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Anencephaly

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Anencephaly is a congenital embryological neurological disorder of the neural tube which causes portions of the brain and the skull not to develop properly (Saheb). Because the neural tube does not close adequately these children will not have a forebrain or a midbrain (Kurtoglu), rather they will develop “Fibro vascular tissue with scattered islands of neural elements” (Behrman). This malformation of the brain and the cranial vault causes many of these children to be still born (Elwood & Lemire). According to the Centers for Disease Control, “3 pregnancies in every 10,000 in the United States will have anencephaly. This means about 1,206 pregnancies are affected by these conditions each year in the United States”(CDC). The unfortunate infants who live momentarily experience sepsis, pneumonia, or atelectasis(Behrman). Its pathology is unclear, however, researchers believe genetics and nutrition are contributing factors (CDC). Children with Anencephaly experience abnormalities of, “Congenital talipus, equinovarus or valgus, spina bifida, cystic kidneys, cystic liver, high palate with cleft, diaphragmatic hernia, immature lungs, thymic hyperplasia, megaoesophagus, hypertrophy of bladder and hypoplasia of epididymis, hypoplatic lungs, syndactyly, cyclopia, club foot, cleft palate, imperforate anus, renal defects, cardiac defects, large thymus, absence of thumb and radius, large thymus, and reduced size of adrenal gland (Jones). Those full term infants who live for few days facing an agonizing painful future of secondary neuroendocrine defects such as, “Hypo plastic pituitary, adrenal insufficiency, adrenocortical hypoplasia, and clinical diabetes insipidus”(Forfar). The greatest incidence of Anencephaly is in Great Britain and Ireland Lemire & Melnick). Asia, Africa, and South America has the lowest and whites are six time more prone to have children with the disorder than blacks and females over males and reoccurs in sibling offspring(Lemire & Melnnick) .

Saheb, Hussain S; Shepur, Muralidhar P; Desai, S DView Profile; Thomas, S TView Profile; Haseena, S. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research4.3 (Mar 2012): 1755-1757.
Kurtoglu Z, Uluutku M H, Yeginoglu G, Aktekin M, Camdeviren H. Morphometric evaluation of the cardiac ventricular capacity of anencephalic fetuses, Clin Anat, 2004, 17(6):487-491.
1. Elwood JM, Elwood JH. Epidemiology ofanencephalus and spina bifida. New York Oxford Univ. Press, 1980: 5
2. Lemire RJ, Beckwith lB, Warkany J. Anencephaly. NewYork: Raven. 1978
4. Behrman R E, Kliegman R M, Nelson W E, Robert H A, Haslam. Congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. WB Saunders company, Phildelphia. 14th edition, 1992, 1482-87.
CDC. Updated Estimates of Neural Tube Defects Prevented by Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification — United States, 1995–2011. MMWR Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2015: 64(01); 1-5.’
9. Jones KL: Smith's recognizable patterns of human malformation. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia. 6th edn, 2006, 7 5. Forfar J O, Arneil G C, Stark G D. Disorders of central nervous system. Text book of pediatrics. Chrchil Livinston, 3rd edition. 1984, 693-700. 04p.
7. Melnick M, Myrianthopoulous NC. Studies in neural tube defects. Pathologic findings in a prospetively collected series of anencephalies. Am J Med Genet 1987 ; 26 : 783

Spina Bifida is a congenital neurological disorder in which an abnormality occurs to the spine and spinal cord. The failure of the neural tube to close during the embryotic development causes birth defects to the spine and skull (Britannica). “Malformations occur because the tube fails to close properly, because parts of it are missing, or because part of the tube is blocked” (Britannica). In spina bifida occulta the nerves in the spinal cord are no covered adequately leaving them exposed. Children with hidden spina bifida the vertebrae in their back is not adequately covered internally, however, externally skin has formed over the spine offering some cover (Britannica). “There is no universally agreed-upon classification system to date, therefore, the conditions are commonly referred to as open (OSD) and closed (CSD) and are identified by the presence of an intact skin covering” (Thompson).
The CDC gathered information concerning spina bifida from, “The state-based birth defects surveillance systems” which reported the incidence of children born with spina bifida from 1983-1990. In summary 4 out of every 10,000 pregnancy will result in spina bifida (Vitamin Study). In short, 15,000 children are born each year with this developmental disorder (Economic Burden). “Findings from a recently published randomized controlled trial demonstrated that preconception supplementation with 4.0 mg of folic acid daily would prevent 70% of the recurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs) among women who had a prior NTD-affected pregnancy (4). In August 1991, CDC published interim recommendations for folic acid supplementation for women who have had an infant or fetus with spina bifida, anencephaly, or encephalocele” (Vitamin Study).

Spina Bifida. (2016). Britannica Academic. Retrieved from http://academic.eb.com.ezproxy.liberty. edu:2048/levels/collegiate/article/69135.
Kanaheswari1, Y., & Mohd, A. M. (2015) Renal scarring and chronic kidney disease in children with spina bifida in a multidisciplinary Malaysian center. Thompson DNP Spinal dysraphic anomalies; classification, presentation and management. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health 51(12), 1175–1181 doi: 10.1111/jpc.12938. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1998). Economic burden of spina bifida -- United States, 1980-1990. Retrieved from http://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/ prevguid/m0017197 /m0017197 .asp.
MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. (1991). Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 1989(338), 131-137. Retrieved from http://wonder.cdc.gov/ wonder/prevguid /m0017197/m0017197.asp.…...

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