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English
Grammar
in Use
A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate learners of English

Fourth Edition with answers

Raymond Murphy

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town,
Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Mexico City
Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/englishgrammarinuse
Fourth Edition © Cambridge University Press 2012
This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
English Grammar in Use first published 1985
Fourth edition 2012
4th printing 2013
Printed in Italy by L.E.G.O. S.p.A.
A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-0-521-18906-4
ISBN 978-0-521-18908-8
ISBN 978-0-521-18939-2
ISBN 978-0-511-96173-1
ISBN 978-1-107-64138-9

Edition with answers
Edition without answers
Edition with answers and CD-ROM
Online access code pack
Online access code pack and book with answers

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.

Contents
Thanks vii
To the student
To the teacher

viii x Present and past
1 Present continuous (I am doing)
2 Present simple (I do)
3 Present continuous and present simple 1 (I am doing and I do)
4 Present continuous and present simple 2 (I am doing and I do)
5 Past simple (I did)
6 Past continuous (I was doing)
Present perfect and past
7 Present perfect 1 (I have done)
8 Present perfect 2 (I have done)
9 Present perfect continuous (I have been doing)
10 Present perfect continuous and simple (I have been doing and I have done)
11 How long have you (been) ... ?
12 For and since When ... ? and How long ... ?
13 Present perfect and past 1 (I have done and I did)
14 Present perfect and past 2 (I have done and I did)
15 Past perfect (I had done)
16 Past perfect continuous (I had been doing)
17 Have and have got
18 Used to (do)
Future
19 Present tenses (I am doing / I do) for the future
20 (I’m) going to (do)
21 Will/shall 1
22 Will/shall 2
23 I will and I’m going to
24 Will be doing and will have done
25 When I do / When I’ve done When and if
Modals
26 Can, could and (be) able to
27 Could (do) and could have (done)
28 Must and can’t
29 May and might 1
30 May and might 2
31 Have to and must
32 Must mustn’t needn’t
33 Should 1
34 Should 2
35 Had better It’s time ...
36 Would
37 Can/Could/Would you ... ? etc. (Requests, offers, permission and invitations)

IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.

iii

If and wish
3
8 If I do ... and If I did ...
3
9 If I knew ... I wish I knew ...
4
0 If I had known ... I wish I had known ... 41 Wish
Passive
4 2 Passive 1 (is done / was done)
4
3 Passive 2 (be done / been done / being done)
4
4 Passive 3
4
5 It is said that ... He is said to ... He is supposed to ...
4
6 Have something done
Reported speech 7 Reported speech 1 (He said that …)
4
4 8 Reported speech 2
Questions and auxiliary verbs
4
9 Questions 1
5
0 Questions 2 (Do you know where ... ? / He asked me where ...) 5 1 Auxiliary verbs (have/do/can etc.) I think so / I hope so etc. 2 Question tags (do you? isn’t it? etc.)
5
-ing and to ...
5
3 Verb + -ing (enjoy doing / stop doing etc.)
5
4 Verb + to ... (decide to ... / forget to ... etc.) 5 Verb (+ object) + to ... (I want you to ... etc.)
5
5 6 Verb + -ing or to ... 1 (remember/regret etc.) 57 Verb + -ing or to ... 2 (try/need/help)
5
8 Verb + -ing or to ... 3 (like / would like etc.)
5
9 Prefer and would rather
6
0 Preposition (in/for/about etc.) + -ing 1 Be/get used to something (I’m used to ...)
6
6 2 Verb + preposition + -ing (succeed in -ing / accuse somebody of -ing etc.)
6
3 Expressions + -ing
6
4 To ... , for ... and so that ...
6
5 Adjective + to ...
6
6 To ... (afraid to do) and preposition + -ing (afraid of -ing) 7 See somebody do and see somebody doing
6
6 8 -ing clauses (Feeling tired, I went to bed early.)
Articles and nouns
6
9 Countable and uncountable 1 0 Countable and uncountable 2
7
7 1 Countable nouns with a/an and some 72 A/an and the 3 The 1
7
74 The 2 (school / the school etc.) 75 The 3 (children / the children) 76 The 4 (the giraffe / the telephone / the piano etc., the + adjective) 77 Names with and without the 1 8 Names with and without the 2
7

iv

IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.

79 Singular and plural 80 Noun + noun (a tennis ball / a headache) 81 -’s (your sister’s name) and of ... (the name of the book)
Pronouns and determiners 82 Myself/yourself/themselves etc. 83 A friend of mine My own house On my own / by myself 84 There ... and it ... 85 Some and any 86 No/none/any Nothing/nobody etc. 87 Much, many, little, few, a lot, plenty 88 All / all of most / most of no / none of etc. 89 Both / both of neither / neither of either / either of 90 All, every and whole 91 Each and every
Relative clauses 92 Relative clauses 1: clauses with who/that/which 93 Relative clauses 2: clauses with and without who/that/which 94 Relative clauses 3: whose/whom/where 95 Relative clauses 4: extra information clauses (1) 96 Relative clauses 5: extra information clauses (2) 97 -ing and -ed clauses (the woman talking to Tom, the boy injured in the accident)
Adjectives and adverbs 98 Adjectives ending in -ing and -ed (boring/bored etc.) 99 Adjectives: a nice new house, you look tired
1
00 Adjectives and adverbs 1 (quick/quickly) 101 Adjectives and adverbs 2 (well/fast/late, hard/hardly) 102 So and such 03 Enough and too
1
1 04 Quite, pretty, rather and fairly 105 06
1
107
1
08

Comparison 1 (cheaper, more expensive etc.)
Comparison 2 (much better / any better / better and better / the sooner the better)
Comparison 3 (as ... as / than)
Superlatives (the longest, the most enjoyable etc.)

09 Word order 1: verb + object; place and time
1
1 10 Word order 2: adverbs with the verb 111 Still, yet and already 1 12 Even

Any more / any longer / no longer

Conjunctions and prepositions 1 13 Although / though / even though In spite of / despite 1 14 In case 1 15 Unless As long as Provided/providing 1 16 As (As I walked along the street ... / As I was hungry ...) 1 17 Like and as 1 18 Like / as if / as though 1 19 For, during and while 120 By and until By the time ...
IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.

v

Prepositions
121 At/on/in (time)
122 On time and in time At the end and in the end
123 In/at/on (position) 1
124 In/at/on (position) 2
125 In/at/on (position) 3
126 To/at/in/into
127 In/on/at (other uses)
128 By
129 Noun + preposition (reason for, cause of etc.)
130 Adjective + preposition 1
131 Adjective + preposition 2
132 Verb + preposition 1 to and at
133 Verb + preposition 2 about/for/of/after
134 Verb + preposition 3 about and of
135 Verb + preposition 4 of/for/from/on
136 Verb + preposition 5 in/into/with/to/on
Phrasal verbs
137 Phrasal verbs 1
138 Phrasal verbs 2
139 Phrasal verbs 3
140 Phrasal verbs 4
141 Phrasal verbs 5
142 Phrasal verbs 6
143 Phrasal verbs 7
144 Phrasal verbs 8
145 Phrasal verbs 9
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Appendix 4
Appendix 5
Appendix 6
Appendix 7

Regular and irregular verbs 292
Present and past tenses 294
The future 295
Modal verbs (can/could/will/would etc.) 296
Short forms (I’m / you’ve / didn’t etc.) 297
Spelling 298
American English 300

Additional exercises
Study guide

General points in/out out on/off (1) on/off (2) up/down up (1) up (2) away/back 302

326

Key to Exercises 336
Key to Additional exercises
Key to Study guide 372
Index

vi

368

373

IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.

Thanks
This is the fourth edition of English Grammar in Use. I wrote the original edition when I was a teacher at the Swan School of English, Oxford. I would like to repeat my thanks to my colleagues and students at the school for their help, encouragement and interest at that time.
Regarding the production of this fourth edition, I am grateful to Nóirín Burke, Annabel Marriott, Matthew
Duffy, Liz Driscoll, Jane Walsh, Jeanette Alfoldi and Kamae Design. I would like to thank Cambridge
University Press for permission to access the Cambridge International Corpus.
Thank you also to the following illustrators: Humberto Blanco, Paul Fellows, Sophie Joyce, Katie Mac,
Ian Mitchell, Gillian Martin, Sandy Nicholls, Roger Penwill, Lisa Smith, Dave Whamond and Simon Williams.

vii

To the student
This book is for students who want help with English grammar. It is written for you to use without a teacher. The book will be useful for you if you are not sure of the answers to questions like these:
What is the difference between I did and I have done?
When do we use will for the future?
What is the structure after I wish?
When do we say used to do and when do we say used to doing?
When do we use the?
What is the difference between like and as?
These and many other points of English grammar are explained in the book and there are exercises on each point.
Level
The book is intended mainly for intermediate students (students who have already studied the basic grammar of English). It concentrates on those structures which intermediate students want to use, but which often cause difficulty. Some advanced students who have problems with grammar will also find the book useful.
The book is not suitable for elementary learners.
How the book is organised
There are 145 units in the book. Each unit concentrates on a particular point of grammar. Some problems (for example, the present perfect or the use of the) are covered in more than one unit. For a list of units, see the Contents at the beginning of the book.
Each unit consists of two facing pages. On the left there are explanations and examples; on the right there are exercises. At the back of the book there is a Key for you to check your answers to the exercises (page 336).
There are also seven Appendices at the back of the book (pages 292–301). These include irregular verbs, summaries of verb forms, spelling and American English.
Finally, there is a detailed Index at the back of the book (page 373).
How to use the book
The units are not in order of difficulty, so it is not intended that you work through the book from beginning to end. Every learner has different problems and you should use this book to help you with the grammar that you find difficult.
It is suggested that you work in this way:
Use the Contents and/or Index to find which unit deals with the point you are interested in.
If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the Study guide on page 326.
Study the explanations and examples on the left-hand page of the unit you have chosen.
Do the exercises on the right-hand page.
Check your answers with the Key.
If your answers are not correct, study the left-hand page again to see what went wrong.
You can of course use the book simply as a reference book without doing the exercises.

viii

Additional exercises
At the back of the book there are Additional exercises (pages 302–325). These exercises bring together some of the grammar points from a number of different units. For example, Exercise 16 brings together grammar points from Units 26–36. You can use these exercises for extra practice after you have studied and practised the grammar in the units concerned.

ix

To the teacher
English Grammar in Use was written as a self-study grammar book, but teachers may also find it useful as additional course material in cases where further work on grammar is necessary.
The book will probably be most useful at middle- and upper-intermediate levels (where all or nearly all of the material will be relevant), and can serve both as a basis for revision and as a means for practising new structures. It will also be useful for some more advanced students who have problems with grammar and need a book for reference and practice. The book is not intended to be used by elementary learners.
The units are organised in grammatical categories (Present and past, Articles and nouns, Prepositions etc.). They are not ordered according to level of difficulty, so the book should not be worked through from beginning to end. It should be used selectively and flexibly in accordance with the grammar syllabus being used and the difficulties students are having.
The book can be used for immediate consolidation or for later revision or remedial work. It might be used by the whole class or by individual students needing extra help. The left-hand pages
(explanations and examples) are written for the student to use individually, but they may of course be used by the teacher as a source of ideas and information on which to base a lesson. The student then has the left-hand page as a record of what has been taught and can refer to it in the future. The exercises can be done individually, in class or as homework. Alternatively (and additionally), individual students can be directed to study certain units of the book by themselves if they have particular difficulties not shared by other students in their class. Don’t forget the Additional exercises at the back of the book (see To the student).
This fourth edition of English Grammar in Use has been revised and updated. There are no new units, but some of the exercises have been rewritten or replaced.
An edition of English Grammar in Use without the Key is available. Some teachers may prefer this for use with their students.
An online version of English Grammar in Use is also available.

x

English
Grammar
in Use…...

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...1. I chose a story about domesticating wild animals and its history that starts 30 to 40 thousand years ago. Link: http://www.theonion.com/article/study-humans-began-domesticating-animals-comfort-c-51391 2. The Onion`s argument is that people are domesticating wild animals, like wolves, in order to “comfort” children whose parents had separated. According to The Onion, our ancient ancestors first tamed and bred gray wolves 30 to 40 thousand years as a means of providing their children with a companion to keep them occupied and feeling less alone as they dealt with the emotional trauma of their mother and father splitting up. The funnies part of this article is in its arguments about taming wild animals. Nowadays, we can rarely see a tamed wolf, all because they are wild and dangerous. I can`t possibly imagine a wolf instead of a cat for example, as a friend for children. In my opinion, The Onion`s article is parodying a story about Mowgli from “The Jungle Book” series, where a boy whose name is Mowgli was found as a baby and raised by the wolves. 3. I chose this story because I found it unrealistic and funny. It also reminded me about a story of Mowgli that I read in my childhood. 4. I know that people always tried to tame different animals, including wild ones. Taming a wild horse is difficult; taming a wild elephant is even more difficult. However it`s almost impossible to tame a wild hunter, like wolf or lion, unless you do it since their first days of......

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...------------------------------------------------- Report on home automation systems (HAS) for Dragon Vale ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- Introduction ------------------------------------------------- Regarding our new residential property development project, DragonVale. We would like to propose the installation od home automation systems (HAS) to attract more home buyers and a brand will be popular all around Hong Kong. This report aims to discuss the research conducted to identify a suitable the best home automation system, draw conclusions from it and make recommendations on the way forward. ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- Methodology ------------------------------------------------- Basic functions of home automation systems, namely Wireless Remote Control were extracted from Engineering World Magazine. In order to find out more information regarding the home electronic devices, door access controller and intrusion detector of the system, the Consumer Report 2015 published by Hong Kong Consumers Association was studied and relevant information was analyzed. The official quotations of the systems provided by our designated supplier, were also obtained for......

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...Traditional discussions around the architecture of business applications tend to focus on the application tier as being the connection between people and data and this holds for discussions around SOAs, Service Component Architectures (SCAs), or most other architectural perspectives in the industry today, including first-generation discussions around composite applications. Typically, however, the application tier contains structured business logic. However, building a composite application requires a mindset that not only is the productivity tier a critical element of the stack, but also it is where the most business value to enterprises can be found. To expand on the comparison between composite applications and SOA, both of them target flexibility and modularization. However, SOA provides flexibility at just one tier: that of the structured business logic in the middle tier. Composite applications target flexibility at all four tiers: presentation, productivity, application, and data. So, composite applications provide business value to the end users, in a way that goes far beyond what can be achieved with just service orientation. That said, a composite application is a great way to surface information out of a SOA, and having line-of-business (LOB) applications exposed as services makes it easier to build support for cross-functional processes into a composite application. Therefore to summarize, the ability to build and deploy composite applications requires a......

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...Name: Radhika K Section: i Reg No: 1221055 CONSEQUENCES OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY MISMATCH IN THE ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY Introduction: The entertainment industry is in the race to embrace corporates, and the production houses today are vying with each other to reach out to the global markets. With increasing incomes of the common man and broad room for expansion, industry representatives and analysts say that the film and entertainment sector has remarkable potential for growth. Movie production tycoons are aiming to develop content and partnerships to conquer both domestic and international audiences. Demand and Supply The Indian film industry produces roughly twice the number of movies as the American film industry, and sells 2.5 times the number of box office tickets as the U.S market. However, the Indian film industry box office revenues have been under the scanner; in 2008 Indian films earned only USD 1.6 billion compared to Hollywood's USD 9.7 billion, though ticket prices in India are less expensive than those in the U.S. or Europe. Factors affecting the mismatch: This scene is attributed to screen penetration and consumer spending still being considerably less as compared to the global scene. India is still a very price-conscious market. Also, cinema business is a tertiary demand and is the last in the chain of decision-making from a consumer’s perspective. However, demand for luxury goods, cinema tickets are said...

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...parliament.[157] The executive branch of the Indian government consists of the president, the vice-president, and the Council of Ministers—the cabinet being its executive committee—headed by the prime minister. Any minister holding a portfolio must be a member of one of the houses of parliament.[154] In the Indian parliamentary system, the executive is subordinate to the legislature; the prime minister and his council directly responsible to the lower house of the parliament.[159] Legislative: The legislature of India is the bicameral parliament. It operates under a Westminster-style parliamentary system and comprises the upper house called the Rajya Sabha ("Council of States") and the lower called the Lok Sabha ("House of the People").[160] The Rajya Sabha is a permanent body that has 245 members who serve in staggered six-year terms.[161] Most are elected indirectly by the state and territorial legislatures in numbers proportional to their state's share of the national population.[158] All but two of the Lok Sabha's 545 members are directly elected by popular vote; they represent individual constituencies via five-year terms.[162] The remaining two members are nominated by the president from among the Anglo-Indian community, in case the president decides that they are not adequately represented.[163] Judicial: India has a unitary three-tier independent judiciary[164] that comprises the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of India, 21 High Courts, and a large......

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