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National Disaster Management Committee
Department of Disaster Management



Training Manual

Table of Contents

Introduction: The Importance of Communication 4
Emergency Communications and Warning Systems 5
Technologies behind Warning Systems 7
Principles of Emergency Communications 9 The Motorola Pro 5150 Handset Radio 12
Methods of communication 13 HF Radio. 19 VHF Radio. 19 UHF – Mobile / Fixed Trunk. 21 Satellite Communications. 21 POTS or Plain Old Telephone System. 21 Cellular Telephone. 22 Internet. 22 Broadcast Services. 22 Cable. 22 Pager. 23 Civil Communications. 23 Military Communications. 23 Amateur Radios. 23 Private/Commercial Communications. 23 Marine and Aeronautical Communications. 23 Citizens Band (CB) 24 THE ICOM 718 High Frequency (HF) general coverage radio 25 The Main Components of a Typical HF Radio Station: 26 Operating Modes 27 SIMPLEX OPERATION 27 DUPLEX OPERATION VIA REPEATER 27
Radio Relay/Rebroadcast 28 Extending Range 28 Linked Repeater System 29 Proper Use of Repeaters. 30 Radio checks, Signal strength and Readability 31 Preliminary Calls 31
Sample Message Form 36
Calling Procedures 37 Collective calls and Radio check 38 Lost Communications Procedure. 39 Communications Electronic Instructions (CIE) 39
Call Signs 40
Caribbean Country Prefixes 41
Phonetic Alphabet 42
Time Conversion Chart 43

Introduction: The Importance of Communication

The entire world is either wired or wrapped within the web of an overwhelming communication environment. Whether it is the plain old telephone system (POTS), cellular service or the World Wide Web there is no adjective that can truly describe the communications revolution. Things that were once reserved to the privileged few that could afford them are now commonplace, such as cellular phones and computers. What would we do without these elements of communication if they were all to disappear? As you can imagine a scenario such as this would qualify as a disaster of great magnitude!

In any disaster the key to mitigating secondary problems is the maintenance of command and control by ensuring the passage of accurate information to and from emergency managers and operational personnel. Without this, “the left hand will not know what the right hand is doing” and effective action cannot be coordinated.

All facets of the communication network must be utilized to its fullest, from civil systems to reserved stand alone emergency systems. Proper preplanning and forward deployment must be done since under an emergency situation this will help to speed up response and reduce panic and indecision. The lines of communication/liaison must be clearly established particularly where external assistance may be called upon. All these must be encompassed in a set of standard operating procedures (SOP’s) clearly delineating the communication plan.

Accuracy in communication is one of the most critical aspects of information dissemination. The fact of this can be readily appreciated particularly in disaster situations. Imagine the chaos and the resulting loss of life that can result from sending an ambulance to the scene of a multiple car pile-up at North Hill when in fact this accident occurred in North Side! Strict measures for ensuring the accuracy of information communicated during disaster situations are included in the standard operating procedures and must be followed to exact specifications.

Regardless of the situation almost all, if not all, aspects of one’s life is dominated by some form of communication. In an emergency environment the importance of communication becomes even more critical as the effort of alleviating a situation in an environment which itself may be out of control, without creating a casualty of oneself or others involved in the emergency effort is a delicate balancing act. Confusion and demoralization can occur in an emergency situation where communications and hence command and control is lost.

Emergency Communications and Warning Systems

Hazard warning dissemination is a process whereby information and advice are passed between hazard forecasting agencies and other organizations and people who may suffer loss or damage as a result of a hazardous event. Warning messages should pass from those who detect that a hazardous event may occur, to those who may be affected by it and therefore need alerting so that they may respond appropriately. There are particular instances in which members of the public may alert a forecasting agency of an event, thereby reversing the normal process of information flow.

In all but the most unexpected sudden-onset events, warnings are usually staged so that the warning level is stepped up as the event evolves, as it comes closer, as conditions worsen and as a severe event becomes more likely. A series of warnings therefore will be issued and warning dissemination becomes an interactive through-flow of information and advice ending with a message that the emergency associated with the hazard has terminated.

All this requires a number of pre-determined and pre-arranged conditions to be able to operate effectively in times of extreme stress and trauma. Previous studies have concluded that twelve (12) such considerations determine the potential effectiveness of emergency warning systems.

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|Maintenance of good interpersonal and interagency relationships between emergency personnel. |
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|Verification that messages are received understood and acted upon. |
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|Developing redundancy in the warning system through the use of backup systems. |
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|Maintenance of lifelines such as standby power. |
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|Message format. |
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|Maintenance of competent staff. |
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|Development of backup staff teams for long onset disasters. |
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|Legal framework which gives authority to the warning system by placing it at the apex of political power. |
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|Legal framework which links the warning system to national disaster plans. |
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|Public awareness of hazards and warnings. |
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|Close gaps between public awareness of hazard warnings and predictive capacity of scientists |
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|Maintenance standards in a warning system. |

These conditions usually involve and depend upon the quality of:

|Human Resources, including technical and organizational expertise and communication skills. |
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|Institutional arrangements including laws, instruments of legitimization and inter-organizational arrangements. |
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|Communications technology, including telecommunications installations and networks. |
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|Informal (i.e. social) as well as formal communications networks. |
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|Mass media and media broadcast technology. |
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|Mobile resources of the military, Police and other agencies. |

Warning systems are used for a variety of hazards which include but are not limited to:

|Hurricanes and associated storm surges |Floods from rivers |
| | |
|Aircraft Accidents |Floods from extreme rainfall |
| | |
|Oil Spills |Fires |
| | |
|Sea wall breaches |Tsunami |
| | |
|Mass migration |Epidemics |
| | |
|Bridge Failure |Volcanoes and Earthquakes |
| | |
| |Pest Infestation |
| | |

Technologies behind Warning Systems

Warning systems usually employ a vast array of technology, a few important examples are given below:

- Rain and River Gauges with electromechanical transducers providing signaling that are automatically transmitted to a central computer where processing is done and the appropriate response is initiated. This type of telemetry is widely used in the United States to provide early warning for flooding from river overflow and rain inundation.

- Satellite tracking of weather systems which is globally transmitted in real time on weather channels and which is then rebroadcast by local television, internet and cable service providers for early consumption and evasive action by threatened populations. This early warning system has undoubtedly saved millions of lives over the past decade or so as death tolls from weather systems were considerably higher before its development.

- The Tsunami Warning System is perhaps the most safety critical of all warning networks, as it must rapidly report any occurrence of under sea activity likely to produce a tsunami at any point throughout the world to allow sufficient time for evasive action. This utilizes state of the art digital communication technology in order to fulfill its mandate. (Seismic Monitoring).

- Satellite imagery is used to detect unusual migration of population in some countries where this is a potential hazard. Satellite imagery also gives indications of performance of crops, which provide warning of impending famine and its associated epidemic implications.

- Electromechanical Transducers which use telemetry to signal creep, are used to sometimes predict or pre-empt Bridge failures and Sea wall breaches. This warning system saves untold lives in certain regions of the world as buses and trucks with large numbers of people cross hundreds of times per day.

- Human reporting of unusual or potentially dangerous situations is however the most widely used and effective early warning system. This is so because it is driven by personal interest and the understanding and prioritization of the potential disasters. It is of vital importance in cultures where technological means can appear foreign. This type of warning system is both formal and informal. Simple ad hoc reporting to the authorities by members of the community is done daily, while Health ministries, social and humanitarian workers, scientific projects, and other government agencies have monitoring and reporting systems which provide the most basic and reliable type of warnings. This class of warning usually utilizes the most basic communication technology.


(based on a conceptualization developed by the Flood Hazard Research Centre)

Principles of Emergency Communications

It is impossible to state exact rules that will cover every emergency situation that arises. The good radio operator faced with a disaster situation may, however, benefit greatly from certain rules of thumb. These rules or principles therefore are a required part of his/her training. They are presented here somewhat at random and should be reviewed by ALL radio operators, including those not active in disaster communications preparation.

1. Keep the noise level down. In a disaster, many of the most crucial stations will be weak in signal strength. It is most essential that all other stations remain silent unless they are called upon. If you’re not sure you should transmit, don’t. Most frequency bands are very congested. If you want to help, first study the situation by listening. Do not transmit unless you are sure you can help by doing so. Don’t ever break into a disaster net just to inform the control station you are there if needed.

2. Monitor established disaster frequencies. Many localities and some geographical areas have established disaster frequencies where someone is always (or almost always) monitoring for possible calls. When you are not otherwise engaged, it is helpful simply to sit and listen on such frequencies. On CW, SOS is universally recognized, but has some legal aspects that should be considered where the need is not truly critical. On voice, one can use “MAYDAY” (universal, the phone equivalent of SOS) or, to break into a net or conversation, the word “emergency”.

3. Avoid spreading rumors. During and after a disaster situation, especially on the phone bands, you may hear almost anything, unfortunately, much misinformation is transmitted. Rumors are started by expansion, deletion, amplification or modification of words, exaggeration or interpretation. All addressed transmissions should be repeated “word for word”, if at all, and only when specifically authorized. In a disaster emergency situation, with everyone’s nerves on edge, it is little short of criminal to make a statement on the air without foundation in authenticated fact.

4. Authenticate all messages. Every message which purports to be of an official nature should be written and signed. Whenever possible, radio operators should avoid initiating disaster or emergency traffic themselves. Operators do the communicating; the agency officials we serve supply the content of the communications.

5. Strive for efficiency. Whatever happens in an emergency, you will find hysteria and some operators who are activated by the thought that they must be “sleepless heroes”. Instead of operating full time at the expense of your health and efficiency, it is much better to serve a shift on a rotational basis.

6. Select the mode and band to suit the need. For certain specific purposes and distances, it is important to select the most appropriate mode and bands for operations. However, the merits of a particular band or mode in an emergency should be evaluated impartially with a view to their appropriate use. There is, of course, no alternative to using what happens to be available, but there are ways to optimize available communications. Experience has identified the following advantages:

CW Mode

o Less noise than most bands.

o Secrecy of communications – contents of communications are much less likely to be intercepted by the general public to start rumors or undue concern.

o Simpler transmitting equipment.

o Greater accuracy in recording communications.

o Longer range for a given amount of power.

Voice Mode

o More practical for portable and mobile work.

o More widespread availability of operators.

o Faster communication for tactical or “command” purposes.

o More readily appreciated and understood by the public.

o Official-to-official and phone-patch communication.

Digital Modes

o Less noise than most bands.

o Secrecy of communications – contents of communications are much less likely to be intercepted by the general public to start rumors or undue concern.

o More widespread availability of operators. In addition, digital modes offer the potential for message store-and-forward c apability from within the disaster site to the “outside world”.

Finally, packet provides the capability of “digipeating” messages from point A to point Z via numerous automatically-controlled middle points.

A well outfitted disaster organization will have CW, phone, and digital mode capabilities available in order to utilize all of the advantages. Of course one must make the best use of whatever is available, but a great deal of efficiency is lost when there is a lack of coordination between the different types of operation in an emergency. Absolute impartiality and a willingness to let performance speak for itself are prime requisites if we are to realize the best possible results.

7. Use all communication channels intelligently. While the prime object of emergency communications is to save lives and property (anything else is incidental). Normal channels of communications are primary and should be used if available. Emergency channels other than the primary should be utilized without fear of favouritism in the interest of getting the message through.

8. Don’t “broadcast”. Some stations in an emergency situation have a tendency to emulate “broadcast” techniques. While it is true that the general public may be listening, our transmissions are not and should not be made for that purpose. Broadcast stations are well equipped to perform any such service. Our job is to communicate for, not with the general public.

9. Within the disaster area itself, the EOC or Command Post is primarily responsible for the communications support. When disaster strikes, the first priority of the NCCC operators who live in or near the disaster area is to report to their Emergency Coordinator/Manager where and when needed. For timely and effective response, this means that NCCC operators need to talk to their EC’s before the time of need so they will know how best to respond.

The Motorola Pro 5150 Handset Radio


Methods of communication

With the rapid advance of technology comes the measurable increase in both the number and quality of communication methods available to the user today. They differ in range and quality as well as global penetration and as to such, no one method is completely self sufficient in a disaster situation. Better results are always obtained by using a variety of methods that combine the strengths of individual methods while compensating for the shortcomings of others. Several methods of communications are given below with an emphasis of course, on the types of radio communication.

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| | | | |
|UHF (Mobile / Fixed Trunk) |300 MHZ- 3 GHZ |Shorter range than VHF |Commercial Telecommunications |
| | | | |
| | |Repeaters required |Fixed and mobile Military |
| | | | |
| | |Line of sight required |HAM |
| | | | |
| | |Higher quality than VHF |Marine |
| | | | |
| | |Larger bandwidth allows trunking. |Aeronautical |
| | | | |
| | |Fixed sites susceptible to natural | |
| | |disasters | |
| | | | |
| | |Installation needs more planning than VHF | |

| |
| | | | |
|Mobile Satellite |3 GHZ- 30 GHZ |Direct communications to satellite |Military |
| | | | |
| | |Mobile portable (attaché case sized) earth|Commercial VSAT communications |
| | |stations commonplace. | |
| | | |Emergency communications |
| | |Sat-phones now available | |
| | | |HAM |
| | |Affected by obstacles (e.g. buildings, | |
| | |clouds) |Global Positioning Systems (GPS) |
| | | | |
| | |Good for use in natural disasters |Aeronautical |
| | | | |
| | |Expensive to access but special MOU’s set |Marine |
| | |up for free communications in time of | |
| | |disaster | |
| | | | |
| | |Large telephone traffic available through | |
| | |VSAT | |

| |
| | | | |
|POTS | |Most reliable system in normal times |Household |
| | | | |
| | |Cable needed |Private, Public, Civil and Commercial |
| | | | |
| | |Susceptible to natural disasters | |
| | | | |
| | |Becomes saturated during emergencies | |
| | | | |
| | |Underground lines generally more reliable | |
| | |for natural disasters | |
| | | | |
|Cellular | |Wireless Telephony |Household, Private and commercial |
| | | | |
| | |Sturdy towers and antennae used | |
| | | | |
| | |Very good in natural disasters | |
| | |(hurricanes) | |
| | | | |
| | |May become saturated during emergencies | |
| | | | |
|Internet / E-Mail | |Now household resource |Household |
| | | | |
| | |Easy method of passing warning information|Businesses |
| | |– Hurricane Tracking | |
| | | |Commercial |
| | |Large sector of population not online | |
| | | |HAM |
| | | | |
| | | |Military |

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| | | | |
|Broadcast Services |Entire Range |Still best method of simultaneous warning |Household |
| | |to largest possible audience. | |
| | | |Private, Public, Civil and Commercial |
| | |Cable needed | |
| | | | |
| | |Sat-phones now available | |
| | | | |
| | |Susceptible to natural disasters | |
| | | | |
| | |Becomes saturated during emergencies | |
| | | | |
| | |Underground lines generally more reliable | |
| | |for natural disasters | |
| | | | |
|Cable |Non-radiating Broadband cable|Useful in pre-disaster stages for |Household |
| | |education , information and warning | |
| | | |Government agencies |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|Pager |Entire Range |Good method of finding response personnel |Civil |
| | | | |
| | |Radio paging not susceptible to natural |Commercial |
| | |disasters. | |
| | | |Household |
| | |Wireless– Few towers needed, limits | |
| | |exposure |Military |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |

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| | | | |
|Citizens Band |27 MHZ Band |Mainly used by mobile operations and |Taxi |
| | |enthusiasts | |
| | | |Enthusiasts |
| | |Requires License | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|Marine |Entire Range |Mainly used by Marine interests |Ships |
| | | | |
| | | |Boats |
| | | | |
|Aeronautical |Entire Range |Mainly used by Aviation industry |Aircraft |
| | | | |
| | | |Air Traffic Control |
| | | | |
|Civil |Entire Range |Uses all systems above. |Police |
| | | | |
| | | |Government Agencies |
| | | | |
| | | |Emergency Services |
| | | | |
|Military |Entire Range |Uses all systems above. |Defense / Police Forces |
| | | | |
| | |Systems usually very “security” conscious | |
| | | | |
| | |Systems more expensive and reliable as | |
| | |designed for combat conditions. | |
| | | | |
| | |Usually need trained signalers to operate | |
| | |equipment | |

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| | | | |
|Amateur (HAM) |Entire Range |Very useful in disasters |Hobbyists |
| | | | |
| | |Usually able to establish any link at any | |
| | |time | |
| | | | |
| | |Short notice required for accessing this | |
| | |resource | |
| | | | |
|Private Commercial |Entire Range |Useful resource in emergency |Taxis |
| | | | |
| | |Must be preplanned and rehearsed |Truckers |
| | | | |
| | | |Messaging service |
| | | | |
| | | |Small to medium Businesses |
| | | | |
| | | |Farmers |
| | | | |
| | | |Manufacturers |
| | | | |
| | | |Distributors |

HF Radio.

HF radio or radios which operate in the high frequency band are one of the most versatile modes of radio communication available. Communications can be established at various ranges and depending on atmospheric conditions communications can be achieved over great distances with unsophisticated antennas. The typical HF signal is affected by sun spots and solar flares which gives HF its typical intermittent hiss. Frequency selection is key to reducing interference of this type. HF radio uses sky wave transmission and multiple hops in the ionosphere to arrive at the receiver site. These types of equipment can be deployed as stand alone systems, either vehicle mounted, in the man-pack role or in a mobile configuration. It is particularly useful where communication is needed between these command and control elements and where the distances are long and or terrain/topography is particularly difficult. Communications by this method does not require line of sight between transmitting station and receiving station. Note that the HF radio is a transceiver, that is, it both transmits and receives. It cannot however do this simultaneously (Duplex). It employs Press To Talk (PTT) technology. HF radios are usually free tuning, that is the operator may dial in the frequency of choice. As long as the antenna connected is of the correct wavelength a good signal can be guaranteed. Additional features that can be seen in some HF radios are digital signal processing and automatic frequency management. HF radios may also be employed in the rebroadcast mode to extend links and to provide a frequency management facility where the frequency rebroadcast is different from the original. Some may rebroadcast on Very High Frequency (VHF). These radios are universally used by military, civil organizations and individuals on land and sea. One example is HAM operators that use the band to communicate with other operators worldwide. HAM operators have been known to be of great assistance in time of emergency and natural disaster. Citizens band (CB) operators use this means of communications
(26 -27 MHz) along with other parts of the spectrum. Morse code operations are also carried out with HF signaling.

VHF Radio.

VHF radio operates in the very high frequency band of the spectrum
(30 – 300 MHz). Typically this band is split into High band VHF and Low band VHF. The Low band VHF is typically used by aeronautical and marine services, while high band VHF is extensively used by the military, commercial and private operations as well as emergency services. The antennas are typically smaller and more directional than those for HF transmission. The range of such systems is typically limited to radio line of sight and is particularly dependent on the power output of the antenna. Transmissions in this band are much clearer than HF and are not affected by certain atmospheric conditions such as sun spots, but will be significantly affected by physical obstacles. VHF transmission is extended by the use of repeaters or radio rebroadcast stations, which can be either mobile or fixed. Communication without repeaters is usually done in what is called simplex mode, where the same frequency is used to transmit and receive. Ranges are limited in this mode, but can be extended with the use of repeaters where two (2) frequencies are used, one to receive and one to transmit. This is called duplex mode. Most civilian type High band VHF radios are tuned to the particular operating frequencies by programming each radio. The military uses combat net VHF radios which are typically free tuning, that is the operator may dial in the frequency as required rather than requiring a programming instrument. This communications mode operates well within a limited range and typically gives clear and interference free transmissions. VHF radio works well when mobile, whether man-pack or vehicle mounted. Their significantly shorter antennas both in the Lower band VHF and High band VHF makes for ease of carriage. These types of communications would typically be deployed between sub elements of a higher formation.


| |
| |49 – 50 MHz |
|Cordless Phones | |
| |50 – 54 MHz |
|Amateur Radio | |
| |54 – 88 MHz |
|Television Ch 2 - 6 | |
| |88 – 108 MHz |
|FM Broadcasting | |
| |118 – 135 MHz |
|Aircraft Band | |
| |136 – 144 MHz |
|Land Mobile | |
| |144 – 148 MHz |
|Amateur Radio | |
| | |
|Land Mobile |148 – 156 MHz |
| | |
|Marine Band |156 – 162 MHz |
| | |
|Land Mobile |165 – 174 MHz |
| | |
|Television Ch 7- 13 |174 – 216 MHz |
| | |
|Amateur Radio |220 – 225 MHz |
| | |
|Cordless accessories (e.g. TV Remote Control) |220 – 300 MHz |

UHF – Mobile / Fixed Trunk

Ultra High Frequency or UHF Radio operates in the hundreds of megahertz to hundreds of thousands of megahertz (300 MHz – 3 GHz). They are characterized by significantly shorter ranges than VHF but a much greater quality of signal. Such systems must operate with repeaters and must be within line of sight in order to communicate effectively over longer distances. This system facilitates trunking, that is it operates in a similar way to a cellular or line trunk system where multiple calls are handled and switched to allow placing of specific calls from person to person, station to station or between groups. Repeater sites can either be mobile or fixed. Fixed sites are reliable and after setup will operate effectively and efficiently. The fixed site is susceptible to natural disasters. Mobile systems operate in the same way, but require deployment and setup during or after a disaster. Where this type of equipment is available detailed plans for deployment will need to be made.

Satellite Communications

Satellite communications is now so commonplace, that it is taken for granted. This method of communication can now be accessed by a simple handheld transceiver no bigger than a regular cellular phone. It provides a platform that is reliable and one that is not prone to failure from the effects of natural disasters. Satellite communications will be most useful for international links. Telephone calls can be made via this link into the telephone networks of other countries. Arrangements to access this link must be made before hand through the satellite operator. Commercial satellite links provided by companies such as Global Star and Iridium, only require a subscription to the service similar to a cellular subscription to a terrestrial service. The service may however, not be available in some areas. The link may be accessed more securely and reliably by using one of the many satellite uplink systems that are usually packed in a box as small as an attaché case, such as the INMARSAT Type B earth station. A small aperture fold out dish would provide the uplink. A Very Small Aperture Terminal or (VSAT) uplink can also be setup and used. Whereas this antenna is not as portable, it may afford a better connection.

POTS or Plain Old Telephone System

The plain old telephone system is still one of the most reliable means of communication, at least during the planning phase or run up to an emergency that is reasonably predictable such as a hurricane or the impending eruption of a volcano. POTS however, will most likely suffer from overload, as individuals attempt to make more and more calls as the emergency draws closer. Unless specific lines are leased for specific purposes, this method of communication will become useless. In the event of a disaster that affects all major infrastructure the POTS will most likely be inoperable and will serve little useful purpose in a communications plan, however where lines are buried underground and are not affected the system may continue to operate. Emergency planners must therefore take this into account. Old Pulse dialing systems have been replaced by tone dialing switches which afford greater speed and flexibility. This has been accompanied by a parallel shift from analogue signaling to digital systems. The latter allows value added services which may be useful in emergency situations such as telephone messaging, and others.

Cellular Telephone

Cellular service has the advantage of portability and resilience, however it is still also prone to the effects of some natural disasters and system overload by distraught users. Its sturdy cell site towers and antennae construction makes it more resilient in high winds than telephone cable strung between utility poles above ground.


The Internet phenomenon has revolutionized access to information. Individuals can now track hurricanes from satellite imagery with data posted in real time as it is updated. As a communications medium, its e-mail facility has made significant strides into the somewhat archaic but still irreplaceable envelope and stamp. New capabilities such as instant messaging and social networking websites allow individuals to be always connected to up to date information disseminated from sources spanning the globe. Clearly, this link should be maintained as long as possible before having to close down communications. This is of course dependent on the nature of the emergency.

Broadcast Services

There is no substitute for broadcast media that enables a message to simultaneously reach the greatest audience possible. Statistics will no doubt show that in most countries a very high percentage of the population owns radios and somewhat less but equally significant percentage has access to television. If “image is everything” as one popular advertisement claims then the image portrayed on the broadcast media will be powerful and reassuring and can serve to reduce panic. The public relations interaction must be executed to its fullest.


Cable television must get similar treatment to broadcast media. It must be remembered however that whereas broadcast media arrives at everyone’s set for free cable requires subscription and it is a closed system. Messages must therefore be packaged and distributed to operators for airing in a timely manner.


The pager is an effective means of mobilizing persons at short notice. A short pre-planned text message or a simple voice message is all that is required. Paging systems also exhibit similar qualities of resilience to cellular systems due to their wireless configuration and sturdy antennas. Pager systems have all but been replaced by cellular phone technology in the commercial market.

Civil Communications

These can be defined as those systems that support emergency operations such as the Police, Public Works, Fisheries Department, Civil Aviation, Ports Authority and others. These communication platforms would form a part of the overall communications plan in any emergency/disaster.

Military Communications

The backbone of military communications uses HF and VHF radio. Other systems, such as UHF trunking are also used.

Amateur Radios

Amateur radio operators (HAM) operate across the entire frequency spectrum, but primarily in the HF and VHF bands. The assistance that such operators can give in the event of a disaster should not be underestimated. There have been occasions where HAM operators have been the lone voice crying out in the wilderness and have saved many lives. Links should be established with such persons or at the very least, a register established, so that they can be brought into a disaster situation at short notice. Preplanning and establishing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are paramount. It must be noted that these operators very often have tremendous networks all over the world which can be a critical resource in a disaster situation.

Private/Commercial Communications

Private communications in the VHF band, for example taxi or messenger services are of vital importance in a disaster and must form a part of the national emergency communications plan.

Marine and Aeronautical Communications

Marine and Aeronautical Band radios are used exclusively for ships and boating activity and for airport approach and international air traffic respectively. They are generally less useful in emergency communications except where this relates to air or sea emergencies.

Citizens Band (CB)

CB’ers operate in the HF band and provide a willing and valuable resource for emergency communications. They mainly constitute taxi and truck operators as well as young communications enthusiasts, and are configured for vehicle mobile, handheld and base operations.

THE ICOM 718 High Frequency (HF) general coverage radio

Output -100w PEP


Rear View


The Main Components of a Typical HF Radio Station:

Amateur radio stations range from the very simple to the very elaborate and complex. Some transceivers feature digital tuning and station memories. Indeed the average radio today employs a vast plethora of technologies with varying functions such as improving signal quality and ease of use. However, no matter how complex a transceiver may be the basic building blocks must remain the same. Some of the common elements are considered here. This block diagram is typical of the High Frequency equipment used in an amateur station.


Operating Modes


In simplex operation each station can communicate with all stations directly because:

• They are all transmitting and receiving on a single frequency.

• They are all within “Line of Sight” i.e. there are no obstacles in between sites to block the radio waves. Talking from one radio to another radio at zero elevation (ground level), the earth’s curvature makes the useful range approximately three (3) miles. By raising the antennae to 30 feet the range can easily extend to at least ten (10) miles.

On a handheld radio this is called a “Simplex Channel”


The Department of Disaster Management has one (1) repeater located on the LIME (formerly Cable and Wireless, Anguilla) Tower in the valley. This repeater gives good coverage of Anguilla; however there are inevitable “dead spots” e.g. New road Shoal Bay-Island Harbour. However affected radio telephone operators quickly learn where these are and change to a location where they can access the repeater. This type of communication is called “Duplex Operation”. This refers to the use of two (2) separate frequencies on both the handheld and the repeater for transmitting and for receiving.

On a handheld radio this is called a “Duplex Channel”.

Radio communication between the NEOC and the Shelters located at various parts on the island take place via repeater. This is necessitated by the distance between and the lack of radio line of sight between these locations.

A further treatment of duplex operation and repeaters is given next.

Radio Relay/Rebroadcast

In a communications environment one of the main goals would be maximizing the range of the equipment being used beyond that of the normal hand set, vehicle station or base station. This is usually accomplished by the use of rebroadcast stations either static or mobile which as the name implies will receive a signal, rebroadcast or retransmit the signal thus extending the range. This method of extending the range is used particularly where obstacles may block the signal.

Extending Range

Flat Ground. If the range of two sets is, for example, 20 km over flat ground, this range can virtually be doubled by the use of a single repeater.
High Ground. With most sets, especially VHF sets, sitting a station on high ground can increase the range. The use of a repeater on a suitable high feature will often enable the distance between the terminal stations to be greatly increased. For example where a single link may work 20 km, a repeater sited on high ground may increase the possible range to 80 km.

If two stations are unable to communicate due to an obstacle in the radio path, a sensibly sited repeater may allow communication between them.

In addition to linking individual radios, repeater(s) can be used to link networks. Repeaters may be static, that is pre-positioned or mobile, i.e. either vehicle mounted or airmobile. A combination of all three types will usually provide good coverage and range.

Linked Repeater System


In a linked repeater system (as pictured above) it is possible for stations in remote geographical areas to communicate who would have not been able to do so otherwise. The repeaters pictured above allow the stations 300 miles apart (Station A and Station B) to communicate by relaying the signal from point to point. The repeaters above also illustrate the ability of repeaters to “join” different networks. Notice the communication with the stations occur on the 2 metre band but for propagation across great distances the UHF or Microwave bands are utilized. Because of the great span of distance between the two stations they can be considered to be on two separate networks, e.g. another station in close proximity to station A would be unable to receive transmissions from Station B without the use of the repeater.

Linked repeater systems are also useful in allowing stations to communicate across terrain which would make it impossible for line of sight transmission to take place e.g. mountainous areas.

Proper Use of Repeaters

Persons with handheld radios will learn from which locations they can easily access the repeaters. Care must be taken when selecting a site to avoid “DEAD SPOTS” i.e. areas where reception is not possible or too weak to be communicable. It is advisable to face the direction of the repeater while holding the radio straight up in front of you for best results. If you cannot access the repeater then you should move to another location and try again.


Do NOT hit the mike button as soon as someone else releases theirs. Another station may want to use the repeater, and if the exchanges are too quick this can prevent that station from being heard.


Repeaters have built-in mechanisms to protect from certain types of abuse of the system. Repeater Timers are an example of one such mechanism.

The timers on repeaters can be set (during installation) to periods ranging from 30 seconds to 3 minutes, If a transmission goes beyond the timer’s limit the repeater will “time-out” and shut down for a designated period of time.

These timers are in place to :

• Prevent extraneous (unwanted) signals from keeping the repeater on continuously, which could cause damage to the repeater’s transmitter via overheating.

• Prevent “hogging” of the repeater and therefore give everyone a chance to speak. If the length of individual transmissions is limited more users will be able to participate (use the repeater).

Handheld radios also have built in timers. Consult your handheld manual for more details and other useful features.

Radio checks, Signal strength and Readability

A station is understood to have good signal strength and readability unless otherwise notified. Strength of signals and readability will not be exchanged unless one station cannot clearly hear another station. A station that wishes to inform another of his/her signal strength and readability will do so by means of a short and concise report of actual reception such as “Weak, but readable”, “Loud, but distorted”, “Weak with interference” etc. Reports such as “Five by Five”, “Four by Four”, etc. will not be used.


EOC has a message for Zulu Juliet Foxtrot (ZJF)


Zulu Juliet Foxtrot having difficulties hearing the EOC will reply:


This reply indicates to the EOC his/her signal is received by Zulu Juliet Foxtrot and is weak and barely readable. This would indicate to the EOC that he/she should send the message slowly to overcome the poor readability. This is the only reply needed in this case. There should be no further discussion of the EOC’s signal strength. If conditions are good Zulu Juliet Foxtrot would only need to respond with “OVER”.

Preliminary Calls

When communication is difficult or when the calling station wishes to ascertain whether the called station is ready to receive, a preliminary call will be sent before transmitting the message. The called station will respond to the calling station advising of its readiness to receive transmission. The procedure for indicating that the station is ready to receive is the routine case and does not require any special keywords or phrases. However If the station is unable to receive traffic immediately it would transmit a message with the keywords “WAIT OUT”. The following examples clearly illustrate this.

Example 1:

The EOC wishes to transmit a message to Zulu Juliet Foxtrot (ZJF) and desires to know that Zulu Juliet Foxtrot is ready to accept. EOC transmits:


Zulu Juliet Foxtrot ready to accept the message, transmits:


EOC transmits:


As discussed above in the preceding section, since the called station was ready to receive transmission immediately his response was simply “OVER”. This tells the calling station to proceed with sending whatever communiqué was intended.

Example 2:

The EOC wishes to transmit a message to Zulu Juliet Foxtrot (ZJF) and desires to know that Zulu Juliet Foxtrot is ready to accept. EOC transmits:


Zulu Juliet Foxtrot not prepared to accept the traffic immediately transmits:


When ready to accept the transmission, Zulu Juliet Foxtrot would transmit:


In this case the called station was not able to immediately receive the transmission and advised the calling station of the fact by responding with “WAIT OUT”. The calling station will then hold transmission until the called station indicates it is now ready to receive by making the routine transmission ending in OVER.


Now that we have a firm grip on radio communications we will look at the specific procedures and forms used in Disaster Management when communicating via radio. This section therefore, is the Operational Information governing the receipt and logging of messages and the generation of reports based on the communications received.


All emergency radio messages received in the NEOC will be delivered by messenger to the Radio Coordinator (Message Controller) for routing. The radio operator receiving the message will take the following actions upon receipt of an emergency message:

• Enter a message number at the top of the form. The message number will begin with a two letter identifier and then a number. Incoming messages will be numbered consecutively.

• Assign a level of precedence as follows:

Emergency Lives endangered - immediate response required
Priority Lives endangered - fast response required
Welfare Timely operational response required
Routine Routine data and logistics messages

The Radio Coordinator (Message Controller) will then:

Review the nature of the message and assign the problem for action to the appropriate agency representative in the Operations Room. Since many emergency actions or problems do not fall within the area of responsibility of a single agency, the Radio Coordinator (Message Controller) has flexibility in assigning responsibilities and can, to some degree, balance the work load among the agencies.

Ensure that the Journal clerk logs the message in the NEOC Journal Incoming Message Log indicating which agency is assigned the message for action.

The agency assigned responsibility for the message will take the required action, indicating on the bottom half of the message form the action taken and time taken, and return a copy to the Radio Coordinator (Message Controller).

The Radio Coordinator (Message Controller) will see that a summary of the message and actions taken are posted on the Status Action Board by the journal clerk, as appropriate, and follow up until the problem is solved or until no further action is necessary.

After posting, the Radio Coordinator (Message Controller) will ensure that the Journal Clerk files the message for use in compiling the After Action Report and for historical purposes.


Telephone messages may be received by a number of people in the NEOC. The person receiving the message will record the message on the prescribed message form. The message will then be delivered to the Radio Coordinator (Message Controller). The Radio Coordinator (Message Controller) will handle the message in the same manner as a radio message.


The drafter of an outgoing message will write the message in the upper half of the message form, assign a priority at the top of the form and deliver a copy to the Radio Coordinator (Message Controller). The Radio Coordinator (Message Controller) will review the contents, assign a priority, and determine the best means to transmit the message, after which he will pass it to the Journal Clerk for logging on the Outgoing Message Log.

Due to the urgency of the situation, agency representatives may transmit disaster information directly by telephone either to their headquarters or operating units in the field. In such cases, agency representatives will capture the essence of the message when time permits and provide the Radio Coordinator (Message Controller) a copy for posting and filing. The Journal Clerk will maintain the message file.

Operational Information may be defined as information (usually collected in the operational area) which has a direct bearing on the overall operation. To be of value operational information must be reliable and accurate.

Operational Information becomes the basis on which decisions affecting the overall operation are made. It is therefore essential that the organizations involved in counter-disaster operations have an assured capability for the collection, collation and passage of operational information.

As information can only be assessed for value at command level, all organizations involved in counter-disaster operations are to ensure that all operational information is passed to the on-scene commander and to the appropriate Emergency Operations Centre without delay.


Any message prefixed by one of the following pro-words concerns Safety. If you receive a message beginning with one of them pay particular attention and if possible write it down. Always allow at least 3 minutes for a Coast Station to reply before responding.

MAYDAY Means that a ship, aircraft, other vehicle or person(s) is in grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance.

MAYDAY RELAY Means that the calling station is passing on a message from a ship, aircraft, other vehicle or person(s) in grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance.

PAN – PAN Means that the calling station has an urgent message concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft, other vehicle or person(s).

PAN – PAN Means that the calling station is in need of medical assistance
MEDICO or advice.

SECURITE Means that the calling station has a message concerning the safety of navigation or giving important meteorological warnings.

The following pro-words will be transmitter if you disturb the transmissions during a distress situation.

SEELONCE Means that the controlling station, in a distress situation is
MAYDAY telling you to begin and maintain radio silence. On receipt of this message you must cease transmissions.

SEELONCE Means that a ship station (that may be involved in a distress
DISTRESS situation) is telling you to begin and maintain radio silence. On receipt of this message you must cease transmissions.

Sample Message Form

A sample message form that would be used in the EOC follows:


Calling Procedures

There is a standard procedure for conversing over a radio network. Although there may be minor variations in the methodology the aims of calling procedures and ultimately voice procedures are security and clarity. A network is a number of stations, or individuals connected to each other to enable communication between them. Networks may also be connected to each other to form a network of networks. This is usually where different levels of command are necessary and monitoring is required by command and control elements. The main principles underlying calling procedures are offering a message, receiving a message and terminating a call.

|Type of call |Procedure |
|Offering a message and receiving messages |A this is B over |
| | |
| |This is A send over |
| | |
| |This is B.....(message follows) over |
| | |
| |This is A roger over |
| | |
| |Note if message is long B will continue message with |
| | |
| |This is B Out or end of message out |
| | |
| |Note the caller is the one that terminates the message. |
|Long messages |If a long message is to be sent a long message is offered to alert |
| |the radio operator who is logging the conversation to standby. |
| | |
| |Hello A this is B long message over |
| | |
| |This is A wait...send over (wait is used if necessary as preparation |
| |time for receiving operator. This wait time should not be longer than|
| |five seconds. |
| | |
| |This is B (message) roger so far over |
| | |
| |This is A roger over This is B (message) over |
| | |
| |This is A roger over |
| | |
| |This is B end of message out |

It is to be noted that for each transmission the sender identifies themselves. This is important since networks will have multiple users and the sender, receiver and other users of the network must know who is talking on the network at any time. Most networks will have a priority for network users to answer calls. This is usually affected when “all station” or collective calls are made. All station or collective calls are usually made from central command.

Collective calls and Radio check

Collective calls are used to send messages to multiple users when similar information or action is required to be passed or required from them. The radio check is one example. The radio check is an important and in fact critical part of voice procedure.

|Establishing Communications Collective calls are used to send |(note there are four (A, B, C, 0) stations on this net including |
|messages to multiple users when similar information or action is |control which is zero . Control will establish communications) |
|required to be passed or required from them. The radio check is one | |
|example. The radio check is an important and in fact critical part of|All stations this is zero radio check over: |
|voice procedure. | |
| |A ok over |
| | |
| |B ok over |
| | |
| |C ok over |
| | |
| |0 ok out |
| | |
| |If any of the stations fails to answer, e.g. B then zero will say : |
| | |
| |A and C ok out to you |
| | |
| |B this is 0 nothing heard out. |
| | |
| |This will alert A and C that B was not heard. |
| |If any of them heard B they may call B and advise that 0 is not |
| |hearing them and that corrective actions need to be taken to |
| |establish communications. |

Radio checks are a type of collective call. Other types of collective calls may be made. These are usually prearranged and are coded for security. For example a set of stations may be grouped by location, action or event and given a code e.g. ZULU ONE. To make a collective call to these stations the call “all stations ZULU ONE this is zero” is used. Note that collective calls are usually only offered by control and not by substations of control.

Lost Communications Procedure

While it may be assumed that communications systems may work most of the time there are factors within and outside of ones control that will cause the loss of communications between stations. When this occurs an emergency situation may become exacerbated. It is imperative therefore that one follows a logical process to reestablish communication. There are several immediate actions that one should take and these are: • Check radio and re-tune.

• Check antennae, re-orient or change the antenna to a higher gain to increase receive/transmit ability.

• Change your position, obstacles or other interference may be causing the problem.

• Ensure that you are on the correct frequency. Re-set frequency if it is not correct.

As a last resort change the frequency to the alternate frequency. This is different from correcting a wrong frequency as you may have unwittingly removed yourself from the net completely. You may be unable to rejoin the network particularly if the remainder of the network has changed to another frequency while the station was still off the net.

Communications Electronic Instructions (CIE)

All networks issue written instructions for communications operations. The most important of these is what one can call the Communications Electronics Instructions. These instructions provide the following information:

Diagram – Layout of network


Call signs

Radiation – transmit power: - if one has control over this, establishes range


Transmitter – radio type to be used

Security information

Call Signs

To identify persons on a network there must be a system of identifying them. Most military and civil communications systems use a system of call signs. Call signs can be a letter, number or a series of letters and numbers, or even individual names or locations. The call sign system will be developed based on the level of security required as well as for convenience and ease of recognition and memory. In military systems zero (0) is usually the designated call sign for central control. Designations such as alpha (A), Bravo (B), and Charlie (C) would be used to designate sub elements of the headquarters. Regardless of what call sign is used these call signs must follow the structure of the emergency response organization when it is deployed. Call signs should form a part of a standard manual for communication which will link particular call signs with particular operatives, teams, liaison reps, and headquarter elements.

Users of call signs must stick rigidly to that which is assigned based on the CIE. Changing ones call sign without authority will result in no response from anyone else on the net. This would represent a breach of security as other users could construe the particular unknown call sign is a rogue caller trying to disrupt the net.

Caribbean Country Prefixes

|Anguilla |VP2E |
|Antigua & Barbuda |V2 |
|Aruba |PJ (Netherland Antilles) |
|Bahama Is. |C6 |
|Barbados |8P |
|Belize |V3 |
|Bermuda |VP9 |
|Bonaire |PJ (Netherland Antilles) |
|Columbia |HK |
|Cuba |CM,CO |
|Curacao |PJ (Netherland Antilles) |
|Dominica |J7 |
|Dominican Republic |HI |
|Grenada |J3 |
|Guadeloupe |FG (French Antilles) |
|Guyana |8R |
|Guyana (French) |FY (French Antilles) |
|Haiti |HH |
|Jamaica |6Y |
|Martinique |FM (French Antilles) |
|Montserrat |VP2M |
|Netherland Antilles |PJ (Aruba, Bonaire, St. Maarten, etc.) |
|Panama |HP |
|Puerto Rico |KP4 |
|St. Lucia |J6 |
|St. Maarten |PJ (Netherland Antilles) |
|St. Kitts & Nevis |V4 |
|St. Vincent and the Grenadines |J8 |
|Turks & Caicos Islands |VP5 |
|Venezuela |YV |
|Virgin Islands (US) |KP2,KV4 |
|Virgin Islands (British) |VP2V |
|Trinidad & Tobago |9Y,9Z |

Phonetic Alphabet

In radio transmissions messages are handled verbally. Where phonetics may clarify the words of a message, the following I.T.U Phonetic alphabet is recommended.

A - Alpha N - November

B - Bravo O - Oscar

C - Charlie P - Papa

D - Delta Q - Quebec

E - Echo R - Romeo

F - Foxtrot S - Sierra

G - Golf T - Tango

H - Hotel U - Uniform

I - India V - Victor

J - Juliet W - Whiskey

L - Lima Y - Yankee

M - Mike Z - Zulu

Phonetic Numerals

0 - ZERO 5 - FIFE

1 - WUN 6 - SIX

2 - TOO 7 - SEVEN


4 - FOR WER 9 - NINE


Time Conversion Chart

The exact time in your part of the world is based on your location on the globe. Greenwich, England is used as the starting point for world time (Universal Coordinated Time UTC).

The earth rotates on its axis once in 24 hours. By dividing the world time into 24 parts, a simple system of world time is created.

UTC GMT |EDT |EST CDT |CST MDT |MST PDT |PST | |0000 |8 PM |7 PM |6 PM |5 PM |4 PM | |0100 |9 PM |8 PM |7 PM |6 PM |5 PM | |0200 |10 PM |9 PM |8 PM |7 PM |6 PM | |0300 |11 PM |10 PM |9 PM |8 PM |7 PM | |0400 |Midnight |11 PM |10 PM |9 PM |8 PM | |0500 |1 AM |Midnight |11 PM |10 PM |9 PM | |0600 |2 AM |1 AM |Midnight |11 PM |10 PM | |0700 |3 AM |2 AM |1 AM |Midnight |11 PM | |0800 |4 AM |3 AM |2 AM |1 AM |Midnight | |0900 |5 AM |4 AM |3 AM |2 AM |1 AM | |1000 |6 AM |5 AM |4 AM |3 AM |2 AM | |1100 |7 AM |6 AM |5 AM |4 AM |3 AM | |1200 |8 AM |7 AM |6 AM |5 AM |4 AM | |1300 |9 AM |8 AM |7 AM |6 AM |5 AM | |1400 |10 AM |9 AM |8 AM |7 AM |6 AM | |1500 |11 AM |10 AM |9 AM |8 AM |7 AM | |1600 |Noon |11 AM |10 AM |9 AM |8 AM | |1700 |1 PM |Noon |11 AM |10 AM |9 AM | |1800 |2 PM |1 PM |Noon |11 AM |10 AM | |1900 |3 PM |2 PM |1 PM |Noon |11 AM | |2000 |4 PM |3 PM |2 PM |1 PM |Noon | |2100 |5 PM |4 PM |3 PM |2 PM |1 PM | |2200 |6 PM |5 PM |4 PM |3 PM |2 PM | |2300 |7 PM |6 PM |5 PM |4 PM |3 PM | |
EST = Eastern Standard Time EDT = Eastern Daylight Savings Time
PST = Pacific Standard Time PDT = Pacific Daylight Savings Time
CDT = Central Standard Time



Scientific monitoring Stations
Flood, drought, high winds, extreme rainfall, Volcanoes, Oil spills, Tsunami, Epidemics, Pest infestation

Analysis of Scientific Data indicating impending Hazard.







Dissemination of Warning to Public and Statutory Bodies

Economic consequences of displaced population

Commercial sector, Treasury, International Aid Organizations, Political Leaders.

Political Leaders, Emergency Planning Office, Dept of Interior, Social Services, NGO’s, Medical Authorities, Regional and International bodies, multilateral scientific community monitoring hazard programmes.

Military, Civil defense, Police, NGO’s (Red Cross etc)

Media, Radio/Television, Police, Public Street Wardens, Community Based NGO’s.

Elected Political Leaders in relevant Ministries at local or national levels

Emergency Planning Office or Local National Coordinator

Emergency Management to deal with consequences of protective action.

Actions Following Warning
(Evacuation of Public)

Construction of Warning Message to be delivered and Distributed

Decision by Political Powers whether to issue Warning, Plus level of Threat


Push to Talk (PTT)


Channel Selection knob

On/Off and Volume Control


IMPORTANT NOTE: The Fire & Rescue Services (Call Sign ZJF) monitors the ODP VHF NETWORK on a 24-hour basis:

You can check your Base Station or handheld radio at any time by asking them for a radio check!…...

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...The case study of Asda and Archie Norman is a prime example of how good leadership and change can affect a company’s growth. Asda, a formerly successful supermarket chain, was teetering on the edge of bankruptcy after numerous bad business decisions, was saved by Norman’s dynamic approach. Norman believed that everything about the organization needed to be changed in order for the company to survive. His approach was significantly inline with the ideas discussed in Heifetz’s and Laurie’s article “Learning to lead: Real leaders say, “I don’t have the answer.”” Heifetz and Laurie state that effective leadership requires us to make the distinction between leadership and authority and between technical and adaptive work. By clarifying these two distinctions we are able to understand a major error that people often make – treating adaptive challenges as technical problems. The case of Norman and Asda is a prime example of a company that treated their issues as adaptive challenges. Norman was a firm believer that in order to turn around Asda, he would need to start from scratch, eliminating almost all infrastructures that were previously accepted. Heifitz and Laurie describe five interdependent principles that leaders can use to mobilize people to do adaptive work. The first is that the leader must identify the adaptive challenges. Companies often fail because they do not adapt to new market challenges and needs. Part of Asda’s initial failure was top management’s decision to......

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...motivation did Archie Norman discover at ASDA? ASDA was one of the most successful retail businesses in the United Kingdom. It had a competitive advantage due to its unique superstore structure and its low price leadership in the market. Everything changed all of a sudden as ASDA found itself with demoralized employees, slow growth in sales, and declining profits in 1991 due to many years of lack of interest from previous managers. It had been a 1 billion pounds cash surplus supermarket chain in 1987, and by 1991 it had a debt of over 1 billion pounds. This was the situation that Archie Norman encountered at ASDA when appointed Chief Executive Officer (CEO). The main reasons of the problems that ASDA and Archie Norman had to face were due to complex organizational inefficiencies. The employees had lost the ability to act independently and got used to be told what to do after many years of controlling management. ASDA had become a bureaucratic and hierarchical institution and as a direct result of this rigid functioning structure in the company any kind of innovation was stopped from being encouraged or implemented. Without any innovation ASDA was unable to keep its competitive advantages in the retail market in the United Kingdom. So ASDA and Archie Norman had to face the challenge of transforming the superstore in relation to its management style of doing things as well as implementing a sense of culture based on the core values of ASDA. Management and leadership had to......

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Asda Case

...ASDA Case Stephany Mejia 1. What problems of motivation did Archie Norman discover at ASDA? Archie discovered that beyond the immediate financial crisis ASDA had organizational and cultural issues. These issues created a problem of motivation. ASDA’s top executives had offices in a separate part of the headquarters and were isolated from the rest of the company, one manager explained that executives seemed more interested in “hunting and partying” than in addressing serious issues faced by the company. ASDA had become more bureaucratic and hierarchical. The bureaucracy had reached a point that made it difficult to get anything done. With the financial crisis people feared losing their jobs, so they didn’t want any attention to themselves and this stopped any innovation. There was little integration or interaction between the classes. Executives came mostly from the upper class while lower level employees came from working class. There was clearly a communication issue and subordinates were intimidated by their superiors and thus afraid to tell them anything other than what they wanted to hear. There was also an issue of communication between different departments such as buying, marketing and finance and this made coordinating activities particularly difficult. Since employees were not allowed to do anything and were so afraid this caused them to lack motivation for ASDA. 2. What do you think Archie Norman should have done on his first day on the job? ...

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