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UNDP-GEF
PROJECT CONCEPT PAPER

|Project name: |GEF implementing agency: |
| | |
|Malaysia: Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) Technology |United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) |
|Application Project Malaysia: Building Integrated Photovoltaic | |
|Systems Project (BIPVS) | |
|Country of countries in which the Project is being implemented: |Country eligibility: |
|Malaysia | |
| |Ratified the UNFCCC on 17 July 1994. |
|GEF Focal Area (s): |Operational program/short-term measure: |
| | |
| |OP-7: Reducing the long-term costs of low GHG emitting energy |
|Climate Change |technologies |
|Project linkage to national priorities, action plans and programs: |
| |
|In accordance with the ASEAN Plan of Action for Energy Cooperation for the period 1999 – 2004, the adoption of renewable energy resources|
|is a high priority in all ASEAN countries. The Third Outline Prospective Plan 3 (OPP3) of Malaysia mentions Renewable Energy (RE) as the |
|fifth fuel. It states that to supplement the conventional supply of energy, new sources such as RE will be encouraged. In this regard, |
|the fuel diversification policy which comprises oil, gas, hydro and coal will be extended to include RE as the fifth fuel, particularly |
|biomass, biogas, municipal waste, solar and mini-hydro. |
| |
|In the Eighth Malaysia Plan (RM8) it is mentioned that the Malaysian Government will intensify efforts to encourage the utilization of |
|renewable resources for the generation of energy to supplement the supply from conventional energy sources. The nation has also set a |
|target to achieve 5% of its electricity production through RE. Furthermore, the enhancement of the socio-economic development by creating|
|business opportunities for small and medium enterprises (SME) is part of the national development plans. Also, several national efforts |
|are in execution to foster the application of PV in urban areas. |
|GEF national operational focal point and date of country endorsement: |
| |
|National operational focal point: Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment |
|Date submitted: Date endorsed: 13 April 2002 |
|Project rationale and objectives: |
| |
|Problem Statement |
| |
|While there is a significant potential for small-scale new and renewable energy (NRE) development in Malaysia, the exploitation of these |
|resources is presently hampered. To date, efforts have been focusing on the exploitation of small-scale NRE resources for rural energy |
|supply, although there is also an interesting and yet mostly unexploited application of NRE potentials in the urban areas. |
| |
|Solar photovoltaic (PV) solutions can be adapted to the whole range of the built environment in urban areas such as commercial, |
|industrial, residential buildings and others. PV cells integrated in glass structures provide daylight use, room shading and electricity |
|generation in one single building element, either applied as fixed construction or moveable parts. The BIPV technology also allows |
|establishing a link between the issues of NRE development and energy efficiency through the introduction and application of enhanced |
|integral energy concepts for new and existing buildings. Moreover, the willingness and ability to pay for electricity services is often |
|better in urban areas and represents a sound basis for an economically viable dissemination of the BIPV concept. There is currently an |
|increasing interest in using PV systems in urban areas as perceived in a number of ASEAN countries, especially in Malaysia. |
| |
|Solar PV systems are among the most promising and workable NRE solutions, providing an excellent opportunity for electricity supply in |
|urban areas. The modular structure of PV systems makes it possible to convert solar radiation into electricity over a wide power range |
|directly at the place of use. The application of PV systems on building envelopes, such as facade and roof surfaces, furthermore results |
|in synergies. Beyond the traditional purpose of utilizing solar energy, building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) elements today work as |
|multi-functional facade or roof constructions, encompassing also the aesthetic dimension of PV systems as architectural element and as |
|substitute of high cost building elements. The technology has been proven in numerous cases worldwide. Although there is at present |
|serious interest in BIPV applications, with some trials being made, and suppliers are capable of supplying if there is substantial |
|demand, BIPV application in Malaysia is practically on a pilot scale, simply because it is not yet economically competitive. |
| |
|Baseline scenario: |
| |
|It is anticipated that in absence of the proposed GEF-supported project, building developers and architects will still rely on their |
|present design and construction, which favors more the aesthetic aspects of building design rather than that of energy efficiency. Solar |
|energy applications will remain limited to water heating using solar panels installed in rooftops and/or roof decks. Although there is |
|high level of awareness of the economic, environmental and aesthetic benefits of BIPV applications, such technology will not be employed |
|in the short to medium term because of its high cost. |
| |
|Alternate scenario: |
| |
|Under this proposed GEF- supported project, new energy saving and GHG reducing buildings are expected to be designed in the short term, |
|employing BIPV technology as multi-functional building element using synergies. The proposed project is expected to effectively reduce |
|the cost of BIPV technology and make it a least cost alternative for energy applications in buildings in urban areas. |
| |
|The proposed project would introduce and promote this new and innovative technology in Malaysia, through different activities like |
|targeted research, strengthening local capabilities for manufacturing BIPV systems (or its main components), adopting supportive |
|regulatory frameworks and investing in promising applications will be addressed. The objective of cost reduction will be achieved by |
|measures to influence demand and supply for BIPV systems. These measures would include: |
| |
|Promoting local manufacturing of BIPV systems which would lead to cost savings from economics of scale; |
|Strengthening of the institutional aspects by creating a more enabling environment for BIPV applications, for example by addressing the |
|sources of high costs of BIPV systems due to fees and charges such as permitting fees, interconnection-related fees and charges and |
|standby charges; and, |
|Encouraging “learning by doing” for local architects and engineers to increase their capacity in using the technology. |
| |
|These will make BIPV applications in Malaysia economically competitive as compared to the building structures that are built presently. |
| |
|GEF involvement: |
| |
|The proposed project will achieve the objective set out in GEF Operational Program 7 to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions not only |
|directly but also indirectly by inducing cost reductions in the BIPV technology, which results in a higher penetration of the energy |
|markets. |
| |
|As in other GEF climate change projects, the ultimate goal of this project is the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from |
|anthropogenic sources. The project’s purpose is the encouragement of the utilization of low greenhouse gas emitting technologies, such as|
|BIPV, to contribute to the achievement of the ultimate goal. BIPV will utilize renewable resources for the generation of energy to |
|supplement the supply from conventional energy sources in urban buildings. This goes hand in hand in enhancinge socio-economic |
|development in Malaysia by creating business opportunities for small and medium enterprises (SME) active in the NRE energy sector. |
|Thereby a significant market potential could be developed promoting Malaysia as a centre of excellence on BIPV in the ASEAN region. |
|The immediate objectives of the proposed project are to: |
| |
|· Start with promotional activities to widespread the application of building integrated PV systems in urban areas of Malaysia, thus |
|effectively demonstratingDemonstrate the synergies of combining environmental benefits from ecologically friendly electricity production |
|with cost effective multi-functional construction application.· ; |
|Support the development of an enabling policy to encourage the use of BIPV technology by lowering costs and using economic instruments |
|such as incentives; |
|Promote different applications of BIPV systems throughout the country based on experience gained and lessons learnt in a number of |
|showcases in selected cities in Europe; and. |
|Promote local manufacturing of BIPV systems. |
|Project Expected outcomes: |
| |
|The global environmental objective of the proposed project is sustainable and substantial reduction of GHG emissions from burning fossil |
|fuels in Malaysia through the widespread application of BIPV systems in the country’s buildings sector. |
| |
|It is anticipated that in absence of the proposed GEF-supported project, building developers and architects still rely on their present |
|design and construction, which are not energy efficient and not saving GHG emission. Where as under this proposed GEF- supported project |
|new energy and GHG emission saving buildings will be designed, employing BIPV technology as multi-functional building element using |
|synergies. The proposed project is expected to effectively reduce the cost and make BIPV a widespread cost alternative for specified |
|application in urban areas. The expected outcomes of the project are the following:· |
| |
|Status quo report of the baseline and the alternative scenarios concerning solar PV applications in urban buildings in Malaysia, through |
|targeted research on several activities; |
|Increased capacityies building measures and technical assistance to effectively apply and use BIPV deploy technology in urban areas; |
|Enhanced quality of technical, economic and financial analyses for BIPV projects; |
|Developed frameworks for national-level policies, legislations and regulations related to the application of the BIPV technology for |
|electricity generation in urban areas adopted; |
|Established, implemented and functioning quality control mechanisms for BIPV systems; |
|Introduced suitable monetary and regulatory incentives for BIPV systems; |
|Increased awareness among policy makers, local municipalities, investors, project developers, architects and other stakeholders concerned|
|on the possibilities and potential of the BIPV technology; |
|Strengthened capabilities of the local players (e.g. engineers, architects, clients, etc.) for the efficient and sound use of BIPV in |
|suitable application; |
|· Demonstrated technical feasibility and economic viability of the BIPV technology in a number of pilot projects, preferably integrated |
|in an energy efficient building construction; |
|Established and disseminated lessons learnt, best practices and ready to use guidelines for the application of the BIPV technology for |
|electricity generation in urban areas; |
|Established pipeline of BIPV development and application projects that would create BIPV market business opportunities within Malaysia; |
|Enhanced involvement of the private sector – in particular local SME’s – in assisting in, and benefiting from the BIPV development |
|efforts; |
|Contributing to the achievement of country’s objectives to reduce GHG emissions; and, · |
|Reduction of costs for BIPV systems thanks to the several on-going enabling activities, which lead to a decline in manufacturing costs |
|and thus in increasing economiecs of scale. |
|Planned activities to achieve outcomes: |
| |
|In order to prove that the technology of BIPV is not only technically sound but also an economically competitive solution for reducing |
|energy consumption for power generation for use in urban buildings in Malaysia, different activities need to be carried out. These |
|include: |
| |
|Targeted research: Economic and financial analyses for BIPV projects are often of inadequate quality in Malaysia. More data have to be |
|analyzed to study the present perceptions on BIPV and to project the prospective demand for BIPV in the country. There is also a need to |
|analyse the potential costs and benefits of selected technologies and how to adapt them to different local conditions as well as to |
|review the effectiveness of other existing BIPV demonstration projects If needed, meteorological data will be collected and analyzed. |
|Other activities include: |
| |
|Conducting reconnaissance level, pre-feasibility and feasibility studies, comprising technical, institutional, economical and financial |
|assessments based on the first BIPV projects in Malaysia; |
|Monitoring the price evolution of the technology in national and international market. |
| |
|Capacity building: While BIPV technology is already a proven cost-effective technology in developed countries particularly in Europe, |
|there are presently uncertainties about costs, performance and benefits of the technology in Malaysia, as well as in other ASEAN |
|countries. In this project, technical assistance has to be provided for architects and engineers, thereby greatly improving the ‘learning|
|by doing’ process. Furthermore, there is a need to strengthen the local capacities (e.g. installers, engineers, architects, clients, |
|etc.) to operate, manage, maintain and evaluate new technologies and their suitable application. Capacity of policy makers will also need|
|to be further developed to be able to come up with policy and regulatory initiatives and suitable tariffs for off-grid electricity. This |
|is important as the absence of suitable monetary and regulatory incentives to incorporate PV systems into building elements deters most |
|of the potential developers and investors from adopting the technology. Other activities include: |
| |
|Provision of advice to governmental institutions concerned on policy, legislation and regulatory issues that affect the deployment of the|
|BIPV technology; |
|Design and implementation of technical training and capacity building programs for BIPV project development organizations, owners and |
|operators, architects and engineers, covering topics such as project identification, evaluation, planning and designing, construction, |
|implementation, operation and maintenance. |
| |
|Enabling policy frameworks: This will include provision of support for the development of regulations and quality control mechanisms |
|that will create a conductive and favorable environment for the development and widespread application of the BIPV technology. Other |
|activities include: |
| |
|Development and introduction of technical standards and quality control mechanisms for BIPV systems; |
|Design and promotion of a suitable system of monetary and regulatory incentives for BIPV systems. |
| |
|Awareness raising: The awareness level among policy makers, local authorities, investors, project developers and other stakeholders |
|involved in the energy sector on the potential of PV systems used as building elements is still generally low. Even though the technology|
|already has proven to be technically feasible and economically viable in a number of projects in different parts the world, the |
|perception that this technology is a high cost and “high tech luxury” prevails. This perception becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy, as |
|the subsequent low level of demand is one of the factors that keep the cost of the technology high. Other activities include: |
| |
|Designing and strengthening a suitable national communication framework for the dissemination of the results and the project experience; |
|Disseminating relevant information among stakeholders, industry and public concerned on technical, financial, environmental and |
|institutional aspects of BIPV development. |
| |
|Investment: Relevant activities will be carried out to encourage investment in the most promising applications of BIPV and demonstrate |
|the technology and its benefits and to create an environment for joint venture manufacturing, which will incorporate the transfer of |
|technology. This will encourage local manufacturing of components of PV systems. Other activities include: |
| |
|Implementation of a number of pilot BIPV projects to demonstrate the technical feasibility and the economic viability of the technology; |
|Monitoring of the operational performance of pilot BIPV projects over a period of minimum 2 years; |
|Mobilizing of both national and international resources to co-finance a number of BIPV pilot projects, as and when required; |
|Designing, promoting, demonstrating and implementing affordable financing mechanisms for small-scale BIPV projects in urban areas, |
|thereby giving due attention to private sector participation opportunities. |
|Determine the extent to which this reduction in prices is leading to the desired outcome of increased market share, the prices of |
|competing technologies will also need to be monitored. |
| |
|The activities above need to be addressed in a holistic manner to influence both local demand and supply of the PV technology in order to|
|lower the cost of the technology to commercially competitive levels. In a nutshell, cost reduction of BIPV technology will be |
|accomplished by technology transfer, joint ventures, local manufacturing, enabling policy frameworks, learning by doing, and economies of|
|scale. |
|Stakeholders involved in the project: |
| |
|Relevant national governmental agencies and institutions; |
|Local municipalities; |
|SSpecialized national and regional energy bodies; |
|Building associations, |
|Non-governmental Organizations (NGO’s); |
|Project developers, |
|Private sector Small and Medium Enterprises (SME); |
|Local private companies and investors; and |
|IInternational organizations with expertise and experience in the deployment of BIPV systems (e.g., SwissPower). |
| |
|Further stakeholders may be identified in the course of the logical framework analysis (LFA) that will be conducted as part of the |
|project development activities. |
|Information on project proponent: |
| |
|Ministry of Energy, Communication and Multimedia, Malaysia (MECM) is the project proponent. MECM plays the role of policy formulator and|
|service regulator for the Energy, Communications and Multimedia sectors. |
| |
|MECM is the executing agency for the ongoing UNDP-GEF Malaysia Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvement Project, and the recently |
|approved Biomass-based Power Generation and Cogeneration in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry (Phase 1) |
|Information on executing agency: |
| |
|As above. |
|Estimated budget (in US$ or local currency): |
| |
|GEF: US$ 2 million |
|Others (Government of Malaysia, Private sector, International donors): US$ 5 million |
|Total: US$ 7 million |
|Implementing agency contact persons: | |
|Manuel Soriano |Thiyagarajan Velumail |
|Regional Coordinator for Climate Change |United Nations Development Programme |
|UNDP-GEF Regional Office (A&P) |Wisma UN, Block C, Damansara Office Complex, Jl. Dungun, Damansara |
|Wisma UN, Block C, Damansara Office Complex, Jl. Dungun, Damansara |Heights |
|Heights |Kuala Lumpur 50490, Malaysia |
|Kuala Lumpur 50490, Malaysia |Tel: 60-3-20959122 |
|Tel: 60-3-20915153 |E-mail: rajan.velumail@undp.org |
|E-mail: manuel.soriano@undp.org | |…...

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...see and follow the Academic Integrity Policy in the Learner portal. Your instructor may select this or any activity to review and submit to Turnitin to assess for an Academic Integrity violation Main Task: Prepare an Annotated Bibliography Using the guidelines and resources you’ve reviewed create an Annotated Bibliography consisting of the two articles listed as resources for this Activity. Length: 2 entries. Approximately 2-3 pages. Submit your document in the Course Work area below the Activity screen. Learning Outcome: 8 • Analyze research articles for construction of an Annotated Bibliography. Your instructor will give you feedback using the form below and in margin comments on your work. Reading and using your instructor’s feedback is as much a part of your learning as is reading the course materials and doing activities. Your instructor will not only help you understand the quality of your work on this activity, but will also give you guidance on how to improve your skills and increase your knowledge that, if you follow it, will help you do better on future activities! Feedback Introduction to Feedback: 1. Was the activity completed as instructed? Activity Elements Faculty Feedback |Two Annotated Bibliography entries that follow guidelines and | | |resources | ......

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Annotated Bibliography

...Annotated Bibliography International Labour Office Geneva. (1996). General Provisions. In Accident prevention on board ship at sea and in port: An ilo code of practices (p. 6). International Labour Office Bureau International du Travil. This books is provides safety practices for workers aboard a ship. It is recommended that those who are responsible for the health and safety of the workers to follow the codes outlined in the book. The codes in the book are only recommended suggestions and do not supersede other health or safety regulations or laws. Injuries and accidents are the primarily the cause of inadequate training and workers need to be aware of possible safety hazards. Mandelstam, M. (2002). Manual handling in health and social care: An a-z of law and practice. Jessica Kingsley. This book gives guidance to workers who manually handle patients or clients. It covers both the health and safety of the employee and also the rights of the patients. Oldham-Smith, K., & Madden, J. (2008). Basic Safety Precautions. In Electrical safety and the law. John Wiley & Sons. This book reviews the laws regarding electrical safety and identifies specific electrical hazards and how to protect yourself. Summerhayes, S. (2008). Cdm regulations 2007 procedures manual. John Wiley & Sons. This book identifies the responsibilities for employers and employees in construction, and includes the mandatory compliance requirements for both parties. Viscusi, K.......

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Annotated Bibliography

...Annotated bibliography * Lilienfeld, S. O., Waldman, I. D., Landfield, K., Watts, A. L., Rubenzer, S., & Faschingbauer, T. R. (2012). Fearless dominance and the U.S. presidency: Implications of psychopathic personality traits for successful and unsuccessful political leadership. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(3), 489-505.http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=79301650&site=ehost-live&scope=site This article emphasizes on few elements of psychopathic personality which have strong influence on job performance and leadership. For this research a standardized psychological assessment methods was used by 121 experts. These experts rated the personalities and measured Psychopathy, and Covariates of all presidents from George Washington to George W. Bush. Further analysis was conducted by evaluating these ratings with job performance information collected in two surveys that include 2009 C-Span poll of 62 presidential historians and a 2010 Siena College survey of 238 historians. A paragraph should begin here as the topic shifts to major findings. Major findings from this research state that American president’s shows higher degree of psychopathic behavior in comparison to general population. Major finding from the paper shows that Teddy Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy were the most fearless dominant presidents in US. It also highlights on importance of luck,......

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Annotated Bibliography

...ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Catlett, S., & Lovan, S. (2011). Being a good nurse and doing the right thing: a replication study. Nursing Ethics, 18(1), 54-63. doi: 10.1177/0969733010386162 The authors of this article were one Shelia Catlett of Western Kentucky University and Fairview Community Clinic, USA and one Sherry R Lovan also from Western Kentucky University, USA. Both authors conducted a qualitative research study, which was also a replication of a study published in 2002, investigating the qualities of a good nurse and the role ethics plays in decision making. Ethics refers to the moral code for nursing and is based on obligation to service and respect for human life. Ethical Knowledge occurs as moral dilemmas arise in situations of ambiguity and uncertainty, and when consequences are difficult to predict (McEwen Wills, 2011). Ethics in nursing is used to guide and direct nurses conduct and practices. It requires experiential of social values and ethical reasoning. Its main focus is on matters of obligation, what ought to be done, what is right, wrong and responsible. The study implemented modification related to the research questions, sample selection, data collection and Atlas.ti software for qualitative data for the purpose of providing ease of coding, viewing, mapping and storing the data for retrieval analysis. The main focus of this replication study was to understand what it means to be a good nurse and do the right thing. This research......

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