Premium Essay

Adr and Gdr

In: Business and Management

Submitted By sakuja
Words 846
Pages 4
Global depository receipt (GDR) is compulsory for foreign company to access in any other country’s share market for dealing in stock. But American depository receipt (ADR) is compulsory for non –us companies to trade in stock market of usa . 1. ADRs can get from level -1 to level –III. GDRs are already equal to high preference receipt of level –II and level –III. 2. Indian companies prefer to get GDR due to its global use for getting foreign investment for own business projects. 3. ADRs up to level –I need to accept only general condition of SEC of USA but GDRs can only be issued under rule 144 A after accepting strict rules of SEC of USA . 4. GDR is negotiable instrument all over the world but ADR is only negotiable in USA . 5. Many Indian Companies listed foreign stock market through foreign bank’s GDR.Names of these Indian Companies are following :- (A) Bajaj Auto (B) Hindalco (C) ITC ( D) L&T (E) Ranbaxy Laboratories (F) SBI Some of Indian Companies are listed in USA stock exchange only through ADRs :- (A) Patni Computers (B) Tata Motors 6. Even both GDR and ADR is the proxy way to sell shares in foreign market by India companies ADRs is not substitute of GDRs but GDRs can use on the place of ADRs . 7. Investors of UK can buy GDRs from London stock exchange and luxemberg stock exchange and invest in Indian companies without any extra responsibilities . Investors of USA can buy ADRs from New york stock exchange (NYSE) or NASDAQ (National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation). 8. American investors typically use regular equity trading accounts for buying ADRs but not for GDRs . 9. The US dollar rate paid to holders of ADRs is calculated by applying the exchange rate used to convert the foreign dividend payment (net of local withholding tax) to US dollars, and adjusting the result according to the ordinary share…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Adr Gdr on Indian Company

...Impact of ADR/GDR on performance of Indian Corporations International Corporate Finance By Group 10 Shaurya Anand 11P047 Hemant Chawla 11P079 Ishan Agrawal 11P081 Narsinha Jawalgaonker 11P082 Table of Contents 1. Introduction 3 2. Regulatory Framework 3 3. Why should there be any impact on liquidity or volatility 4 4. Analysis 5 5.Impact on Liquidity 10 Conclusion: 13 References 14 1. Introduction Increasing globalization in the last decade has made Indian financial markets more integrated with the rest of the world. As a result, many Indian companies have gone for raising funds in foreign capital markets by way of issuing ADRs and GDRs. Though cross listing is viewed positively by many corporations, many researchers have shown that changes in liquidity and volatility may affect quality negatively in the domestic markets. Since companies from emerging markets go for raising funds from foreign liquid markets, some policymakers fear that if allowed unrestricted, this may impact the development of local equity markets and hence prove disastrous for emerging markets. Existing studies show that effect of foreign listing depends on factors specific to firms, market and country. Indian GDRs trade on European exchanges and ADRs trade on US exchanges. Also, since US requires higher quality disclosures than Europe, cost of listing in US markets is higher. 2. Regulatory Framework As part of its economic liberalization policy in 1992, Indian...

Words: 1629 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Adr Clause

...ADR Clause Any dispute, claim or controversy arising from or relating to the breach of the Learning Team Charter signed by all team members and outlining the expectations, proceedings and duties of each individual member shall be referred to and finally resolved by binding arbitration. Each party shall designate one impartial team member as an arbitrator. Either party may commence the arbitration process by posting a written notice for party 2 on the University of Phoenix’s course Learning Team Forum, setting forth the subject of the dispute, claim or controversy and the relief requested. Within three (3) days of the posting of a notice by party 1, party 2 shall deliver a written response at the same forum. The initial arbitration session shall be held within four (4) days of the posting of party 1’s written notice via Skype at a time agreed upon by both parties and the arbitrator. All team members agree to serve as arbitrators if selected by the disputing parties, if both parties select the same arbitrator, only one arbitrator will be present. In the event that a selected arbitrator becomes unable to serve, the party selecting that arbitrator will be required to select a substitute to their initial choice. Each party agrees that the decision of the selected arbitrator(s) will be binding and no other course of action will be available to the parties to resolve their dispute, controversy or claim. The final arbitration decision will be issued by the arbitrator(s) in no longer...

Words: 320 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Adr Clause

...Learning team ADR Clause The learning team is a group of student that work together to complete a work for a particular course. Sometimes disagreements occur as part of the working process and these need to be resolve. In order to attend that situation, the following alternative dispute resolution (ADR) clause will be included in the learning team charter: “In any case that a dispute could arise between the learning team members the mediation process will be used to resolve the controversy, having the academic advisor as the mediator. According Cheeseman (2010) mediation is a form of negotiation in which a neutral third party assists the disputing parties in reaching a settlement of their dispute. Among the disputes that are going to be send to mediation are disagreement in terms of the content and an extent of a work, the amount and quality of the references to be used and included in the final work and how the work is going to be divided among the learning team members. As soon the dispute arises, the academic advisor will be notified. The academic advisor will hold separate meeting with the involve parties to listen the arguments of both sides and reach to a settlement. In doing so, the mediator points out the strengths and weaknesses of each party’s case and gives his or her opinion to each side. (Cheeseman, 2010). Finally, the mediator will help the involve members to reach a settlement to resolve the issue.” References Cheeseman, H.R., (2010). Business Law...

Words: 273 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Adr Clause

...Alternate Dispute Resolution (ADR) Clause for Learning Teams Cynthia Jordan LAW/531 April 26, 2010 Teresa Knox Alternate Dispute Resolution Clause for Learning Teams If a dispute arises in the learning team and cannot come to a settlement through negotiation. The team should first try to settle the dispute by negotiation before mediation, litigation, or some other dispute resolution procedure. The parties agree to convene the mediation in the Learning Team room. The consequences for the mediation will be determined equally by the team members. Learning teams have a contract known as the team charter that will disclose the steps of being effective and resourceful. The learning team is should communicate, collaborate, and generate ideas to achieve success. Mediation can be used in any learning team throughout the program. Mediation is confidential, less expensive, and agreeable resolution between team members involved (Jennings, 2006). The disputes that subject to ADR include: breach of charter, disagreements, not completing an assignment on time, and failure to show up during meeting times. Major concerns or issues should be discussed among the team members unless there is not a feasible agreement, then turn it over to the instructor. The instructor is only there to oversee the learning team and help come up with a solution. Provisions necessary to enable ADR to occur will include: mediator, team members with dispute, team charter, and meeting......

Words: 361 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Adr Clause

...ADR Clause for Learning Team Charter LAW/531 June 17, 2010 Ben Richardson ADR Clause for Learning Team Charter The Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) offers different methods of resolving disputes other than going to court. The learning team system at University of Phoenix offers such a diverse team background that the ADR clause is an appropriate tool needed in the learning team charter to help team members settle disputes when team members are not performing correctly (HG.org, 2010). Using the mediation process, the learning team can choose a neutral third party to assist in reaching a resolution. The mediator will not judge nor issue any rewards. The team charter is a single page document used as an agreement between team members that simply displays the rules, regulations, strengths and weaknesses, and an agenda on how the team members will follow through during the course (HG.org, 2010). The ADR will be applied to the learning team charter to help resolve any issues or disagreements pertaining to the team (Cheeseman, 2010). Many barriers a learning team will face can cause conflict. For example, each team member may have different work hours, time management, the division of work, contribution to the team and participation towards assignments (HG.org, 2010). These examples cause a conflict of interest and if repeated may cause the team to begin breaking down. The ADR clause will now become a factor on the course of action each team member can...

Words: 476 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Adr & Mediation

...Learning Team ADR University of Phoenix Business Law Law/531 Learning Team ADR The learning team will use alternative methods to resolve learning team disputes. An Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) will provide the possibility of reaching a mutually agreed upon settlement. The Alternative Dispute Resolution means settling the dispute out of courtroom litigation process. The ADR provides flexible formal and informal means of resolving disputes in an economical way. Two of the most commonly used ADRs are arbitration and mediation. All disputes within the learning team will use the mediation process for resolution. The learning team charter that was set up in the first class must be followed as all team members discussed. The conflicts between the team members that effect the efficiency and productivity of the learning team will be subject to the ADR process. If a disagreement, dispute, or claim arises the team members should use their best efforts to settle the dispute. Any conflict that cannot be solved by the involved members will enable the ADR process after 24 hours. If a dispute arises between team members, they must participate in a mediation process with a neutral person appointed by the other remaining team members. If the dispute involves all of the learning team, a facilitator will be involved to appoint the mediator. The mediator will have confidential discussion with each involved member and will try to reach voluntary agreement. ......

Words: 338 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Adr Clause

...Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Clause Cynthia Yvette Bevel LAW/531 August 9, 2010 Michael Carrozzo Abstract A Lawsuit through the court system to resolve disputes can result in a significant amount of time lost in addition to extensive litigation cost. Some businesses avoid costly litigation by opting to resolving disputes through Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) and other aids. When teams have disputes among members, an Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Clause would be an effective tool in resolving conflict with minimal impact or disruption. The most common form of ADR is arbitration. However, other forms are negotiation and mediation. Arbitration   Arbitration is a legal technique for the resolution of disputes outside the courts, wherein the parties to a dispute refer it to one or more persons, by whose decision they agree to be bound. When a dispute arises within a learning team, arbitration is used when the arbitrator is brought in to resolve a dispute. This usually resolves disputes in a timely fashion because the arbitrator renders a decision based on facts. Negotiation Negotiation is a procedure whereby the parties to a dispute engage in negotiations to try and reach a voluntary settlement of their dispute. (Source: LAW/531 – Chapter3: Judicial, Alternative, and Online Dispute Resolution). This is the simplest form of the ADR in which the teammates would negotiate before approaching any other forms. Mediation Mediation is a form......

Words: 357 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Adr Journal

...Self-reflective journal report of my learning experience in my ADR class. Self-reflective journal report of my learning experience in my ADR class. ADR Journal ADR Journal Reflections Since I started this course I have participated in three role play/ interactive exercises. I started this course without being prepared, I did not know or have any idea what this course will be all about. I totally got the surprise of my life when we were told we would be participating in classroom activities and online quizzes. It was totally different from my other courses. I felt so cautious because I did not want to lose any marks. I prepared myself to try as much as possible to listen to instructions and follow them to the letter, I promised myself I would try as much as possible to get an A if not an A+ in this course. The first exercise which was the magic ring was full of surprises for me. It taught me all about being part of a team, communication and patience. It also made me realise that I could be open and friendly not only to people from my ethnic background but with anyone from around the world. I thought I would just be a silent participator, but I found out I enjoyed the activity and I always looked forward to the next one. I believed I performed averagely during the first in-class activity but I improved really well during the next one, then I performed averagely in the role playing activity. In the role playing activity in which I acted the part of a seller, I......

Words: 669 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Adr Clause

...ADR Clause for Learning Team Charter Paper Mohammed Hassan, Michael Marzilli, Laura Melberg, DeShawn Rivera, Vanessa Stricklin ETH/321 December 9, 2014 John Koenig ADR Clause for Learning Team Charter Paper The concept of teamwork helps on many levels, in order to get the work done in hopes of building a better business. Finding the best way to handle individual disputes on a personal and business level. The resolution may come in contact with some disagreements. The Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) would be something that we would have as a backup. When things are not going very well then this is when we can implement this, so things settle professionally. Courts aren't the only avenues to resolve disputes; ADR are on the horizon of many individuals and businesses to resolve conflicts and disagreements. According to Melvin P. Sean, (2011), the increased numbers of individuals and companies utilizing different means other than courts, such as ADR to resolve disputes is between 20 to 31 percent. Courts procedures are drawn-out and lengthy, and many believe the time spent in courtrooms, could be spent in other productive activities. In addition, courts litigation are publicly exposed which risks leaking out valuable businesses' formulas and information that’s as equally important as any tangible assets. Below is each of these methods, how they function and in what particular circumstances and......

Words: 1411 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Adr Clause

...ADR Clause 1 ADR Clause Ka’tetcia D. Simmons Law 531 Professor Shanrika Hall April 18, 2011 ADR Clause 2 ADR Clause Individuals with different backgrounds, beliefs, and of differing opinions are asked to come together and work toward a common goal. With all of the diversity within learning teams, conflicts do arise. Each member must remain professional and respectful. Therefore, it is imperative to engage in some form of Alternative Dispute Resolution to handle disagreements. This review will focus on the types of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), its provisions, and process to resolve disagreements among team members. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) is what most businesses use to avoid or reduce problems (Cheeseman, 2010) that disrupt normal business operations. The same approach can be for learning teams. Many forms according to Cheesman include negotiation, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, mini-trial, fact-finding, and using a judicial referee. It is likely that one or more forms are used in any one conflict. The severity of the disagreement is what determines the form or type of ADR that can be used. Some circumstances that would cause a dispute enabling ADR to occur include lack of communication regarding late assignments. Some team members may not be able to contribute as others based either on their time zones, schedules, or system issues. It is for these reasons that the team must be notified about what is......

Words: 539 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Adr in Bangladesh

...ABSTRACT The main objective of this research is Evolution of the process of ADR in Bangladesh: Whether arbitration and mediation is appropriate procedure to solve dispute”. The aim of this research is to analyses the cachet and efficaciousness of the instrument of ADR in Bangladesh. At the same time an attempt is made to evaluate the sociological aspect of the ADR in Bangladesh. Hence, this writes up especially for those who have no legal background but want to have an idea about it is interesting to note that the concept of ADR is developing in Bangladesh as a performance of public duty by civil society groups advocating in support of progressive ideologies. I have collected all the materials from different books, scholars’ articles and offices from Law organization. I have collected the information about International aspect of ADR from different site of internet. At first I have collected different books relating to ADR. For the laws regarding ADR of Bangladesh and international, I have followed different Acts and Convention. INTRODUCTION The attempt to settle a legal dispute through active participation of a third party (mediator) who works to find points of agreement and make those in conflict agree on a fair result. Mediation differs from arbitration in which the third party (arbitrator) acts much like a judge but in an out-of-court less formal setting but does not actively participate in the discussion. Mediation has become very common in trying to resolve......

Words: 8813 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Adr Paper

...Alternative Dispute Resolution Paper Stefanie James Law 531 Instructor: Tom Jones There are many disputes that happen is this world that can occur between family’s, friends, and businesses. Most people would think that these situations would be handled in court but going through the system takes time and can be expensive. Alternative Dispute Resolutions is a less cumbersome way to settle disputes without litigation. Some examples of the ADR form are arbitration, mediation, settlement and trial jury. Before the decision is made to handle a dispute, the cost and benefits need to be analyzed between which route to pursue, Alternative Dispute Resolution or the traditional litigation. In San Antonio, Texas Joshua and Steve were friends who decided to come together and start a business selling shoes. The first step they took was deciding which form of business they would pursue. After consulting with a business specialist they decided to commit to a partnership. A partnership is a form of business that has more than one owner that are in control of making all decisions. One negative aspect is the partners have unlimited liability and are fully at risk for obligations of the business. This means all the debt of the business is the debt of the partners (Mallor, 2013). The income of the partnership has to be filed on the partners individuals federal taxes because all income goes to partners whether or not it was actually distributed to them or not. The......

Words: 1052 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Gdr and Kodak Case

...Introduction: GDR or Georginelli Dental Research shifted from an active business corporation to one that has become excessively careful, as its elevated margin film transactions have eroded. Even though the phases-and-gates procedure is in place at GDR delivers leadership to projects, the motivation and spirit that directed the corporation to former triumph has been removed from the association. The case brings the story of two characters that are motivated to bring back that "can do" spirit as they try to quickly commercialize the Bart scanner and expand the life of film. Issues in this case involve, entrepreneurial corporations and their business strategies and processes for managing new product development. Another issue is the implications these strategies and procedures have on acknowledging the demands of shareholders, consumers and employees. Also, the part that individuals can play in "pushing through" corporate culture and processes to advance time-to-market. This case’s emphases on the methods people may overcome inner corporation struggles or conflicts by affiliating in this case with an OEM partner that owns complementary competences. When pursuing a strategic associate, most deliberate in terms of technical skills; nevertheless, the culture of a partner is just as vital. QUESTIONS: COMMUNICATION: 1. As a project manager, what should Bella do now that Namath has given the approval to proceed with Bart? Bella should work closely with BT Wang to insure...

Words: 1075 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Adr Clause

...ADR Clause David Ortiz University of Phoenix LAW531 Tuesday May 1, 2012 Prof. Lirio Bernal Sanchez ADR Clause Alternative dispute resolution is a process that has gained popularity in solving conflicts because it helps in protecting the rights of the people and also to solve the problem in a less formal environment before it goes to a formal trial at court (Spangler, 2003) The alternative dispute resolution methods identified are Conciliation, Negotiation, Mediation, Arbitration, Mini-Trial, Fact-finding, and Judicial Referee. “The Administrative Dispute Resolution Act of 1996 permanently authorizes the use of ADR by federal agencies” (Disputes, 1998). Learning teams always present some discrepancies about the amount of work of each member, who will be leading the team, the commitment, and compliance levels. To avoid that the team should establish at the beginning the rules and make each member aware of them by acknowledging by e-mail the agreement that will have the methods to solve any discrepancies or conflicts and will be part of the Team Charter. The following clause will be included on the Learning Team Charter: “Each person has decided voluntarily to take this course and agree according to the University rules...

Words: 538 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Adr Paper

...Learning Team ADR Learning Teams at University of Phoenix are expected to work effectively in diverse groups and teams to achieve all assingments and projects. All team members must collaborate and function well in team settings as both leaders and followers. It is expected that all team members actively participate with the learning team and contributue to team discussions and participate in projects and assignments. They should respect human diversity and behave in a tolerant manner toward colleagues and peers. If teams experience difficulties working with a member of the team, they are expected to resolve them within the team using and alternative dispute resolution. All teams must try to resolve any disagreements in participation, lack of contribution, within the team. Failure to come to a collaborative agreement will result in the team implementating three alternative dispute methods negotaiation, mediation, or arbitration. Teams are expected to resolve all team disputes in the simplest form. Negotiation is a form of alternative dispute resolution. Team members are expected to engage in negotioations between all students invovled to settle any dispute within the team. In order for negotiations to take place all team members must reach a voluntary settlement of their dispute. Once all team members are in agreement a settlement agreement must be drafted and signed by all parties involved. Each side must sign the settlement agreement in order for it to be......

Words: 386 - Pages: 2

1x13 Los 3 de abajo: Cuentos de Arcadia | reloj Alpha (2018) en línea en espanol | Watch Movie