbers of academic partnerships, and hosting international conferences that foreground AUP faculty scholarship and that of renowned scholars, practitioners, and artists worldwide, the University is taking its place as a leading academic, intellectual and cultural center in France and in the world. In this unique learning environment—inflected by the remarkable demographic diversity of student, faculty and staff bodies—attention is brought to bear on the role of knowledge production across languages, cultures, and societies in an ever-globalizing world. Founded as a liberal arts institution in the 1960s, today AUP is an urban, independent, international university located at the confluence of France, Europe, and the world. We provide the finest American undergraduate and......

Words: 631 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Romaew Beardens Fine Art

...Romare Bearden’s Fine Art Romare Bearden was an African American Artist. He was born in Charlotte, North Carolina then moved to New York City as a child. Bearden has done many different types of works including oil, cartoons and collage. Romare is best known for his collages. He is recognized as one of the most creative and original visual artists of the twentieth century. He fills his work with the symbols and myths of the American black experience. In this essay I will compare and contrast two of Romare’s pieces. It was difficult to narrow down to only two pieces because Romare has a large quantity of remarkable work. The two pieces I decided on are “The Block” and “Golgotha”. “The Block” was made in 1971. It shows a Harlem neighborhood with an optimistic spirit. The neighborhood shows a barbershop, a corner store, liquor store, a church and funeral parlor. The neighborhood seems lively with people outside on the sidewalk, children playing and pedestrians in a hurry. It gives you that feeling of daily life in Harlem. One unique aspect of the picture is that is shows you daily life indoors and outdoors at the same time. The collage shows people at home watching TV, people inside having a conversation and a couple making love. In this collage I see a lot of line being used. Line is a mark by pencil that forms part of the formal design of a picture. I see it with the different buildings. The lines used make it look like the buildings aren’t supposed to be together...

Words: 933 - Pages: 4

Read more | Massacre no Bairro Japonês Dublado Online Assistir Massacre no Bairro Japonês Dublado Online HD 720p O americano de educação japonesa Chris Kenner é um policial responsável por Little Tóquio, um bairro de Los Angeles. Kenner faz parceria com Johnny Murata, um nipo-americano que não tem contato com suas raízes. Apesar de suas diferenças, os dois se sobressaem por suas habilidades em artes marciais quando lutam contra Yoshida, ... | FIFA 16 Soccer