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State Environment Related Issues

ENVIS Newsletter


January 2007

Vol.2 No. 6

Utility bonanza from dust


ly ash is one of the numerous substances that cause air, water and soil pollution, disrupt ecological cycles and set off environmental hazards.

environmental dangers. Both in disposal, as well as in utilization, utmost care has to be taken, to safeguard the interest of human life, wild life, and environment. FLY ASH

The combustion of powdered coal in thermal power plants produces fly ash.
The high temperature of burning coal turns the clay minerals present in the coal powder into fused fine particles mainly comprising aluminium silicate. Fly ash produced thus possesses both ceramic and pozzolanic properties. When pulverised coal is burnt to generate heat, the residue contains 80 per cent fly ash and 20 per cent bottom ash. The ash is carried away by flue gas collected at economiser, air pre-heater and ESP hoppers. Clinker type ash collected in the water-impounded hopper below the boilers is called bottom ash.
The World Bank has cautioned India that by 2015, disposal of coal ash would require 1000 square kilometres or one square metre of land per person. Since coal currently accounts for 70 per cent of power production in the country, the Bank has highlighted the need for new and innovative methods for reducing impacts on the environment.
The process of coal combustion results in fly ash. The problem with fly ash lies in the fact that not only does its disposal require large quantities of land, water, and energy, its fine particles, if not managed well, by virtue of their weightlessness, can become airborne. Currently, 90 million tonnes of fly ash is being generated annually in
India, with 65 000 acres of land being occupied by ash ponds. Such a huge quantity does pose challenging problems, in the form of land usage, health hazards, and

Is fly ash hazardous?
The physical, geotechnical and chemical parameters to characterize fly ash are the same as those for natural soils, e.g., specific gravity, grain size,
Atterberg limits, compaction characteristics, permeability coefficient, shear strength parameters and consolidation parameters. The properties of ash are a function of several variables such as coal source, degree of pulverization, design of boiler unit, loading and firing conditions, handling and storage methods. A change in any of the above factors can result in detectable changes in the properties of the ash produced. The procedures for determination of these parameters are also similar to those for soils.

Engineering properties of Fly Ash
Specific gravity
Non Plastic
Proctor compaction - Maximum
dry density (gm/cc)
Optimum moisture content (%)
300-40 0
Angle of internal friction ( O)
Cohesion (kg/cm )
Compression index
105-10 3
Permeability (CM/SEC)
Particle size distribution
Clay size fraction (%)
Silt size fraction (%)
Sand size fraction (%)
Gravel size fraction (%)
Coefficient of uniformity

Nearly 73% of India's total installed power generation capacity is thermal, 90% of it coal-based

Shri Nilaya Mitash, I.A.S.,
Managing Director
Rajiv Gandhi Rural Housing
Corporation Ltd.,
Cauvery Bhavan

15 March 2007

Fly ash produced during the burning of powdered coal in thermal power plants is a hazardous waste.
However, its physical and chemical properties make it an ideal raw material for producing high quality and cost-effective bricks, interlocking pavers, kerbstones and mosaic tiles.
Rajiv Gandhi Rural Housing Corporation Ltd. has done pioneering work in using fly ash products in the projects implemented by it. Fly ash-based building components like blocks, bricks, door and window frames are extensively used in the construction of houses in Raichur, Bellary, Uttara Kannada and Shimoga
Districts. Raichur Nirmiti Kendra received an award from HUDCO for use of industrial waste as building material. The effort of ENVIS Centre, Karnataka, to popularize the use of fly ash products is laudable.

(Nilaya Mitash)

How fly ash is hazardous
Fly ash is a very fine powder and tends to travel far in the air. When not properly disposed, it is known to pollute air and water, and causes respiratory problems when inhaled.
When it settles on leaves and crops in fields around the power plant, it lowers the yield.

The conventional method used to dispose of both fly ash and bottom ash is to convert them into slurry for impounding in ash ponds around the thermal plants. This method entails long-term problems.
The severe problems that arise from such dumping are:

How dumping of fly ash leads to pollution of air, land and water
Wind transport Atmospheric fall-out Atmospheric fall-out Ash mound/ pond Wind transport Surface run-off

Surface water



Ground water aquifer


Surface soil

Surface run-off

Dispersion and Diffusion

Deep soil

India would require 1000 sq Km / 1 Sq m per person for disposal of coal ash by 2015.

when the lagoons are full, four basic options are available:
† constructing new lagoons using conventional construction material,
† hauling of fly ash from the existing lagoons to another disposal site,
† raising the existing dyke using conventional constructional material, and
† raising the dyke using fly ash excavated from the lagoon
(’ash dyke’).

Raichur Thermal Power Station, Raichur

The construction of ash ponds requires vast tracts of land. This depletes land available for agriculture over a period of time.
When one ash pond fills up, another has to be built, at great cost and further loss of agricultural land
Huge quantities of water are required to convert ash into slurry.

During rains, numerous salts and metallic content in the slurry can leach down to the groundwater and contaminate it.
Disposal problem
The Raichur Thermal Power Station (RTPS), one of
Karnataka's major power plants, is situated at
Shakthinagar near Devasugur village in Raichur District.
Owned by Karnataka Power Corporation Limited
(KPCL), RTPS consists of seven units, each capable of generating 210 MW of power. Its total power generation at optimum capacity is 1470 MW per day. RTPS is the power-generating hub of Karnataka and meets 75 per cent of the state's power demand.
India has about 70 thermal power plants and 70 per cent of them burn coal to generate power. Various Indian collieries supply the coal, which is known to have a very high ash content of almost 40 to 45 per cent.
India's thermal power plants produce an estimated 100 million tonnes of fly ash per annum. Of this, RTPS alone generates about 1.5 million tonnes at 4,000 tonnes daily.
Out of this, 80 per cent is fly ash and 20 per cent bottom ash. This ash needs to be disposed of every day.
Primarily, the fly ash is disposed of using either dry or wet disposal scheme. In dry disposal, the fly ash is transported by truck, chute or conveyor at the site and disposed of by constructing a dry embankment (dyke). In wet disposal, the fly ash is transported as slurry through pipe and disposed of in impoundment called "ash pond". Most of the power plants in India use wet disposal system, and

The option of raising the existing dyke is very cost effective because any fly ash used for constructing dyke would, in addition to saving the earth filling cost, enhance disposal capacity of the lagoon.
An important aspect of design of ash dykes is the internal drainage system. The seepage discharge from internal surfaces must be controlled with filters that permit water to escape freely and also to hold particles in place and the piezometric surface on the downstream of the dyke. The internal drainage system consists of construction of rock toe, 0.5m thick sand blanket and sand chimney. After completion of the final section including earth cover the turfing is developed from sod on the downstream slope.
Fly Ash Mission:
The Government of India, through the Department of
Science and Technology, has initiated the Fly Ash
Mission, under TIFAC. The mission propagates various developments in the area of fly ash utilization carried out by the R & D institutes in India. Besides, the political will to encourage the use of fly ash has risen perceptibly.
The Fly Ash Mission was commissioned in 1994 with the
Department of Science & Technology (DST) as the nodal agency and Technology Information and Assessment
Council (TIFAC) as the implementing agency, in view of the overall concern for the environment and the need for the safe disposal and effective utilization of fly ash.
Technology Project in Mission Mode (TPMM)
The Ministry of Environment & Forest (MoEF), Ministry of Power, thermal power stations, R&D institutions and industry together have launched a Technology Project in
Mission Mode (TPMM). Their focus is on the demonstration of coal ash related technologies for infusing confidence and thus ensuring large-scale adoption. The industry, R&D institutions and academia have obtained encouraging results from several projects they have taken up. Some of these projects have been completed, multiplier effects have started and other projects are heading towards meaningful completion. A

Approximate 100 million tonnes of fly ash is generated in India’s thermal power plant per annum


construction material like blended cement, fly ash bricks, mosaic tiles and hollow blocks. It also has other, high volume applications and can be used for paving roads, building embankments, and mine fills.
Fly ash products have several advantages over conventional products. The use of cement in the manufacture of construction products can be reduced by substitution with fly ash. While the use of cement cannot be completely avoided, for certain products like tiles, the substitution can go up to 50 per cent.
These products are known to be stronger and more cost-effective because of substantial savings on raw material. Filling fly ash into trucks judicious mix of thrust areas has been taken up for concerted efforts. These include fly ash characterization; hydraulic structures; handling and transportation; agriculture related studies and application; ash ponds and dams, reclamation of ash ponds for human settlement, roads and embankments, underground mine fills and related research projects.
Utilization is a viable alternative to dumping
Several factors have impeded fly ash utilization in India, while it is being extensively used globally. Coal-based thermal power stations have been operational for more than 50 years but the concept of developing environmentfriendly solutions for fly ash utilization is only about 15 years old. Overall fly ash utilization in India stands at a fairly low level of about 15 per cent of the quantity generated. Various possibilities for its use are under research. Among numerous factors that account for the low level of utilization, the chief factors are:
E Poor understanding of the chemistry of fly ash and its derivatives for proper end applications
E Absence of standards and specifications for fly ash products E Lack of reliable quality assurance for fly ash products
E Poor public awareness about the products and their performance E Non-availability of dry fly ash collection facilities
E Easy availability of land with top soil at cheap rates for manufacturing conventional bricks
E Lack of proper coordination between thermal plants and ash users.
Fly ash utilization in the country is gaining momentum owing to the stringent regulations that the MoEF has stipulated, as also to increased awareness about the benefits of using fly ash for various products.
Fly ash from coal-fired thermal power stations is an excellent potential raw material for the manufacture of

Fly ash products are also environment-friendly. A case in point is fly ash bricks. The manufacture of conventional clay bricks involves the consumption of large amounts of clay. This depletes topsoil and degradation of agricultural land. Fly ash bricks do not require clay and serve two purposes; preservation of topsoil and constructive utilization of fly ash.
Agricultural uses of fly ash
Research on agricultural uses of fly ash has been going on in universities and research institutes (see box) across the country for several years.
The same fly ash that causes harm when it settles on leaves, can prove beneficial when applied scientifically to agricultural fields. It can be a soil modifier and enhance its moisture retaining capacity and fertility. It improves the plant's water and nutrient uptake, helps in the development of roots and soilbinding, stores carbohydrates and oils for use when needed, protects the plants from soilborne diseases, and detoxifies contaminated soils.
Yields are also known to increase, as experiments on groundnut, sunflower, linseed and other oilseeds have shown.
Fly ash as fill material
Large scale use of ash as a fill material can be applied where ö Fly ash replaces another material and is therefore in direct competition with that material. ö Fly ash itself is used by the power generating company producing the fly ash to improve the economics of the overall disposal of surplus fly ash.

Full utilisation of generated fly ash in India, will provide employment potential for 3000 people.

Conversion of fly ash into wealth generator
(Excerpt from President A P J Abdul Kalam's address to the nation on the eve of the country's
56th Republic Day):
“As you are aware, the use of coal for power generation results in an increased quantum of fly ash production, which has reached about 100 million tonnes per year. All out efforts are needed to utilize this fly ash not only from environmental considerations, but also to avoid land usage for fly ash dumping. Though there has been a steady progress in fly ash utilization from 1990, we have a long way to go to reach the target of 100 per cent fly ash utilization. It is reported that the agricultural increase of grains is around 15 per cent, green vegetables 35 per cent and root vegetables 50 per cent, when fly ash is mixed with soil. Toxicity tests have proved that there is no toxic element due to fly ash. But it has higher nutrients due to increased availability of iron and calcium. Fly ash can become a wealth generator by making use of it for producing ‘green building’ materials, roads, agriculture etc. Full utilization of the generating stock will provide employment potential for three hundred thousand people and result in a business volume of over Rs.4,000 crore.” ö Fly ash disposal is combined with the rehabilitation and reclamation of land areas desecrated by other operations. Fills can be constructed as structural fills where the fly ash is placed in thin lifts and compacted. Structural fly ash fills are relatively incompressible and are suitable for the support of buildings and other structures. Non-structural fly ash fill can be used for the development of parks, parking lots, playgrounds and other similar lightly loaded facilities. One of the most significant characteristics of fly ash in its use as a fill material is its strength. Wellcompacted fly ash has strength comparable to or greater than soils normally used in earth fill operations. In addition, fly ash possesses self-hardening properties which can result in the development of shear strengths.
The addition of illite or cement can induce hardening in bituminous fly ash which may not self-harden alone.
Significant increases in shear strength can be realized in relatively short periods of time and it can be very useful in the design of embankments.


Higher ultimate strength
Increased durability
Improved workability
Reduced bleeding
Increased resistance to sulfate attack
Ä Increased resistance to alkali-silica reactivity
Ä Reduced shrinkage.
Fly ash utilization, especially in concrete, has significant benefits including: (1) increasing the life of concrete roads and structures by improving concrete durability,
(2) net reduction in energy use and greenhouse gas and other adverse air emissions when fly ash is used to replace or displace manufactured cement,
(3) reduction in amount of coal combustion products that must

Fly ash road embarkment

Typical cross section of fly ash road embarkment Typical cross section of flexible pavement
- using fly ash

Fly ash in portland cement concrete
Fly ash can be used in portland cement concrete to enhance the performance of the concrete. Portland cement is manufactured with calcium oxide (CaO), some of which is released in a free state during hydration. As much as 20 pounds of free lime is released during hydration of 100 pounds of cement. This liberated lime forms the necessary ingredient for reaction with fly ash silicates to form strong and durable cementing compounds, thus improves many of the properties of the concrete. Some of the resulting benefits are:

Typical cross section of regid pavement
- using fly ash

Full utilisation of fly ash in India, will result in a business volume of over Rs. 4,000 crore.


be disposed in landfills, and (4) conservation of other natural resources and materials. Typically, 15 to 30 per cent of the portland cement is replaced with fly ash.
Fly ash for roads
Fly ash can be used for construction of road and embankment. This utilization has many advantages over conventional methods.
² Saves top soil which otherwise is conventionally used ² Avoids creation of low lying areas (by excavation of soil to be used for construction of embankments)
² Avoids recurring expenditure on excavation of soil from one place for construction and filling up of low lying areas thus created.
² Does not deprive the nation of the agricultural

produce that would be grown on the top soil which otherwise would have been used for embankment construction. ² Reduces the demand of land for disposal/deposition of fly ash that otherwise would not have been used for construction of embankment.
² Controls the source of pollution.
Manufacturing process of a typical fly ash product
Mosaic tile manufacture involves preparing the mix for two layers: the wearing layer and the base layer. The wearing layer consists of a plastic mix of mosaic chips, cement, and fly ash and dolomite powder. The base layer consists of a semi-dry mix of fly ash, cement and quarry dust. The tiles are pressed in the tile-making machine and air-dried for 12 hours or more. They then undergo curing



ne small step in addressing this issue. Special thanks to the Indo-Norwegian Environment Programme
(INEP) for setting up the Centre for Ash Utilization Technologies and Environment Conservation
(CASHUTEC) at the Raichur Thermal Power Station and thereby combating the fly ash hazard.

The establishment of CASHUTEC at the Raichur power station is one of the several projects that INEP has initiated in Karnataka. Through its projects, it aims to address air, water and soil pollution and promote sustainable solutions. All INEP projects are pilot in nature and contribute to sustainable management of natural resources. .

The project at RTPS had the following objectives :

† Establishing a self-sustaining fly ash utilization demonstration centre
† Functioning as a nodal centre for development, demonstration, training and transfer of technologies for fly ash utilization in India
† Bringing increased awareness among entrepreneurs and various end users about the benefits of using fly ash products
† Reducing potential threats of air and water pollution
† Ensuring the ecological and environmental stability of areas surrounding RTPS
† Reducing pressure on land requirements for fly ash dumping.

Financial Outlay of the Project
Phase one
Total cost
Rs.580.00 lakhs
INEP assistance Rs.225.00 lakhs
Rs.355.00 lakhs contribution Duration
Two years
Phase two
Total cost
Rs.26.00 lakhs
INEP assistance Rs.19.00 lakhs
Rs.7.00 lakhs contribution Duration
18 months

Objectives of CASHUTEC
CASHUTEC itself was established with the broad objectives of:
† Conducting R & D programmes on uses of fly ash
† Demonstrating manufacture of fly ash building products
† Demonstrating high volume uses of fly ash in cement, concrete, agriculture and building of roads
† Generating increased awareness on the benefits of using coal ash products among entrepreneurs and various end-users from four of Karnataka's northern districts, Raichur, Bellary, Gulbarga and Dharwad
† Enabling semi-commercial production of bricks, blocks, pavers and mosaic tiles for self-sustenance of the centre
† Developing a strong brand for products manufactured at the centre. 6 Orissa Government has banned the use of soil for brick manufacturing upto 70 km of a thermal power station

Te chno e conomic analys is and comparative s tudy of fly as h products manufacture d at CASHUTEC
Fly as h Product

Characte ris tics


Conve ntial

Brick (9 x 4.25 x 3) inches

Compressive strength
Water absorption

65 - 100 kg/cm2
10 - 12%

50 kg/cm2
15 - 20%

Block (16 x 8 x 8) inches

Compressive strength
Water absorption

50 kg/cm2
10 - 12%

35 kg/cm2
13 - 15%

Interlocking paver

Compressive strength
Water absorption

170 - 280 kg/cm2
10 - 12%

150 - 200 kg/cm2


Compressive strength
Water absorption

215 kg/cm2
8 - 10%

150 kg/cm2

Mosaic tile

Transverse Strength
Water absorption
Abrasion resistance

15 kg/cm2
3 - 4%
1.75 mm

30 kg/cm2
3.5 mm

Fly ash products manufactured at CASHUTEC, Raichur in water tanks for 15 days. The tiles are then polished and stacked for supply.

Fly ash blocks

Mosaic tiles

Fal-G blocks

Interlocking pavers

Evaluation results of fly ash mosaic tiles
Fly ash mosaic Properties
IS 1237/CPWD specs tiles Wet transverse
Not less than 3.0 N/sq. mm strength (N/sq. mm) when full size tiles are tested
Water obsorption(%) 3.3
Not to exceed 10% when full size tiles are tested
Abrasion resistance 1.75
Not to exceed 3.5 mm for
general purpose. Not to exceed
2.0 mm for heavy duty tiles.

While the procedure may be similar to the conventional method, the substitution of cement with fly ash by up to 30 per cent serves as value addition. Fly ash is used in both layers of a mosaic tile. Several benefits accrue from this. Fly ash turns from a problem ridden byproduct into a component of a utility product comparable to conventional products in strength and aesthetics. Fly ash tiles, for example, can be used for heavy-duty floors too.
The table below suggests that the properties of fly ash mosaic tiles are far superior to those of conventional tiles.
FAL-G (fly ash-lime-gypsum)
Fal-G bricks and blocks are manufactured without using thermal energy, in contrast to the sintering involved in the production of clay bricks.
How do these bricks get strength, if they are not baked? Fal-G bricks are made of a mixture of fly ash-limegypsum or fly ash-cement-gypsum. In either combination, Fal-G is a hydraulic cement, which means it sets and hardens in the presence of moisture, on the lines of ordinary portland cement, gaining strength progressively over ageing. Nearly
200 tonnes of coal is used to sinter one million clay bricks, a process that generates over 350 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2). The production process of

World Bank has offered to buy 800,000 tonnes of CO2 reductions from utilisation of Fly ash.


Fal-G bricks eliminates harmful emissions of this scale. This would also be the amount of carbon credit earned

Frequently Asked Questions
What is fly ash?
Fly ash is a fused residue of clay minerals present in coal. The high temperature generated when coal burns in thermal power plants, transforms the clay minerals in coal powder into a variety of fused fine particles of mainly aluminium silicate composition. Seetha Subbaraju memorial hall in Raichur
Is fly ash harmful?
Fly ash is a very fine powder and tends to travel in constructed using fly ash products the air. When not properly disposed of, it pollutes air and water, and causes respiratory problems when inhaled. When it settles on leaves and crops in
Is it possible to set up industries to manufacture agriculture fields around the power plant, it lowers the p ro d u c t s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e p ro d u c e d b y yield. CASHUTEC?
Yes, CASHUTEC provides complete technical and
Where and how can fly ash be sourced? commercial consultancy for prospective entrepreneurs
Fly ash can be sourced free of cost from RTPS, Raichur who wish to set up industries for the manufacture of fly in Karnataka . ash products.
Which is the nodal agency for all fly ash related queries? CASHUTEC at Shaktinagar, Raichur is the nodal agency for all queries related to fly ash utilization. This includes technical know-how, queries about technology, machinery, manufacture and usage.

Is it possible to procure products manufactured at
Yes, it is possible to order and procure products from
CASHUTEC, or through the GRASIM Industries dealer network.

What makes fly ash useful?
Fly ash is most commonly used as a pozzolan in PCC applications. Pozzolans are siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material, which in a finely divided form and in the presence of water, react with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperatures to produce cementitious compounds. Source:

What are Carbon credits?
Carbon credits are certificates awarded to countries that are successful in reducing the emissions that cause global warming. For trading purposes, one credit is considered equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide emission reduced. Such a credit can be sold in the international market at a prevailing market rate. The trading can take place in open market. Developed countries that have exceeded the levels can either cut down emissions, or borrow or buy carbon credits from developing countries. However there are two exchanges for Carbon credit viz Chicago Climate Exchange and the European Climate Exchange.

[1]Using fly ash Extracting value from waste
Published by INEP.
[2] Extract from paper 'Technology: Fly ash Disposal and Utilization: The Indian Scenario' by Rajiv
Sinha, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT
[3] Excerpt from Kiln Economics, Down to Earth July
15, 2005
Chakravarthi Mohan K.A.S., Co-ordinator, ENVIS
Vijay Bhat, Programme Manager, Indo Norwegian
Environment Programme,
K.N. Koushik, IT Assistant.

ENVIS Centre - Karnataka
Department of Forests, Ecology & Environment, Government of Karnataka
O/o Indo Norwegian Environment Programme, 2nd floor, Parisara Bhavan ,
No 49, Church Street, Bangalore - 560 001. Karnataka
Ph: 080-2559 1515 email: URL:…...

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...Why do we need architecture? Architecture is needed in all sorts of creative projects. Of course we know architecture used in the context of building houses or other buildings. A clear structure for the building must be laid out by the architect so that different professional disciplines are on the same line on what should be built. For example there are bricklayers, electricians, plumbers and roof makers who all have to know what the building should be like. In this case its mostly done with a structured map of the building. For a skyscraper a different pattern is used then when building a house. Architectural patterns in software development are much like these structured maps. What is an architectural pattern? A "pattern" has been defined as “an idea that has been useful in one practical context and will probably be useful in others. An Architectural Pattern expresses a fundamental structural organization or schema for software systems. It provides a set of predefined subsystems, specifies their responsibilities, and includes rules and guidelines for organizing the relationships between them. A distributed system is a software system in which components located on networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages Adaptive architecture is a system which changes its structure, behaviour or resources according to demand. The adaptation made is usually [always?] to non-functional characteristics rather than functional......

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...Architecture Roman Batterberry Arts/100 January 22, 2013 Lisa Turner Architecture The Daniels & Fisher Tower in Denver, Colorado is 5 Elements of Architecture The Daniels & Fisher Tower uses five of the ten elements of architecture to create quite a notable building. These five elements are expressed in the buildings materials, the architect’s use of lines and repetition, how the building balances astatically, and the tower’s scale. Material This tower is constructed on top of a 24 foot thick concrete base. The tower is erected by a steel skeleton and is faced with “blond brick and creamy terra-cotta”. This healthy base and firm skeleton contribute to the firmness of this building. The four faces of the tower have Seth Thomas clocks, all with arms measuring six feet long. There is, finally, a 2.5 ton bell in the top two stories of the tower. Line As with any tower, the majority of the lines draw the audience’s eyes up from the bottom to the top. The majority of the tower’s lines are vertical, with a subtle horizontal contrast from the lines of windows on the faces. Just below the clock, the architect constructed a prominate horizontal line. This horizontal line appears due to an observation deck like platform. This floor only stops the vertical sides of the building for only 2 or 3 stories before another horizontal line. These two parallel horizontal lines create a box-like shape that dramatically stopping the eye’s move upward to draw attention...

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Architects Architecture or Users Architecture

...ARCHITECTS ARCHITECTURE OR USERS ARCHITECTURE The construction industry is based around projects. Each project is every time different and unique on its own design, management and construction. Nevertheless a project is not only made out of concrete, wood or any of the materials used on it, a project is a lot more and a lot deeper than that. It is not a quick sketch on a napkin. A project is influenced by its atmosphere which is the location, the client or the user, and even the contractor hired for the project. Architecture is influenced by anything happening around it, which is why it changes every time its atmosphere changes. Böhme states that  to experience space in its complete entirety. By inhabiting space individuals can sense the character that surrounds them. Inhabitants sense its atmosphere. Photography, written articles and the interpretation of other viewers of a space cannot compare to individual experience and interaction in interior spaces. Recently this way of interaction has become an important discussion between architects and designers. The process of a project is not anymore unique, and it becomes something functional. It is thought that a template can be followed even when the client or the factors involving the project change every time. For example many architects choose the same sub-contractors for each project as they believe they are trustful and successful, even when the clients have their specific needs and......

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...of a manifesto by architects Kiyonori Kikutake, Kisho Kurokawa, Fumihiko Maki and Sachio Otaka, and architectural critic Noboru Kawazoe. Japanese cities have repeatedly experienced huge amounts of destruction as a result of earthquakes and air raids. While by the 1960s the city had rapidly recovered, it was still relatively unsustainable and fragile. Against this backdrop, the Metabolists group established a new concept of the urban environment as a changing and dynamic city. This was a historical value-shift in the realm of urban and architectural theory. In a sense, Metabolist thinking gave Japanese society an understanding of where it was, and a direction as to where it should go. The Metabolists produced a vast amount of visionary architectures and urban designs, with two elements in particular characterising their projects: a permanent infrastructural core that integrated circulation, as well as the capsules that represented the individual parts of the system. These types of large-scale, urban architectural creations can only occur in relation to the concentration of political power and capital. As a result, the real city has not been developed in the manner in which the Metabolists assumed and imagined. The reconstruction of Japanese cities after the 90 Core Metabolism versus Void Metabolism below: The form of contemporary Tokyo is quite different from what was envisioned by the Metabolist movement of the 1960s. Land subdivision in residential areas above: As......

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Vernacular Architecture

...Vernacular Architecture In Africa Changes Over Time Vernacular Architecture in Africa has been vanishing in recent years. In West Africa, as well as the rest of Africa, western materials and construction techniques are rapidly replacing traditional ones. This is true even in the most remote areas Modern methods are seen as “civilized” and a reflection of affluence. Traditional materials and construction techniques have implications of being substandard or “primitive”. As a result, these techniques are not being passed on to future generations. In just a few generations, this part of Africa culture could be only a memory. Documenting these structures and techniques and understanding why these traditional architectural relations work is the goal of this project. A second goal is to demonstrate that traditional materials have the strength, comfort and beauty of modern applications. A change in perception has the potential of supporting a vernacular architecture. Vernacular architecture is the construction and building design of settlements that relate to their contexts and available resources. In his book, Ambe Njoh states ”Vernacular architecture is usually the product of specific climatic cultural, and economic conditions of a particular place.” Many different countries throughout Africa are not fortunate enough to buy building material or they just are not able to get access to any. Many African cultures custom build homes or any other buildings using traditional......

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...Enterprise Architecture Vol. 11, No. 10 10 Key Skills Architects Must Have to Deliver Value by Michael Rosen, Director, Cutter Consortium Enterprise Architecture Practice As the complexity of IT grows, more and more organizations are realizing the need for architecture. But the definition of what architecture is, the titles that architects have, and the role of an architect vary widely from one organization to another. Business, IT, management, and even architects don’t necessarily know what a good architect does to add value in his or her organization. This Executive Report discusses the role of the architect and describes 10 activities that architects should perform to add value to projects. ABOUT CUTTER CONSORTIUM Access to the Experts Cutter Consortium is a unique IT advisory firm, comprising a group of more than 100 internationally recognized experts who have come together to offer content, consulting, and training to our clients. These experts are committed to delivering top-level, critical, and objective advice. They have done, and are doing, groundbreaking work in organizations worldwide, helping companies deal with issues in the core areas of software development and agile project management, enterprise architecture, business technology trends and strategies, innovation, enterprise risk management, metrics, and sourcing. Cutter offers a different value proposition than other IT research firms: We give you Access to the Experts....

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...2. What, in your opinion, is the difference between a decentralized architecture and a centralized architecture? What is an example of a business decision that would be affected by the choice of the architecture? Centralization implies having one center of control. One may have two DNS servers in each bureau of an organization, yet they all may be controlled by a solitary element. Then again, decentralized frameworks appropriate control to numerous parts. In our DNS case, each of those offices may keep up and control its own particular DNS server, being in charge of keeping up the ability set to keep focused of the innovation as it changes, to modeler the frameworks as it sees fit, and to screen the administration. Organizations can structure IT in a centralized or decentralized way. Centralization is an attempt to enhance proficiency by taking advantages of potential economies like enhancing the average; it might also reduce the occurrences of any mistakes. Decentralization is an attempt to enhance speed and adaptability by redesigning to build neighborhood control and execution of an administration. Decentralization implies splitting against the disappointing bureaucratic methods of old and giving access to everyone. For example, it implies somebody has turned out to be so disappointed with an incorporated administration that "do it yourself" has the capability of being better. In the current environment decentralization is regularly an intentional reaction to the......

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... B.ARCH/F/001 Social responsibilities of an architect Architecture is a subject that is completely dealing with the built environment and the buildings and designs being created with the exceptional cases of interior designs, most of the designs have a vivid interaction with the environment and the society as a whole. Hence this essay signifies the social responsibilities of architects towards the shaping a more suitable environment to live in. Architecture constantly deals with the term ‘spirit of the place’ that means alterations to the natural environment should be of a minimalistic level and it should complement very well the environment. And the buildings that is designed should be economically sustainable as it should contribute least to any form of environmental pollution of any sort. When considering the social impacts of buildings the designs should be user friendly and proper building services such as the correct pipework should be installed so that the people residing in it wholly benefited and discharge process of waste has been safely done. This way the impact on society could be done properly. Architects are the people dealing with the clients’ money and it is necessary for the architect to satisfy client requirement up to a certain extent. In the modern day green sustainable architecture is the way through and society should be made aware of its benefits and advantages, hence events such as public...

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Social Architecture

...Grant Lewis 1043 WRC Dr. Roberts November 23, 2011 Social Architecture The term architecture takes into consideration a number of things. These are space, mass, volume, light, texture, shadow, program and materials. The building that is the end product is a creative manipulation of all these elements. The term also includes the pragmatic elements like construction, technology and cost. And thus, the architect achieves something, which is functional, aesthetic, socially conscious and most of the times artistic too.   Taken to its deeper roots, even an ordinary structure does need someone to design and supervise the construction. So, it would have been difficult to think of any building, be it a home, office, school, church or anything else, without the help of an architect. Thus, the industry of architecture has been in existence since the time man thought of building a private hut (Bennett). And by the 21st century, it has flourished into a full-fledged business. An architect designs and sometimes supervises the construction of buildings. Anything from tunnels that run far beneath the ground, to skyscrapers that tower above it, architects have always had a hand in building these great structures (Front Cover). Architects have designed the greatest buildings in history, from the stoic World Trade Center in New York, to the graceful and natural Falling Waters house in Pennsylvania, building styles differ as much as the architects who build them. The Social......

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