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Accident Avoidance and Victim Locating System

In: Other Topics

Submitted By prashantmp
Words 4200
Pages 17
Abstract
In this technological revolution world, there is no time for anyone to know what is happening around them. They keep on moving without any care as they give importance to their work rather than others. Due to reduce in moral values one cannot get proper help when they need. This can be solved by this technology itself. Due to time laps many lives are in risk. To reduce this risk factor automatic accident detection and victim analysis plays an important role. Reducing the time laps will reduce the death rate. As reducing the time taken to take first aid will reduce the effect of accident on the victim. Probability of victim security will be more. As now a days mobile is common electronic gadget that is present with everyone and this problem can be solved by it only. By the short message service (SMS) on of the fetcher of mobile will help to solve this problem. By this embedded system we can know the place of accident, status of the victim etc. By this information rescue team will be easily help the victim. By using technologies GPS and GPRS one can easily locate the position of the accident. This project say the technologies that how an accident is detected and victim status. As prevention is better than cure, The main motive of this project is to reduce the accident rate and reduce the time for first aid. The proposed system ensures that to reduce the human death ratio by accidents.

Chapter 1
Introduction
In India, the World Health Organization (WHO) has revealed in its first ever Global Status Report on Road Safety that more people die in road accidents in India than anywhere else in the world, including the more populous China. Calling road fatalities an "epidemic" that will become the world's fifth biggest killer by 2030, the report said while rich nations had been able to lower their death rates, these were sharply on the rise in the third world. It said 90% of deaths on the world's roads occur in low and middle-income countries (21.5 and 19.5 per lakh of population, respectively) though they have just 48% of all registered vehicles. The statistics for India are chilling. At least 13 people die every hour in road accidents in the country, the latest report of the National Crime Records Bureau reveals. However, road safety experts say the real numbers could be higher since many of these accident cases are not even reported. "There is no estimate of how many injured in road accidents die a few hours or days after the accident," points out RohitBaluja, member of the UN Road Safety Collaboration and Commission of Global Road Safety representing Asia. Based on the records, India will become the world number 1 in Road Deaths due to the poor record of average 13 die every hour, which is 1.14 lakh per year. This will make India to be the first place. This causative information about the accidents is the intent to develop the proposed technology as scientific traffic engineering wings to reduce the fatalities due to accidents.

Objectives

The main objectives of this work are,
1. To Reduce the Human Death Ratio due to Road Accident in India. 2. If accident takes place, quick transmission of message to preconfigured contacts to intimate the victims.
3. To provide maximum assistance even in unpopulated area. 4. To incorporate the technology and make more versatile applications of defense& war fields.
This proposed methodology is the automatic system which will provide the solution for identifying the accident location. The physiological parameter is the vital information transmitted to the saved contacts spontaneously when the accidents occurred.

Motivation

When a traffic accident takes place, assisting injured passengers as soon as possible is crucial to minimize the negative effects on their health. Mortality from traffic accidents can be classified into three phases: Stage-1: It involves casualties in the first few minutes or seconds after an accident (about 10% of all deaths).

Stage-2: It is the first hour after the accident, the so called golden hour, has the highest mortality (75% of all deaths) and is the phase during which the highest death rate can be avoided by proper initial health care.

Stage-3: Happens days or weeks after the traumatic incident, has 15% of mortality, and takes hard work and a high amount of resources to reduce mortality As can be observed, the phase where more benefits can be achieved by reducing rescue response time is the second one. A fast and efficient rescue operation during the hour after a traffic accident significantly increases the probability of survival of the injured and reduces the injury severity.

Chapter 2
Literature Survey
The major problem in existing airbag systems have explosive firing, and have high contact forces resulting in head and neck injuries. Front bumper sensors can be used for both airbag deployment and pedestrian protection systems [1].
The work carried by Acharya D suggest, [2] the objective of their work is to develop a general purpose automatic emergency notification system for vehicles using various sensors that will monitor the vehicle and in the event of a crash, automatically report all possible information to the EMS providers.
Paper [3] reports the use of an automated collision notification device in vehicles that can greatly reduce the time between crash occurrence and notification of emergency medical services. An interpolated map of the sampled RSSI values suggests that cellular coverage in Erie County is adequate to support the automated collision network technology [3] & [4].
The work done by Hampton C. Gabler [5] reports on a research effort which seeks to dramatically reduce Emergency Medical Services response time by developing and testing an Automated Crash Notification System which automatically transmits the location and severity of a crash to EMS personnel. Dr. Chan Lee proposed a wireless token ring MAC protocol [6] for platoon vehicle communication, in which all participating vehicles formed a group and drove cooperatively.
Prof. Zing Xu [7] discusses a vehicle to vehicle Location- Based Broadcast communication protocol, in which each vehicle generates emergency messages at a constant rate. Message forwarding can help warning message reach vehicles beyond the radio transmission range. The authors propose a multi-hop broadcast protocol based on slot reservation MAC. Motion properties of vehicles are used to help with message relay. Two protocols to reduce the amount of forwarding messages were proposed. Rajesh Kannan Megalingam [8] suggested a method by using Accident Detection and Reporting System which can be placed in any vehicle used a sensor to detect the accident. The sensor output was monitored and processed by the PIC16F877A microcontroller. The microcontroller took decision on the traffic accident based on the input from the sensors. The RF transmitter module which was interfaced with the microcontroller would transmit the accident information to the nearby Emergency Service Provider. This information was received by the RF receiver module at the `service provider' control room in the locality. The service provider could use this information to arrange for ambulance and also inform police and hospital.
There are active efforts involving wearing special equipment when driving to detect driver distraction has been developed. Further, Kutila et al. proposed a camera vision system. The system is more suitable for in-vehicle environments compared to its predecessors; it did not take the presence of hand-held devices into account. The adverse effects of using a phone on driver’s behavior have been identified. These systems include Quiet Calls, Blind Sight, Negotiator, and Lindqvist’s systems. They assumed context information of the device and prior knowledge of the phone used by the driver [9].

Chapter 3
Hardware Description
3.1 P89V51RD2 Microcontroller :-

Fig 3.1.1 P89V51RD2 Microcontroller Development Board
3.1.1 Description
The main center part of the project is the microcontroller. Here we are using the 8051 based Philips P89V51RD2 microcontroller.
The P89V51RD2 are 80C51 microcontrollers with 64kB flash and 1024 B of data RAM. A key feature of the P89V51RD2 is its X2 mode option. The design engineer can choose to run the application with the conventional 80C51 clock rate (12 clocks per machine cycle) or select the X2 mode (six clocks per machine cycle) to achieve twice the throughput at the same clock frequency.
The flash program memory supports both parallel programming and in serial ISP. Parallel programming mode offers gang-programming at high speed, reducing programming costs and time to market. ISP allows a device to be reprogrammed in the end product under software control. The capability to field/update the application firmware makes a wide range of applications possible.

3.1.2 Block Diagram

Fig 3.1.2 P89V51RD2 Microcontroller Block Diagram 3.1.3 Schematic Diagram

Fig 3.1.3 Schematic Diagram
3.1.4 Features * 80C51 CPU with 5V operating voltage from 0 to 40 MHz * 64 kB of on-chip flash user code memory with ISP and IAP. * SPI and enhanced UART. * Four 8-bit I/O ports with three high-current port 1 pins. * Three 16-bit timers/counters. * Programmable watchdog timer. * Eight interrupt sources with four priority levels. * Second DPTR register * Low EMI mode (ALE inhibit) * TTL- and CMOS-compatible logic levels * Brownout detection * Low power modes * Power-down mode with external interrupt wake-up * Idle mode

3.2 Sim300 Modem With RS232 :-

Fig 3.2 Sim300 Modem With RS232

3.2.1 Description
This is a plug and play GSM Modem with a simple to interface serial interface. Use it to send SMS, make and receive calls, and do other GSM operations by controlling it through simple AT commands from micro controllers and computers. It uses the highly popular SIM300 module for all its operations. It comes with a standard RS232 interface which can be used to easily interface the modem to micro controllers and computers.

The modem consists of all the required external circuitry required to start experimenting with the SIM300 module like the power regulation, external antenna, SIM Holder, etc.

3.2.2 Features * Uses the extremely popular SIM300 GSM module * Provides the industry standard serial RS232 interface for easy connection to computers and other devices * Provides serial TTL interface for easy and direct interface to microcontrollers * Power, RING and Network LEDs for easy debugging * Onboard 3V Lithium Battery holder with appropriate circuitry for providing backup for the modules’ internal RTC * Can be used for GSM based Voice communications, Data/Fax, SMS,GPRS and TCP/IP stack * Can be controlled through standard AT commands * Comes with an onboard wire antenna for better reception. * Board provides an option for adding an external antenna through an SMA connector * The SIM300 allows an adjustable serial baud rate from 1200 to 115200 bps (9600 default) * Modem a low power consumption of 0.25 A during normal operations and around 1 A during transmission * Operating Voltage: 7 – 15V AC or DC (board has onboard rectifier).

3.3 ADXL335 :-

Fig 3.3 ADXL335

3.3.1 Description

The ADXL335 is a small, thin, low power, complete 3-axis accelerometer with signal conditioned voltage outputs. The product measures acceleration with a minimum full-scale range of ±3 g. It can measure the static acceleration of gravity in tilt-sensing applications, as well as dynamic acceleration resulting from motion, shock, or vibration.
The user selects the bandwidth of the accelerometer using the CX, CY, and CZ capacitors at the XOUT, YOUT, and ZOUT pins. Bandwidths can be selected to suit the application, with a range of 0.5 Hz to 1600 Hz for the X and Y axes, and a range of 0.5 Hz to 550 Hz for the Z axis.
The ADXL335 is available in a small, low profile, 4 mm × 4 mm × 1.45 mm, 16-lead, plastic lead frame chip scale package (LFCSP_LQ).

3.3.2 Features

* 3-axis sensing * Small, low profile package 4 mm × 4 mm × 1.45 mm LFCSP * Low power : 350 μA (typical) * Single-supply operation: 1.8 V to 3.6 V * 10,000 g shock survival * Excellent temperature stability * BW adjustment with a single capacitor per axis * RoHS/WEEE lead-free compliant.

3.3.3 Applications

* Cost sensitive, low power, motion- and tilt-sensing applications * Mobile devices * Gaming systems * Disk drive protection * Image stabilization * Sports and health devices.

3.4 Vibration Sensor :-

Fig 3.4 Vibration Sensor

3.4.1 Description

This sensor buffers a piezoelectric transducer. As the transducer is displaced from the mechanical neutral axis, bending creates strain within the piezoelectric element and generates voltages.

3.4.2 Specifications
The Vibration Sensor Detector is designed for the security practice When Vibration Sensor Alarm recognizes movement or vibration, it sends a signal to either control panel Developed a new type of Omni-directional high sensitivity Security Vibration Detector with omni-directional detection. * Sensitivity: Height adjustable * Consistency and Interchangeability: Good * Reliability and Interference: Accurate triggering strong anti-interference * Automatic Reset: Automatic reset is strong * Signal Post-processing: Simple * Output Signal: Switch signal * No External Vibration Analysis of Plates: Product design vibration analysis of the internal amplifier circuit * Detection Direction: Omni-directional * Signal Output: Switch signals * Operating Voltage: 12VDC (red V + shield V-) * Sensitivity: Greater than or equal 0.2g * Frequency Range: 0.5HZ ~ 20HZ * Operating Temperature Range: -10 ? ~ 50 ?

3.5 ADC0809 :- Fig 3.5.1 ADC0809 Board Fig 3.5.2 ADC0809

3.5.1 Description

The ADC0808, ADC0809 data acquisition component is a monolithic CMOS device with an 8-bit analog-to-digital converter, 8-channel multiplexer and microprocessor compatible control logic. The 8-bit A/D converter uses successive ap- proximation as the conversion technique. The converter features a high impedance chopper stabilized comparator, a 256R voltage divider with analog switch tree and a successive approximation register. The 8-channel multiplexer can directly access any of 8-single-ended analog signals.

The device eliminates the need for external zero and full-scale adjustments. Easy interfacing to microprocessors is provided by the latched and decoded multiplexer address inputs and latched TTL TRI-STATE outputs.

The design of the ADC0808, ADC0809 has been optimized by incorporating the most desirable aspects of several A/D conversion techniques. The ADC0808, ADC0809 offers high speed, high accuracy, minimal temperature dependence, excellent long-term accuracy and repeatability, and consumes minimal power. These features make this device ideally suited to applications from process and machine control to consumer and automotive applications.

Block Diagram Pin Diagram

Fig 3.5.3 ADC0809 Block Diagram Fig 3.5.4 ADC0809 Pin Diagram

3.5.2 Features

* Easy interface to all microprocessors * Operates ratiometrically or with 5 VDC or analog span adjusted voltage reference * No zero or full-scale adjust required * 8-channel multiplexer with address logic * 0V to 5V input range with single 5V power supply * Outputs meet TTL voltage level specifications * Standard hermetic or molded 28-pin DIP package * 28-pin molded chip carrier package * ADC0808 equivalent to MM74C949 * ADC0809 equivalent to MM74C949-1

3.5.3 Key Specifications * Resolution 8 bits * Total unadjusted error ±1/2 LSB and ±1 LSB * Single Supply 5V DC * Low Power 15mW * Conversion Time 100us

3.6 LM7805 Positive Voltage Regulator :-
3.6.1 Description
The LM78XX series of three terminal positive regulators are available in the TO-220 package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.

IN OUT 7805 GND
IN OUT 7805 GND

Fig 3.6.1 Schematic Diagram Fig 3.6.2 Pin Diagram
3.6.2 Features * Output current in excess of 0.5A * No external components * Internal thermal overload protection * Internal short circuit current-limiting * Output transistor safe-area compensation * Available in TO-220, TO-39, and TO-252 D-PAK packages * Output voltages of 5V, 12V, and 15V.

3.7 L298 Stepper Motor Drive :-

Fig 3.7 L298 Stepper Motor Drive

3.7.1 Description
The L298 is an integrated monolithic circuit in a 15-lead Multiwatt and PowerSO20 packages. It is a high voltage, high current dual full-bridge driver designed to accept standard TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads such as relays, solenoids, DC and stepping motors. Two enable inputs are provided to enable or disable the device independently of the input signals. The emitters of the lower transistors of each bridge are connected together and the corresponding external terminal can be used for the connection of an external sensing resistor. An additional supply input is provided so that the logic works at a lower voltage.
3.7.2 Features * Operating supply voltage of up to 46V * 4.5-7VDC logic supply voltage * Total DC current of up to 4A * Low saturation voltage * Over-temperature protection * Logical ‘0’ input up to 1.5V (high-noise immunity).

3.8 Motors :-

NR-DC-ECO is high quality low cost DC geared motor. It contains Brass gears and steel pinions to ensure longer life and better wear and tear properties. The gears are fixed on hardened steel spindles polished to a mirror finish. These spindles rotate between bronze plates which ensures silent running. The output shaft rotates in a sintered bushing. The whole assembly is covered with a plastic ring. All the bearings are permanently lubricated and therefore require no maintenance. The motor is screwed to the gear box from inside.

Fig 3.8 12v 100 rpm DC Geared Motor

3.9 Alpha-Numeric LCD Display :-

Fig 3.9.1 Schematic Diagram

3.9.1 Description
A liquid crystal display is a thin, flat electronic visual display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals (LCs). LCs does not emit light directly.
In liquid crystal displays (LCDs) of liquid crystal technology is the most common applications. An advanced VGA computer screen from the pervasive wrist watch and pocket calculator, this type of display has evolved into an important and ambidextrous interface.
Consist of a liquid crystal display, an array of tiny segments (called pixels) and to present the information that can be manipulated. This basic common idea is to all displays, alienate from simple calculators to a full color LCD television.

The primary factor was size, an LCD consisting of primarily with some liquid crystal material between them of two glass plates. There is no bulk amount picture tube. This gives LCDs practical for applications where size (as well as weight) is necessary.
In general, LCDs uses very low power than the cathode-ray tube (CRT) counterparts. Many LCDs are ruminative, means that they use only atmosphere light to illuminate the display. Even displays that do consume much less power than CRT devices require an external light source (i.e. computer displays).

3.9.2 LCD Command Codes

Fig 3.9.2 LCD Command Codes

Chapter 4
Software Description
4.1 KEIL C51 C Compiler :-

4.1.1 Description
The Keil C51 C Compiler for the 8051 microcontroller is the most popular 8051 C compiler in the world. It provides more features than any other 8051 C compiler available today.
The C51 Compiler allows you to write 8051 microcontroller applications in C that, once compiled, have the efficiency and speed of assembly language. Language extensions in the C51 Compiler give you full access to all resources of the 8051.
The C51 Compiler translates C source files into relocatable object modules which contain full symbolic information for debugging with the µVision Debugger or an in-circuit emulator. In addition to the object file, the compiler generates a listing file which may optionally include symbol table and cross reference information.

4.1.2 Features

* Nine basic data types, including 32-bit IEEE floating-point, * Flexible variable allocation with bit, data, bdata, idata, xdata, and pdatamemory types, * Interrupt functions may be written in C, * Full use of the 8051 register banks, * Complete symbol and type information for source-level debugging, * Use of AJMP and ACALL instructions, * Bit-addressable data objects, * Built-in interface for the RTX51 Real-Time Kernel, * Support for dual data pointers on Atmel, AMD, Cypress, Dallas Semiconductor, Infineon, Philips, and Triscend microcontrollers, * Support for the Philips 8xC750, 8xC751, and 8xC752 limited instruction sets, * Support for the Infineon 80C517 arithmetic unit.

4.2 Android :-

4.2.1 Description
Android is an open source software stack that includes the operating system, middleware, and key applications along with a set of API libraries for writing mobile applications that can shape the look, feel, and function of mobile handsets.
“Android was built from the ground-up to enable developers to create compelling mobile applications that take full advantage of all a handset has to offer. It is built to be truly open. For example, an application could call upon any of the phone's core functionality such as making calls, sending text messages, or using the camera, allowing developers to create richer and more cohesive experiences for users.” This is true, as a developer you can do everything, from sending short messages with just 2 lines of code, up to replacing even the HOME-Screen of your device. One could easily create a fully customized operating system within weeks, providing no more of Google’s default application to the user. “Android is built on the open Linux Kernel. Furthermore, it utilizes a custom virtual machine that has been designed to optimize memory and hardware resources in a mobile environment. Android will be open source; it can be liberally extended to incorporate new cutting edge technologies as they emerge. The platform will continue to evolve as the developer community works together to build innovative mobile applications.”

Android is made up of several necessary and dependent parts including the following * A hardware reference design that describes the capabilities required of a mobile device in order to support the software stack * A Linux operating system kernel that provides the low-level interface with the hardware, memory management, and process control, all optimized for mobile devices * Open source libraries for application development including SQLite, WebKit, OpenGL, and a media manager * A run time used to execute and host Android applications, including the Dalvik virtual machine and the core libraries that provide Android specific functionality. The run time is designed to be small and efficient for use on mobile devices. * An application framework that agnostically exposes system services to the application layer, including the window manager, content providers, location manager, telephony, and peer-to-peer services * A user interface framework used to host and launch applications * Preinstalled applications shipped as part of the stack * A software development kit used to create applications, including the tools, plug-ins, and Documentation

4.2.2 Android SDK Features
The true appeal of Android as a development environment lies in the APIs it provides.
As an application-neutral platform, Android gives you the opportunity to create applications that are as much a part of the phone as anything provided out of the box.
The following list highlights some of the most noteworthy Android features: * No licensing, distribution, or development fees * Wi-Fi hardware access * GSM, EDGE, and 3G networks for telephony or data transfer, allowing you to make or receive calls or SMS messages, or to send and retrieve data across mobile networks * Comprehensive APIs for location-based services such as GPS * Full multimedia hardware control including playback and recording using the camera and microphone * APIs for accelerometer and compass hardware * IPC message passing * Shared data stores * An integrated open source WebKit-based browser * Full support for applications that integrate Map controls as part of their user interface * Peer-to-peer (P2P) support using Google Talk * Mobile-optimized hardware-accelerated graphics including a path-based 2D graphics library and support for 3D graphics using OpenGL ES * Media libraries for playing and recording a variety of audio/video or still image formats * An application framework that encourages reuse of application components and the replacement of native applications.

4.3 Flash Magic :-

NXP Semiconductors produce a range of Microcontrollers that feature both on-chip Flash memory and the ability to be reprogrammed using In-System Programming technology. Flash Magic is Windows software from the Embedded Systems Academy that allows easy access to all the ISP features provided by the devices.

Features * Erasing the Flash memory (individual blocks or the whole device) * Programming the Flash memory * Modifying the Boot Vector and Status Byte * Reading Flash memory * Performing a blank check on a section of Flash memory * Reading the signature bytes * Reading and writing the security bits * Direct load of a new baud rate (high speed communications) * Sending commands to place device in Bootloader mode.
Flash Magic provides a clear and simple user interface to these features. Under Windows, only one application may have access the COM Port at any one time, preventing other applications from using the COM Port. Flash Magic only obtains access to the selected COM Port when ISP operations are being performed. This means that other applications that need to use the COM Port, such as debugging tools, may be used while Flash Magic is loaded.…...

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