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Ap Psychology Essay Prompts

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AP Psychology Essay Prompts and

Scoring Rubrics

The enclosed document includes an essay prompt for each unit in AP Psychology and a corresponding scoring rubric. The purpose of this activity is to increase the students’ awareness of how AP exam readers grade from a rubric. Emphasis is placed on the definition of terms and the application of those terms. Units include:

Introduction to Psychology

Psychobiology

Sensation and Perception

Memory

Learning

Nature and Nurture of Behavior

Developing Person

Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

States of Consciousness

Motivation and Emotion Personality Stress and Health Psychological Disorders Therapy Social Psychology

Unit: Introduction to Psychology

Describe the different perspectives from which psychologists examine behavior and mental processes, and explain their complementarity. Your answer should include: ➢ Neuroscience ➢ Evolutionary ➢ Behavior Genetics ➢ Psychodynamic ➢ Behavioral ➢ Cognitive ➢ Social-cultural

Rubrics

Note: The application portion on the rubrics may include a variety of answers. This is simply an example of possible answers. The perspectives have more than one complement.

|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|Neuroscience |The study of how the neurological system affects such |It is complementary to evolutionary because|
| |things as emotions, memories, and sensory experiences. |the structures and functions of the brain |
| | |that promote survival are the most likely |
| | |to develop. |
|Evolutionary |The study of the natural selection of some traits that |It is complementary to the behavioral |
| |promotes genetic survival. |perspective because some behaviors may |
| | |enhance the chance to survival. |
|Behavior Genetics |The study of how much our psychological traits are |It is complementary to the cognitive |
| |attributed to our genetic make-up or as a result of |process because our thinking, language, and|
| |environmental influences. |intelligence may be the result of our |
| | |ability to adapt to our environment. |
|Psychodynamic |The study of how unconscious drives and conflicts may |It is complementary to the behavioral |
| |influence our lives |perspective in the investigation of how |
| | |much of our behavior is below our awareness|
| | |level. |
|Behavioral |The study of how we learn from the environment around |It is complementary to the social-cultural |
| |us. |perspectives in the investigation of how |
| | |differing situations can influence our |
| | |behavior. |
|Cognitive |The study of how we encode, process, and store |It is complementary to the neuroscience |
| |information. |perspective because our cognitive ability |
| | |is dependent on our brain function. |
|Sociocultural |The study of how behavior and thinking can vary across |It is complementary to the behavior |
| |socio-cultural situations. |genetics perspective because pro-social |
| | |behaviors may influence the genetics of one|
| | |culture as opposed to another. |

Unit: Psychobiology

Identify the four lobes of the cerebral cortex, and describe the sensory and motor functions of the cortex. Your answer should include the description and function of the following: ➢ Frontal lobe ➢ Parietal lobe ➢ Occipital lobe ➢ Temporal lobe

Rubrics

|Lobes |Description |Function |
| | | |
|Frontal |Located behind the forehead and is known especially for the |The fontal lobe is responsible for higher |
| |arch-shaped region at the back of the frontal lobe known as the motor|order thinking and the motor cortex |
| |cortex. |controls voluntary movements. |
|Parietal |Located on the top of the head and is known especially for the |The sensory cortex in the parietal lobe is |
| |sensory cortex which is parallel to the motor cortex and located at |responsible for registering and processing |
| |the front of the parietal lobe. |body sensations. |
|Occipital |Located at the back of the head and includes the visual cortex. |The visual cortex receives and begins |
| | |processing visual information. |
|Temporal |Located roughly above the ears and includes the auditory areas. |The auditory areas receives and begins the |
| | |processing of auditory information. |

Unit: Sensation and Perception

Discuss the different levels of visual information processing and the value of parallel processing. Your answer should include: ➢ Feature detection ➢ Color constancy ➢ Parallel processing

Rubrics

|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|Feature detection |Neurons that receive information to specific features |Feature detection neurons pass the |
| |such as edges, angles, movements, etc. |information on to more complex neuron |
| | |systems which integrate the information |
| | |into a visual whole. |
|Color Constancy |Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color |The experience of color not only depends on|
| |even in situations where the wavelengths reflected by |the wavelength information but the |
| |the object are altered. |surrounding context. It demonstrates that |
| | |our experience of color comes not just from|
| | |the object but from everything around it as|
| | |well. |
|Parallel processing |The processing of several pieces of information by |The brain divides a visual scene into |
| |integrating the work of different perceptual systems, |subdimensions but works on each aspect |
| |which work in parallel. |simultaneously to produce an integrated |
| | |perception. |

Unit: Memory

Describe the capacity and duration of long-term memory, and discuss the biological changes that may underlie memory formation and storage. Your answer should include: ➢ The definition of long-term memory ➢ The capacity and duration of long-term memory ➢ Hippocampus ➢ Long-term potentiation ➢ Activity of the amygdale

Rubrics

|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|Long-term memory |Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of|Necessary for the storage of information |
| |the memory system. |for future use. |
|Hippocampus |Part of the brain where explicit memories for |Explicit memories of names, images, and |
| |facts and episodes are processed and fed to |events are laid down via a this structure |
| |other brain regions for storage. |in the limbic system. |
|Long-term potentiation |An increase in a synapse’s firing potential |Prolonged strengthening of neural firing |
| |after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be |provides a neural basis for learning and |
| |a neural basis for leaning and memory. |remembering associations. |
|Activity of the amygdala |Structure of the brain which processes emotion |Emotionally arousing events will help make |
| |and boosts the activity in the brain’s |stronger and more reliable memories. |
| |memory-forming areas. |However, prolonged stress can corrode |
| | |neural connections. |

Unit: Learning

Explain the importance of Pavlov’s work, and describe how it might apply to an understanding of human health and well-being. Your answer should include: ➢ The concept of associative learning ➢ The importance of classical conditioning in adaptation ➢ The importance of classical conditioning in objective study of behavior

Rubrics

|Term |Description |Application |
| | | |
|Associative learning |Learning that happens when certain events |Staying away from settings or things |
| |occur together. |associated with a certain unwanted |
| | |behaviors may increase a person’s |
| | |well-being. |
|Adaptation |Learning based on prior experiences. |Associative learning can assist an |
| | |individual in adaptation to their |
| | |environment as well as identifying elements|
| | |of behavior to master their environment. |
|Objective study of behavior |Scientific model which included no |Classical conditioning terminology provided|
| |subjective judgments for explaining |the elementary building blocks in |
| |behavior |understanding more complex behaviors. |

Unit: Nature and Nurture of Behavior

Explain how the peer group and culture influence child development. Your answer should include: ➢ “selection effect” ➢ Parent vs. Peer Influence ➢ Cultural Norms

Rubrics

|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|“selection effect” |Seeking out peers with similar attitudes and |Because children tend to select peers with |
| |interests. |similar attitudes and interests initially, |
| | |there may be a greater opportunity for peer|
| | |influence once the commonality has been |
| | |established. |
|Parent vs. peer influence |Parents have more input when it comes to |Parents are important in the formation of |
| |education, responsibility, religion, etc. Peers |basic values and standards of conduct. |
| |have more influence in cooperative and social |Peers are important because the child |
| |activities. |learns how to cooperate and interact with |
| | |follow peers. |
|Cultural Norms |Rules for accepted and expected behavior, that |Knowing the appropriate behaviors in a |
| |is shared by a large group of people. |particular culture free people of that |
| | |culture from fear of embarrassment or |
| | |insult and precludes awkward moments. |

Unit: Developing Person

Describe the early development of a self-concept and discuss possible effects of different parenting styles on children. Your answer should include: ➢ Self-concept ➢ Authoritarian parenting style ➢ Permissive parenting style ➢ Authoritative parenting style

Rubrics

|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|Self-concept |The sense of one’s own identity and personal |A child’s major social achievement is a |
| |worth. |positive sense of self. |
|Authoritarian Parenting |Parenting style that imposes rules and expects |Children with authoritarian parents tend to|
| |unquestioning obedience. |be more rigid in self-acceptance and the |
| | |acceptance of others. |
|Permissive Parenting |Parenting style in which the parents submit to |Children with permissive parents tend to be|
| |their children’s desires, make few demands, and |more immature with little impulse control. |
| |use little punishment. | |
|Authoritative Parenting |Parenting style that is both demanding and yet |Children with the highest self-esteem, |
| |responsive. The parents set and enforce rules |self-reliance, and social competence tend |
| |but encourage open discussion and allow |to have authoritative parents. |
| |exceptions when making the rules. | |

Unit: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

Discuss how we use trial and error, algorithms, heuristics, and insight to solve problems and how confirmation bias and fixation can interfere with effective problem solving.

Rubrics

|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|Trial and error |Willingness to try a variety of possibilities in problem|The trial and error method may be used to |
| |solving until success is achieved. |solve a problem when no clear-cut solution |
| | |is favored or several possibilities are |
| | |tried until the very best solution is |
| | |chosen. |
|Algorithms |A step by step procedure use to solve problems. |Although all the steps may be labor |
| | |intensive, this problem solving method |
| | |guarantees a solution. |
|Heuristics |Simple strategy used to solve problems |Heuristics are more error- prone than |
| | |algorithms, but can be used with trail & |
| | |error to hit upon the answer. |
|Insight |Sudden flashes of inspiration. |Sometimes the problem-solving strategy is |
| | |not obvious to us, but the suddenly all the|
| | |pieces come together and a solution |
| | |develops. |
|Confirmation Bias |The search for information to confirms our individual |The reluctance to seek and consider |
| |ideas. |information that might disprove one’s |
| | |beliefs could interfere with effective |
| | |problem solving |
|Fixation |The inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective.|The reluctance to see a problem from a |
| | |different perspective will also interfere |
| | |with effective problem solving. |

Unit: States of Consciousness

Describe the physiological and psychological effects of depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens and drug dependence.

Rubrics

|Term |Definition |Physiological Effects |Psychological Effects |
| | | | |
|Depressants |Drugs that calm neural activity |Slows the sympathetic nervous |Slows the brain activity that |
| |and slow body functions. |system activity including |controls judgment and |
| | |slurred speech, and performance |inhibitions. Alcohol makes us |
| | |deterioration. |more aggressive or helpful or |
| | | |self-disclosing if the |
| | | |tendencies are already present. |
| | | |Disrupts memory processing. |
|Stimulants |Drugs that excite neural |Speeds up the body functions |Energy and self-confidence rise,|
| |activity and arouse body |such as heart rate and |which accounts for why people |
| |functions. |breathing. |use it as a mood enhancer or to |
| | | |improve athletic performance. |
| | | |However when the drug |
| | | |stimulation ends, fatigue, |
| | | |headaches, irritability, and |
| | | |depression may occur. |
|Hallucinogens |Drugs that distort perceptions |Amplifies the body’s sensitivity|As the hallucinogenic experience|
| |and evoke sensory images in the |to colors, sounds, tastes, and |peaks, people frequently feel |
| |absence of sensory input. |smells. |separated from their bodies and |
| | | |experience dreamlike scenes as |
| | | |though they were real – so real |
| | | |that users may become |
| | | |panic-stricken or harm |
| | | |themselves. |
|Drug dependence |Continued use of a psychoactive |In the drug’s absence the user |When the drugs become an |
| |drugs which produces |may feel physical pain and |important part of the user’s |
| |neuroadaptation |intense cravings. |life as a way of relieving |
| | | |negative emotions or as other |
| | | |coping mechanisms. |

Unit: Motivation and Emotion

Discuss the importance of various motives for working, and identify the aims of industrial-organization psychology. Your answer should include: pay, relationships, or identity.

Rubrics

|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|Pay |Financial compensation for work done. |Many individuals are simply motivated because |
| | |they need an income to support themselves. In |
| | |general, the amount of pay increases as the |
| | |amount of responsibility increases. |
|Relationships | | |
|Identity |One’s sense of self solidified by testing |People’s quality of life increases when they are |
| |and integrating various roles. |purposefully engaged in a meaningful activity. |
| | |The sense of self-esteem, competence, well-being,|
| | |and sense of identity increase with job |
| | |satisfaction. |
|Industrial-organizational Psychology |The application of psychology’s principles|This branch of psychology applies psychology’s |
| |to the workplace. |methods and principles to selecting and |
| | |evaluating workers, considers how work |
| | |environments and management types influence |
| | |worker motivation, satisfaction, and |
| | |productivity. |

Unit: Personality

Describe the social-cognitive perspective, and discuss the important consequences of personal control (internal/external locus of control), self-control, learned helplessness, and optimism.

|Term |Description |Application |
| | | |
|Social-cognitive Perspective |Views behavior as influenced by the interaction|We learn behaviors through conditioning, by |
| |between person (and their thinking) and their |observing, and modeling behaviors. However |
| |social context. |how we think about and interpret those |
| | |situations also influences our behavior. |
|Personal Control |Whether we learn to see ourselves as |Individuals with and external locus of control|
| |controlling, or as controlled by, our |perceive that chance or outside forces |
| |environment. |determine their fate. Individuals with and |
| | |internal locus of control believe that they |
| | |control their own destiny. Internals achieve |
| | |more in school, act more independently, enjoy |
| | |better health, and feel less depressed than do|
| | |“externals” In the social-cognitive |
| | |perspective it is preferable to have a greater|
| | |internal locus of control. |
|Self-Control |The ability to control impulses and delay |From the social-cognitive perspective, |
| |gratification. |self-control is a predictor of good |
| | |adjustment, better grades, and social success.|
|Learned Helplessness |The hopelessness and passive resignation a |From the social-cognitive perspective people |
| |person learns when unable to avoid repeated |repeatedly faced with traumatic events come to|
| |aversive events. |feel helpless, hopeless, and depressed, and |
| | |perceive control as external. |
|Optimism |Viewing events in a positive way. |Optimists are able to put a positive spin on |
| | |events in the face of adversity. According to|
| | |the social-cognitive perspective success |
| | |requires enough optimism to provide hope and |
| | |enough pessimism to prevent complacency. |
| | |Excessive optimism can blind us to real risks.|

Unit: Stress and Health

Describe how stress increases the risk of disease by inhibiting the activities of the body’s immune system. Your answer should include: B and T lymphocytes, macrophage, epinephrine and norepinephrine, and the fight-or-flight response.

|Term |Description |Application |
| | | |
|Stress |The process by which we perceive and |The nervous and endocrine systems are |
| |physiologically respond to certain events, |activated during the stress response, which|
| |called stressors, that we appraise as |has an influence on the immune system. |
| |threatening or challenging. | |
|B and T lymphocytes |While blood cells that defend the body by |B lymphocytes are formed in the bone marrow|
| |isolating and destroying foreign |and fights bacterial inflections. T |
| |substances. |lymphocytes are formed in the thymus and |
| | |attacks cancer cells, viruses, and foreign |
| | |substances. However, if these lymphocytes |
| | |react too strongly they may attack the |
| | |body’s own tissues causing such things as |
| | |arthritis or an allergic reaction. Or it |
| | |could under-react and a dormant virus could|
| | |erupt or cancer cells could multiply. |
| Macrophage |Process by which invading cells are |The B and T lymphocytes use the process of |
| |identified, pursued, and ingested. |macrophage to destroy invading cells. |
|Epinephrine and Norepinephrine |When the brain perceives a stressor, it |The greater the stress response, the more |
| |triggers an outpouring of epinephrine and |hormones are released into the bloodstream.|
| |norepinephrine which enter the bloodstream |The stress hormones in turn suppress the |
| |from adrenal glands |disease-fighting lymphocytes. |
|Fight or flight |Adaptive response in which the sympathetic |Stress leads to an aroused, fight-or-flight|
| |nervous system increases heart rate and |response and diverts enerby to mobilie the |
| |respiration, diverts blood from digestion |body for action. Therefore energy needed |
| |and skeletal muscles, and releases stored |by the immune system is now diverted making|
| |sugar and fat in preparation for the |us more vulnerable to foreign invaders. |
| |organism to stand its ground and fight or | |
| |flee a threatening situation. | |

Unit: Psychological Disorders

Describe the various symptoms and subtypes of schizophrenia, and discuss research on its causes. Your answer should include: paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual schizophrenia.

|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|Schizophrenia |Split from reality in which the person |Actions profoundly disrupt social |
| |displays disorganized thinking, disturbed |relationships and during the most severe |
| |perception, and inappropriate emotions and |periods, people with schizophrenia live in |
| |actions. |a private inner world, preoccupied with |
| | |illogical ideas and unreal images. |
|Paranoid schizophrenia |Preoccupation with delusion or |Person holds on to the false belief that |
| |hallucination, often with themes of |they will be persecuted like Christ or |
| |persecution or gra ndiosity. |Martin Luther King or they have the false |
| | |belief that they are extremely important |
| | |and powerful. |
|Disorganized schizophrenia |Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or|Often a person cannot filter out competing |
| |inappropriate emotion. |sensory stimuli and jump from one idea to |
| | |another resulting in “word salad.” Or |
| | |their emotions fluctuate between extremes. |
|Catatonic schizophrenia |Immobility (or excessive, purposeless |The person may perform senseless, |
| |movement), extreme negativism, and/or |compulsive acts, such as continually |
| |parrot-like repeating of another’s speech |rocking or subbing an arm. Those who |
| |or movements. |exhibit catatonia may remain motionless for|
| | |hours on end and then become agitated. |
|Undifferentiated schizophrenia |Many and varied symptoms |Person can exhibit symptoms from all the |
| | |different subtypes. |
|Residual schizophrenia |Withdrawal, after hallucinations and | |
| |delusions have disappeared. | |

|Causes |Physiological |Psychological |
| |Dopamine over-activity due to an excess of |Mother whose schizophrenia was severe and |
| |receptors |long-lasting |
| |Thalamus is smaller-than-normal |Separation from parents |
| |Flu – mother suffers from the flu during |Short attention span and poor muscle |
| |the middle of the child’s fetal |coordination |
| |development. |Disruptive or withdrawn behavior |
| |Genetics or inheriting a predisposition |Emotional unpredictability |
| | |Poor peer relations and solo play |

Unit: Therapy

Identify the basic characteristics of humanistic therapy, behavior therapy, and cognitive therapy.

|Term |Description |Application |
| | | |
|Humanistic Therapy |The aim is to boost self-fulfillment by |The most widely used is client-centered |
| |helping people grow in self-awareness and |therapy which focuses on a person’s |
| |self-acceptance |conscious self-perception and uses the |
| | |technique of active listening. |
|Behavior Therapy |Uses learning principles to eliminate the |Counterconditioning pairs the trigger |
| |unwanted behavior. |stimulus with a new response that is |
| | |incompatible with fear. |
| | |Systematic desensitization associates a |
| | |pleasant relaxed state with gradually |
| | |increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. |
| | |Exposure therapies treat anxieties by |
| | |exposing people to the things they fear. |
| | |Aversive conditioning associates an |
| | |unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior.|
| | | |
| | |Token economy rewards desired behavior |
|Cognitive Therapy |Teaching people new, more constructive ways|Faulty cognitive processes could include: |
| |of thinking. | |
| | |Overgeneralization |
| | |Diminishing the positive |
| | |Emphasizing the negative |
| | |All-or-nothing thinking |

Unit: Social Psychology

Describe Milgram’s controversial experiments on obedience, and discuss their implications for understand our susceptibility to social influence.

➢ The participants were told that the study concerned the effect of punishment on learning. ➢ Participants drew slips form a hat to see who would be the “teacher” and who would be the “student.” ➢ The “learner” was strapped into a chair “wired” to an electric shock machine. ➢ The “teacher” sat in front of the machine with switches labeled with voltages. ➢ The “teacher” was given the task to teach and then test the learner on a list of word pairs. ➢ The “teacher” punished the “learner” for wrong answer by delivering brief electric shock. ➢ After each “learner’s” error, the “teacher” move up to the next higher voltage. ➢ After the eighth switch is activated the “learner” shouts that the shocks are painful. ➢ The experimenter prods the “teacher” to go on saying it is essential to continue, and the experiment requires that the “teacher” must continue. ➢ Milgram’s finding were that 63% complied fully – right up to the last switch.

Obedience was highest when: ✓ The person giving the orders was close at hand and was perceived to be a legitimate authority figure. ✓ The authority figure was supported by a prestigious institution. ✓ The victim was depersonalized, or at a distance. ✓ There were no role models for defiance.…...

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...the survey to be handed out. When permission was granted, two classes were given the survey to fill out. Before officially handing out the surveys, an explanation was given that the results would be completely confidential and that if anyone did not want to participate they did not have to. The students were asked to be completely honest in filling the survey out. No student declined to take the survey. The students were asked to give their GPA, how many parents they live with, and the gender of the one parent (if only living with one) they had. To see the survey that was given, refer to Appendix A. After everyone was finished, the surveys were collected and the participants were debriefed. It was explained that a research project for AP Psychology class was being conducted. Results In Figure 1, students’ average GPA and number of parents are shown. GPA is on the y-axis and number of parents on the x-axis. The lines are straight across and GPA is also. The outliers did not affect the graph because there weren’t any that existed. There is no positive or negative correlation. There is a gap between the two variables because there was also a gap in the average grade point average from students. Discussion The data collected did not support the researchers’ hypothesis. Some students with a low GPA had two parents and some students with a high GPA had one parent. There was no correlation between having one parent and a low GPA or having two parents and high GPA. The data......

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Technology Essay Ap English

...that they actually will complete their assignments. LIke Empire High from Source A-- they issued iBooks instead of textbooks to their students thinking that it will get them more ‘engaged’ in learning. WRONG. The iBooks are laptops, and just like any other laptop it has access to the web, and what’s on the web? -- Distractions! What teen can actually use their computer solely for school related purposes when a more entertaining and interesting source is just one click away? The more we become dependent on technology, the less of a reason we have of even coming to school. Why come when everything you need to know can be looked up on Google? Years before technology was even in schools, students learned from textbooks and wrote their essays and notes in a notebook-- what’s the problem with that now? Even though more information is available through the internet, there are plenty of reasons not to solely use technology in classrooms....

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Essay on Media Psychology

...Copyright © 2005 Stuart Fischoff. All rights reserved. 1 Media Psychology: A Personal Essay in Definition and Purview by Stuart Fischoff, Ph.D. Introduction The subject matter of media psychology is a mother lode of material that psychology has actively mined for decades, but only within the last ten to fifteen years has the enterprise emerged as a distinct and explicit subdivision of psychology. Media psychology found its inspirational roots more than 90 years ago within the discipline of social psychology and in the early work of social psychologist Hugo Münsterberg concerning the psychology and the psychological impact of film. Published in 1916 under the title, The Photoplay: A Psychological Study, it was the first empirical study of an audience reacting to a film. Münsterberg also provided such a keen analysis of a screenplay's (then called a photoplay) grammar of visual construction and nascent cinematic conventions and their psychological impact on the audience, that his incisive words still echo today in numerous film school lecture halls and classroom seminars. And there was psychologist L.L. Thurstone, arguably the Father of Attitude Scale Construction and Measurement (a signature area of theory and research in social psychology), who developed scales for the measurement of attitudes toward movies for the famous and notoriously politicized Payne Fund Research in 1928. This study’s practically avowed purpose was to indict (not investigate) the medium of......

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Ap European Essay

...Frq Essay During 1450 through 1650, Europe went through a period of significant economic growth. Influences such as the discovery of new worlds and its riches and exotic produces, inflation of taxation within lower economic levels, and a rise in the previously lower population helped create this growth. Of course, smaller factors such as wars, religion, geography, and power shifts also greatly contributed to it. From 1450 to 1650, Europe experienced an age of discovery, possibly the greatest influence to its economic growth. The period is distinguished as a time when the Europeans began exploring the world by sea in hopes of finding trading partners, new goods, and trade routes. Many countries began to explore for good, spices or maybe even gold, but main reason for exploration was the longing to find a new route for the spice and silk trades since traveling via the Silk Road had been restricted for Europeans by the Ottoman Empire, whom had just acquired Constantinople. The most famous of the voyages of this era are of Christopher Columbus sail to America in 1492. This voyage set off the competition between European nations too not only claim land but also for other goods, such as tobacco and most importantly gold. Europe had limited resources in valuable metals and the economy needed gold and silver. The gain of the exploration of the New World was vastly influential to the economy. Gold and silver flooded into Europe, particularly into Spain and eventually into the......

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Psychology Essay

...Biology is defined as the study of life (from the Greek bios meaning ‘life’ and logos meaning ‘study’). A biological perspective is relevant to the study of Psychology in three ways: 1. Comparative method: different species of animal can be studied and compared. This can help in the search to understand human behaviour. 2. Physiology: how the nervous system and hormones work, how the brain functions, how changes in structure and/or function can affect behaviour. For example, we could ask how prescribed drugs to treat depression affect behaviour through their interaction with the nervous system. 3. Investigation of inheritance: what an animal inherits from its parents, mechanisms of inheritance (genetics). For example, we might want to know whether high intelligence is inherited from one generation to the next. Each of these biological aspects, the comparative, the physiological and the genetic, can help explain human behaviour. The biological approach believes that most behaviour is inherited and has an adaptive (or evolutionary) function. For example, in the weeks immediately after the birth of a child, levels of testosterone in fathers drop by more than 30 per cent. This has an evolutionary function. Testosterone-deprived men are less likely to wander off in search of new mates to inseminate. They are also less aggressive, which is useful when there is a baby around. Biological psychologists explain behaviours in neurological terms, i.e. the physiology and......

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Ap-Psychology-Course-Description

...psychology Course Description Effective Fall 2013 AP Course Descriptions are updated regularly. Please visit AP Central ® (apcentral.collegeboard.org) to determine whether a more recent Course Description PDF is available. The College Board The College Board is a mission-driven not-for-profit organization that connects students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board was created to expand access to higher education. Today, the membership association is made up of more than 5,900 of the world’s leading educational institutions and is dedicated to promoting excellence and equity in education. Each year, the College Board helps more than seven million students prepare for a successful transition to college through programs and services in college readiness and college success — including the SAT® and the Advanced Placement Program®. The organization also serves the education community through research and advocacy on behalf of students, educators, and schools. For further information, visit www.collegeboard.org. AP Equity and Access Policy The College Board strongly encourages educators to make equitable access a guiding principle for their AP programs by giving all willing and academically prepared students the opportunity to participate in AP. We encourage the elimination of barriers that restrict access to AP for students from ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups that have been traditionally underserved. Schools......

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...AP Essay #1 Henry Z 04/21/10 Smith Pd. 2 Behavioral, psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, biological, and cognitive perspective each has its own cause of anxiety and treatment for reducing these anxieties. Behavioral anxiety can be caused from trauma. Trauma is when an extremely distressing experience that causes emotional shock and may have long-lasting psychological effects. For example, someone getting raped. Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic anxiety can be caused by the three interacting systems that Freud theorized: id, ego, and superego. The id is a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. For example, a infant crying out for satisfaction. The ego is the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that among the demands of the if, superego and reality. For example, being constrained by the law because one knows it is bad to break it. The superego is the part of the personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment and for future aspirations. For example, someone with a strong superego may be virtuous. Biological anxieties can be caused by a lack of serotonin which leads to depression. Depression is a state of unhappiness and hopelessness. Cognitive anxiety is caused from depression. Specific treatment techniques used for reducing anxiety used by professionals for each of the four perspectives: reward/punishment, free association, drugs/medication...

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Wuthering Heights Ap Essay

...1996. The British novelist Fay Weldon offers this observation about happy endings. “The writers, I do believe, who get the best and most lasting response from their readers are the writers who offer a happy ending through moral development. By a happy ending, I do not mean mere fortunate events – a marriage or a last minute rescue from death – but some kind of spiritual reassessment or moral reconciliation, even with the self, even at death.” Choose a novel or play that has the kind of ending Weldon describes. In a well-written essay, identify the “spiritual reassessment or moral reconciliation” evident in the ending and explain its significance in the work as a whole. Wuthering Heights depicts the story of a vengeful man who exists solely to make those closest to him suffer. Heathcliff, a dark and evil character, is stripped of his other half, his true love, Catherine, at the young age of 12, and dedicates the rest of his life to seeking revenge on those who hurt him. At Catherine’s death, Heathcliff goes mad and wishes that her spirit will haunt him on earth. Heathcliff’s insanity and cruel nature stem from his preclusion of marrying Catherine, and her eventual death. In Charlotte Bronte’s Wuthering Heights, Heathcliff’s spiritual reassessment comes at the end of his life, when he finally realizes his love for Catherine is more powerful than his need for vengeance. Heathcliff’s love for Catherine was so passionate that it drove him to absurdity at the event of her......

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400 Journal (Ap Psychology)

...| zone of proximal development (ZPD) | Vygotsky's concept of the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher | Vygotsky's concept of the difference between | temperament | the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth, such as easy, difficult, and slow to warm up | the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth | attachment | the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver | infant and the primary caregiver | gender | the psychological aspects of being male or female | aspects of being male or female | developmental psychology | the branch of psychology that studies physical, economic, and social change of humans throughout the life cycle | the branch of psychology that studies physical | nature vs nurture | a debate over the explanation of individual differences in behaviors, thoughts, and traits | a debate over the explanation of individual differences in behaviors | nucleotides | molecules, that when joined together, make up the chemical building blocks of DNA | make up the chemical building blocks of DNA | monogenic | an inheritable trait, such as eye or hair color that is controlled by a single pair of genes | an inheritable trait, such as eye or hair | polygenic | more complex inheritable traits, such as intelligence or depression that are controlled by several genes at once | more complex......

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...215 Careers in Psychology I want to be a psychologist. I would love to learn all about the way people act, think and feel and at the same time try to help them. I have a very easygoing personality and I love to have fun and laugh. I ask a lot of questions, and I think I am very easy to get along with. Some career goals I have is to finish college, I would like to find a job I want to keep that I could make a career out of, and just take it one day at a time because I have desire to make the right decisions and live a pleasant life. I first became interested in psychology a couple years ago. I feel like I need to try and help make a difference, and that's what I would like to spend the rest of my life doing. The field of psychology is divided into subfields each of which deal with a different area, and since working with and helping people is a good feeling for me, community and social services is an excellent job group. When going into the field of psychology, one is able to explore many different careers. I’m also interested in forensics. The field of forensic psychology has grown in the 21st century because courtrooms recognize the value of psychologist’s testimonies to help juries reach a clearer verdict. Like all fields in psychology, forensics has many perspectives, they can focus on law enforcement psychology, the psychology of litigation, correctional psychology, and forensic psychology (Nietzel, Bernstein, & Milich, 1998). The field of psychology is......

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