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Amazonas

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Submitted By sozan1
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Naturgeografi
- Naturgrundlaget i Amazonas
1. Hvilken type økosystem kan Amazonasfloddalen først og fremmest karakteriseres som?
Amazonasfloddalen befinder sig i en tropisk regnskov, og derfor er økosystemet naturligt i det område. Når et område har et naturligt økosystem vil det sige, at det ikke er blevet rørt af mennesker. Dvs. at de mennesker som lever i området nær Amazonasfloddalen lever under dets betingelser. Dette gør økosystemet meget stabilt. Derudover er bæreevnen i regnskoven lav, hvilket betyder at det kun er få mennesker der kan få nok føde pr. km2. Grunden til dette er, at man ikke har forhøjet produktionen udover den naturlige produktion, og har dermed ikke ændret økosystemet til et manipuleret økosystem. Jorden ved floden bliver udnyttet af bønder da det er frugtbart.
2. Forklar forskellige elementer af naturgrundlaget i Amazonas:
- Landets geologiske oprindelse
Amazonlandets naturgrundlag er et gammelt, nederoderet landskab. Nedenstående tværsnitsprofil over et område i Brasilien (Guyaná skjoldet, Amazonbassinet og Det Centralbrasilianske Skjold). http://www.denstoredanske.dk/It,_teknik_og_naturvidenskab/Geologi_og_kartografi/Andre_omr%C3%A5ders_geologi/Sydamerika_(Geologi) Tværsnitsprofilen viser hvordan landskabet varierer. I begyndelsen stiger lavlandet og det skyldes forandringen fra lavland til det der kaldes Guyaná Skjoldet. Fra Guyaná Skjoldet bliver tværsnitsprofilen lavere på grund af Amazonbassinet som er blevet eroderet. Når tværsnitsprofilen når Det Centralbrasilianske Skjold stiger den igen eftersom det er højtliggende.

- Plante- og dyrelivet i regnskoven
Amazonas regnskoven udgør 3 mio. af de 4,5 mio. plante- og dyrearter der findes i verden. Når man taler om planterne i troperne er de betydelige for produktionen af medicin og ukrudtsbekæmpelsesmidler. En af grundene til at der findes så mange plantearter skyldes de tørre perioder som opstod under istiden. De tørre perioder resulterede bl.a. i at store områder mistede vegetationen og der blev udviklet arter som ikke kunne krydses med andre refugiers arter - i den sammenhæng er der tale om refugieteorien. Pga. den konstant høje temperatur i troperne er antallet af skadedyr højt. Eftersom der ikke er kolde årstider, er det svært at udrydde skadedyrene.
- Stof- og næringsionskredsløbet i regnskoven
Den energi som findes i kredsløbene bliver optaget i de økologiske netværker gennem fotosyntesen. I troperne er nettoproduktionen der bliver målt i ton tørstof pr. arealenhed ikke særlig stor. Derudover er nærings-ionkapaciteten i den levende biomasse. Størstedelen af stofomsætningen er i den øverste del som er på 25 cm, mens de nærings-ioner der er frie findes i den øverste del af jordbunden som er på 30 cm.
Vurder til slut kort de eventuelle risici, der er forbundet med en bevægelse fra ekstensive udnyttelsessystemer til mere og mere intensive udnyttelsessystemer i Amazonas.
Ved en bevægelse fra ekstensive udnyttelsessystemer til intensive udnyttelsessystemer, kan der være forskellige risici. Klimaet og artsdiversiteten bliver bl.a. påvirket hvis man fælder træerne eftersom nogle dyr er afhængige af nogle bestemte dyr og en bestemt temperatur. På den måde kan de forskellige dyrearter uddø når de ikke kan leve uden de bestemte levevilkår som de har brug for…...

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