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Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.4, No.6, 2013

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Causes, Effects and Ways of Curbing Youth Restiveness in Nigeria: Implications for Counselling
Happiness Ihuoma Igbo1* Innocent Ikpa2 1. Department of Educational Foundations, Benue State University Makurdi, Km 1, Gboko Road, PMB 102119, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. 2. Department of Educational Foundations, Benue State University Makurdi, Km 1, Gboko Road, PMB 102119, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. * E-mail of the corresponding author: hapigbo@yahoo.com Abstract

The study was a survey designed to investigate causes, effects and ways of curbing youth restiveness in Nigeria. Three research questions were formulated. A total of 200 National Youth Service Corps members were sampled from 1200 Batch B 2012 Benue State. An instrument titled “Causes, Effects and Ways of Curbing Youth Restiveness Inventory” (CEWYI) was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages. The result revealed that youth restiveness is mostly caused by illiteracy, unequal distribution of national resources, poor child upbringing among others. The effects include upsurge of social vices and destruction of lives and properties while the result also revealed that it can be curbed through skill acquisition programmes and enlightenment against the phenomenon. The paper concluded that counselling could be an effective way of curbing youth restiveness in Nigeria.
Keywords: Youth Restiveness, Causes, Effects, Curbing, Counselling 1. Introduction

Restiveness among youths globally and those in Nigeria has become a behaviour pattern which has degenerated into a topical global issue. Youth restiveness portrays man’s negative side of social development. This negative development is rather unfortunate and has become one of the many security challenges facing man in the contemporary society. In many occasions, lives and properties worth millions of naira have been lost or vandalized and some razed down by restive youths. As observed by Chukwuemeka and Agbara (2010), human society and in fact the entire universe is simply and squarely a complex entity. In view of this, individuals and groups have their complexities, needs, aspirations, hopes, goals, opinions, views and values which could be social, economic, religious, psychological or political. Consequently, there is bound to be restiveness among different groups of people especially youths who are at their prime age. The term youth has been variously defined. Ndu (2000) and Yusuf (2001) saw youths as neither adolescents nor children characterized by excessive energy that needs to be exerted, which if not guarded, is channeled into negative tendencies. The United Nations General Assembly and World Bank cited in Adewuyi (2008) defined the youth as people between ages 15 to 24 years. In Nigeria, the people within the age limit of 30 years are considered as youths hence they are allowed to participate in the National Youth Service Scheme (NYSC). For this paper, the NYSC definition of youth is adopted. Youths are filled with energy and when this energy is positively channeled or guarded, they are highly productive, and hence they are likely to contribute to the overall development of the society. On the other hand, when the energy is negatively channeled, restiveness and its resultant effects are likely to be felt. Chika and Onyene (2010) observed that to be restive is to be unable to stay still, or unwilling to be controlled especially because one is bored or not satisfied with certain decisions, changed or existing laws considered to be unfavourable. Youth restiveness involves the combination of actions, conducts and behaviour which constitutes unwholesome, socially unacceptable behaviour exhibited by youths in the society. Youth restiveness has been a device used by the youth to get what they want from the relevant authority. Chika and Onyene (2010) asserted that youth resistance to conditions, issues and unwelcomed leadership regimes dates back to 1934 when Herbert Macaulay floated a political party to kick against dependency with fellow elite youths that had contact with the West. In addition, political parties like the National Council for Nigerian Citizens (NCNC), the Northern Peoples Congress (NPC), the Action Group (AG), has their youth wings as vibrant as the other parties. Since then, there has been proliferation of youth association like students’ unions, ethnic cliques

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and cleavages as well as clannish orientation among students which appear to have legitimized restive reactions among the youths on campuses. The phenomenon of ethnic militia such as the Odua People’s Congress (OPC) in the west, Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) in the East, Arewa Consultative Forum (ACF) in the North and Tiv Youth Organization (TYO) in the North Central, Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP) both in the South-South. These local forces which chain relevance in crime prevention and control but whose activities are parallel with State recognition are threats to national security. Youth restiveness may be caused by a number of factors. Chukwuemeka (2008) observed that composite unemployment in Nigeria increased from 3.8% in 2006 to 4.2% in the first half of 2011. He further stated that structural unemployment results in talents not being used where they are available, hence idle mind is definitely the devil’s workshop. Similarly, Coleman (1996) observed that psychological variables and deprivation is the basic product of conflict and restiveness of any kind. He further argued that the more widespread and intense deprivation is among members of a population, the greater is the magnitude of violence in one form or the other. In the foregoing therefore, one can argue that the unequal socio-economic development of the various ethnic groups in Nigeria led to inter ethnic and intra-ethnic conflicts. For instance, Chukwuemeka, Anazodo and Nzewi (2011) found that dissatisfaction of the people of South-South especially the youths on the level of attention given to development of their region and the damages to their ecology by oil spillage are the major causes of the alarming rate of youth restiveness. Youth restiveness may occur as repraisal attack. For instance, the Tiv youths did a repraisal attack on the Jukuns in Makurdi following the Tiv massacre in Taraba State and in Zaki-Biam by Nigerian soldiers. Chika and Onyene (2010) in their study attributed youth restiveness to adults’ coercive control over their children, denial of participatory opportunities to youths, resource scarcity and financial constraints and leaders failures, peer groups, and foreign interferences. The obvious effects of youth restiveness on the Nigerian society are loss of lives and properties, which constitute a major threat to security of the state as well as its corporate existence. It also discourages genuine economic and democratic development. Strategies employed include mass agitations, protests, demonstrations, looting, vandalism, cultism, ethnic militia, political thuggery among others. This trend of events demands for urgent and timely intervention. Therefore, counselling intervention becomes a compelling necessity for the Nigerian youths. Hence youth restiveness stems from thinking (cognition), the use of cognitive behaviour restructuring is eminent. It is against this background that the study sets to examine the causes, effects and the strategies than be used in reducing this trend.
1.1 Statement of the Problem Recent media reports and personal observations indicates cases of armed conflicts, killings, wanton destruction of lives and properties kidnappings, lootings, pipeline destructions among others in most Nigerian States. The issue of insecurity in the country is upper most concern to the Nigerian government and religious leaders. Recently, Federal and State legislators were killed in cold blood in Plateau State. Churches have been bombed in Niger, Plateau and Kogi States. For insecurity to be seen not to be religious, mosques have also suffered similar faiths in Borno and Kano States. One wonders who the perpetrators of these evil acts are. Security reports show that most of those involved in these acts. The two suicide bombers that attacked the residences of Emirs in Bornu and Yobe States were reported to be between 12 and 18 years respectively. The problem that is facing the nation is how youth restiveness can be curbed in Nigeria. It is against this background that this paper seeks to determine the causes, effects and ways of curbing youth restiveness in Nigeria. 1.1.1 Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to examine causes, effects, and ways of curbing youth restiveness in Nigeria. Specifically the study intends to: 1. Ascertain the causes of youth restiveness in Nigeria. 2. Determine the effects of youth restiveness in Nigeria. 3. Suggest ways for curbing youth restiveness in Nigeria. Research Questions 1. What are the causes of restiveness among Nigerian youths? 2. What effects does youth restiveness have on Nigeria? 3. What ways are appropriate for curbing youth restiveness in Nigeria? 1.1.2 Methodology This section describes the method used in carrying out the study. Survey design was adopted for the study. This is because the study variables are not subjected to manipulation and can be generalized to larger population. The population was one thousand two hundred (1200) National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) Batch B members posted to Borno State but having their orientation at Wannune Orientation Camp in Benue State. The

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Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.4, No.6, 2013

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choice of this population is because it is a fair representation of Nigerian youths from the thirty six States and Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Two hundred respondents were selected from the population. Stratified sampling was used based on their geo-political zones. This was followed by random sampling to get the respondents that participated in the study. An instrument titled “Causes, Effects and ways of Curbing Youth Restiveness Inventory (CEWYI) was used to collect data. The instrument was divided into four sections ‘A-D’. Section ‘A’ addressed the bio data of respondents, Sections ‘C-D’ contained three open ended questions asking respondents to state their opinions on causes, effects and strategies towards curbing youth restiveness in Nigeria. CEWYI was designed in this form to allow each respondent state his/her mind on these issues. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequencies and percentages. This was best to explain respondents’ opinions on these issues. 1.1.3 Results The results are presented below. Table 1: Bio-data of Study Participants Variable Sex F % 57.00 43.00 53.00 47.00 11.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 22.00 22.00 100.00

Male 114 Female 86 Age 20-25years 106 26-30 years 94 Geographical Zone South East 22 South West 40 South South 30 North East 20 North West 44 North Central 44 Total 200

Research Question One: What are the causes of youth restiveness among Nigerian youths? The data was collected by asking them to list the causes they observed and know.

Table 2: Percentage Scores of Causes of Youth Restiveness in Rank Order S/N ITEMS N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Illiteracy 200 Unequal distribution of natural resources 200 Poor child upbringing 200 Poverty 200 Unemployment 200 Political instability/frustration 200 Corruption 200 Bad governance 200 Ethnic/tribal crisis 200 Drug/alcohol abuse 200 Religious crises 200 Over population 200 Under population 200 Peer group/cult influence 200 False teaching in churches/mosque 200 Insecurity 200 Ineffective communication from political leaders 200

F

% 60 54 54 52 50 35 31 29 28 23 21 21 20 17 12 14 13

120 108 108 104 100 70 62 58 56 46 42 40 40 34 24 28 26

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Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.4, No.6, 2013

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Table 2 shows percentage scores of causes of youth restiveness in rank order, prominent among them are illiteracy 60% and unequal distribution of national resources 54%. The least identified is false teaching in churches/mosques 12%. Research Question 2: What effect does youth restiveness have on Nigeria? Table 3: Percentage Scores or Effects of Youth Restiveness in Rank Order S/NO ITEM N F

%

1 Upsurge of social vices/ crime 200 124 62 2 Destruction of lives and properties 200 118 59 3 Civic unrest 200 88 44 4 Retardation of national development 200 74 37 5 Encourages sectionalism 200 68 34 6 Insecurity of the country 200 66 33 7 Religious crises 200 26 13 8 High mortality rate 200 36 18 9 Depreciation of natural resource 200 34 17 10 Increase poverty 200 28 14 11 Discourages foreign investment 200 28 14 12 Escalates unemployment 200 26 13 13 High mortality rate among youth 200 26 13 Table 3 indicates that the commonest effects of youth restiveness are upsurge of social vices/crimes in the country with 62% and destruction of lives and properties with 59%. While the least scored is high mortality rate among youths that scored 13%. Research Question 3: What ways are appropriate curbing youth restiveness in Nigeria? Table 4: Percentage Scores of Perceived Ways of Curbing Youth Restiveness S/No ITEMS N F % 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Skill acquisition programme for youths Enlightenment campaign against youth restiveness Ensuring that the citizens have formal education Provision of employment opportunities Neo marginalization of any tribe/ethnic group Provision of basic social amenities Restricting of security agents Adequate parenting of children Elections should be free and fair at all levels 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 108 106 104 103 76 70 42 40 40 38 36 32 56 53 52 51.5 38 35 21 20 20 19 18 16

10. Religious tolerance 11. Good governance 12. Traditional rulers to take charge of their domains 13. Implementation of school guidance and counselling Services at all levels of education 14. Giving monthly allowances to unemployed youths 15. Religious intervention teaching citizens fear of God

200 200 200

30 30 26

15 15 13

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Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.4, No.6, 2013

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Table 4 indicates that providing skill acquisition for youths scored highest with 56% while enlightenment campaigns against youth restiveness ranked second with 53%. However religious intervention scored least with 13. 1.1.4 Discussion of Findings Research question one identified illiteracy, unequal distribution of natural resources, poor child upbringing, unemployment, poverty among these causes of youth restiveness. Illiteracy among Nigerian youths has been a thing of concern to many citizens. Knowledge and education acquired by individuals most often help them in their levels of patriotism, value orientations and healthy lifestyles. Population Reference Bureau (2006) observed that between 2000-2004 about 30% of Nigerian youths were not enrolled in secondary schools. Hence, the findings agree with Onekpe (2007) assertion that most youths that did not have access to formal education are talks for restiveness. This finding also agreed with that of Chukwuemeka and Aghara (2010) that incidence of marginalization, denial of social right, environmental degradation and economic devastation activities by the Government of Nigeria had triggered off the irate youths in the Niger Delta region to involve in all sorts of restiveness in demand of their right. This scenario also agreed with the work of Elegbeleye (2005). In the same vein, Ofem and Ajayi (2008) agreed with the findings of research question one that youth restiveness is associated with lack of humanitarian and social welfare, lack of good governance, corrupt practices of government officials, inadequate training programmes, unemployment and lack of quality education. This indicates that causes of youth restiveness are multifaceted in nature. It therefore means that curbing youth restiveness in Nigeria might also take multidimensional approach. Research question two was on the effects of youth restiveness on Nigerians. The study identified upsurge of social vices and crimes (cultism, kidnapping, armed robbery, hostage, abduction) among others and destruction of lives and properties. Incidences of such seem to be on the increase in our society in recent years. These have also been linked with youths either from Nigeria or neighbouring country Niger. Chukwuemeka and Aghara (2010) agreed that the invasion of the multinational oil companies by restive youths in the Niger Delta, the abduction and kidnapping of foreign nationals working in oil companies, the incessant harassment of traders in Lagos and the every-day-clash in Jos are outcomes of youth restiveness in the country. Increase in unemployment rate was also identified. This definitely might be due to some individuals leaving their business and other jobs relocating from high security risk areas. Such areas of high rate of youth restiveness discourage investors. Zakaria (2006) agrees that youth restiveness increases youth unemployment. He however asserted that the absence of job opportunities in developing countries like Nigeria is responsible for youth restiveness with disastrous consequences. Research question three sought suggestions on ways of curbing youth restiveness in Nigeria. The study identified skill acquisition programmes, enlightenment campaigns, and formal education among others. Mutiba (2011) affirmed that education is the primary conduit for value formation. While preparation for examinations is afforded priority, value formation, character building, and focusing on building ethical standards in children regrettably are not given adequate emphasis in school curriculum. For formal education to help curb youth restiveness in the country our education has to be modeled towards value inculcation and citizen education at all levels of our education. Our education must be made to be functional meeting the students’ needs. More emphasis should be placed on vocational and technical education which will help students acquire skills that will introduce them to entrepreneurship development. Enlightenment campaigns against youth restiveness are also important. During this period relevant information is disseminated to the citizens. This fact was collaborated by Ifidon and Ahiauzu (2006) who maintained that information is “structured data that causes a human mind to change its opinion about the current state of real world and contribute to a reduction in the uncertainty of the state of the system”. Information is therefore is a change agent that will assist the youths change their misconceived ideas and opinions. Conclusion Youth restiveness is a social vice that is giving the entire nation sleepless nights. The causes are multifaceted and hence curbing it demands multidimensional approach. The paper believes that effective counselling to youths, parents and political leaders at various levels of governance could go a long way in curbing youth restiveness in Nigeria. Implications for Counselling Counselling is a profession that assists individuals to understand themselves better, manage their life activities, develop their own points of view and make their own rational decisions. Most often, youth restiveness manifest as a life style which must be changed if the victims are re-oriented positively. Counselling both in school and non-school setting is capable of doing this hence guidance counsellors at all levels of education can no longer afford to remain indifferent and complacent. They should take interest in counselling youths who are regarded as the hope of tomorrow’s adults.

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Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.4, No.6, 2013

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One of the tools that might make positive impact is information service in counseling. Through this service, the guidance counsellor may help the youths to acquire knowledge which they are ignorant of. Such information could liberate them from falsehood and misconceptions being provided by peers and adults who utilize them to fulfill personal wishes and later dumb them to their faith. Youths also need information that will get them economically empowered. Hence the guidance counsellor gives them entrepreneurial information that will help them develop skills that can sustain them economically. Such information liberates them from psychological and mental torture they pass through in acts of restiveness. Group counselling of youths in school and non school settings could also be very helpful. Guidance counsellors could organize workshops, talk shows, and seminars for youths in schools, youth organizations and youths in religious settings. Youths need to be told that the future belongs to them and they should not be used to destroy it. Topics on citizenship education, patriotism, rule of law could be incorporated in such sessions. Such may help them understand their roles in the society better. Such counselling sessions could also be extended to the political elites, leaders at various levels of government and political tugs. Seminars and workshops could be organized for them on good governance. Assertive training could also be given to the youths at such forum. Since it has been observed that most youths are recruited by politicians and highly placed individuals to act restively in the society, the youths should be equipped with assertive skills in order to be able to say NO to such elders and peers without hurting them. Until youths are able to refuse such enticements of horror, the problem of youth restiveness in this nation may continue. Cognitive restructuring and behavior modification skills could also be useful in curbing youth restiveness. As professionals, guidance counsellors should work towards restructuring negative views held by youths. The insinuation that restiveness is the only way of expressing their views and demands could be modified to more rational ways if appropriate information is given to them. One of the outstanding causes of youth restiveness identified in this study is poor child upbringing. This is a challenge to the marriage and family counsellors. Seminars, workshops and group counselling could be organized for parents occasionally. This is to help them understand effective child rearing practices and characteristics peculiar to adolescents and youths and how best to handle such. Since the study also identified overpopulation as one of the perceived causes of youth restiveness, parents could also be counselled on positive effects of having small family size. Topics on reproductive health could also be discussed in such sessions. Sessions on value re-orientation is also very necessary. Most Nigerian youths seem to believe that the only source of wealth is through resource control and sharing national cake. Such beliefs, values and misconceptions should be re-oriented and replaced with good values of hard work and honesty. Unhealthy lifestyles of cultism, gang formation, drug and alcohol abuse identified in the study as causes of restiveness among youths could be replaced by healthy ones through effective counselling sessions with the youths.

References Adewuyi, T.D.O. (2008). Utilization of self counselling theories for youth peer relationship. The Lagos Counsellor. 1, 1, 5 – 21. Chika, P.E. & Onyene, V. (2010). Youth restiveness in the Niger Delta of Nigeria: Implication for education and leadership. European Journal of Social Sciences 18, 2, 286 – 296. Chukwuemeka, E. (2008). Bourgeoisie against peasants: A political diagnosis of the evil consequences of multinational in Africa. Journal of Interventional Studies 1, 2, 45 – 50. Chukwuemeka, E. E. O. & Agbara, V. N. O. (2010). Niger Delta youth restiveness and socio-economic development of Nigeria. Educational Research and Reviews 5, 7, 400 – 407. Chukwuemeka, E. E. O. Anazodo, R. & Nzewi, H. (2011). Social conflict in the south-south Nigeria: Implications for foreign investment. African Journal of Political Science and International relations 5, 335 – 340. Coleman, J.S. (1996). Nigeria: Background to Nationalism. Benin City: Borburg and Winston Elegbeleye, O.S. (2005). Recreational facilities in schools: A panacea for youths' restiveness. Journal of Human Ecology. 18 (2): 93-98. Ifidon, S.E., & Ahiauzu, B. (2005). Information and conflict prevention in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. African Journal of Libraries, Archives, and Information Science. 15, (2): 125-132. Mutiba, B. G. (2011). Inculcating values the need of the hour: And curbing youth restiveness for national peace, transformation and development. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://bagumageraldmutiba.wordpress.com/2011/12/16/inculcating-values-the-need-of-the-hour... Ndu, A. (2000). The role of family in managing indiscipline among youths in Nigeria. Journal of Counselling Psychology. 1, 45 – 51. Ofem, N.I., & Ajayi A.R. (2008). Effects of youth empowerment strategies on conflict resolutions in the Niger

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Delta of Nigeria: Evidence from Cross River State. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development 6 (1, 2): 139146. Onyekpe, N. (2007). Managing youth at election. The Constitution: A Journal of Constitutional Development. 7, (1): 76-87. Population Reference Bureau (2006). The world's youth 2006 data sheet. Retieved April 20, 2012 from http://www.prb.org/pdf06/WorldsYouth2006Data Sheet.pdf Yusuf, S.A. (2001). Youths and national orientation. In A.A. Adegoke (Ed.) proceeding of the 25th National Conference of the Counselling Association of Nigeria 11 – 15. Zakaria, Y. (2006). Youth, conflict, security, and development. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://www.realityofaid.org/roareport.php?table=roa2006&id=6

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This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open Access Publishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute is Accelerating Global Knowledge Sharing. More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage: http://www.iiste.org CALL FOR PAPERS The IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals and collaborating with academic institutions around the world. There’s no deadline for submission. Prospective authors of IISTE journals can find the submission instruction on the following page: http://www.iiste.org/Journals/ The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualified submissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to the readers all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of the journals is also available upon request of readers and authors. IISTE Knowledge Sharing Partners EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP Open Archives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe Digtial Library , NewJour, Google Scholar…...

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...ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD (Department of Business Administration) Course: Human Resource Management (5532) Level: MBA Semester: Autumn, 2010 CHECKLIST This packet comprises the following material: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Note: Text book Assignments # 1 & 2 Course outlines Assignment 6 forms (2 sets) Assignment submission schedule In this packet, if you find anything missing out of the above-mentioned material, please contact at the address given below: The Mailing Officer Mailing Section, Block # 28 Allama Iqbal Open University, Sector H/8, Islamabad. Tel: (051) 9057611, 9057612 Mohammad Majid Mahmood Bagram Course Coordinator ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD (Department of Business Administration) WARNING 1. 2. PLAGIARISM OR HIRING OF GHOST WRITER(S) FOR SOLVING THE ASSIGNMENT(S) WILL DEBAR THE STUDENT FROM AWARD OF DEGREE/CERTIFICATE, IF FOUND AT ANY STAGE. SUBMITTING ASSIGNMENTS BORROWED OR STOLEN FROM OTHER(S) AS ONE’S OWN WILL BE PENALIZED AS DEFINED IN “AIOU PLAGIARISM POLICY”. Course: Human Resource Management (5532) Level: MBA Semester: Autumn, 2010 Total Marks: 100 Pass Marks: 40 ASSIGNMENT No. 1 (Units: 1–4) Q. 1 Why HR is called the most important asset and competitive advantage of any organization in the world? (20) Your Solutions 2 Helping Material HR and Competitive Advantage In order to have an effective competitive strategy, the company must have one or more competitive advantage, factors that allow......

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...and uniform specifications. 1046.2 WEARING AND CONDITION OF UNIFORM AND EQUIPMENT Police employees wear the uniform to be identified as the law enforcement authority in society. The uniform also serves an equally important purpose to identify the wearer as a source of assistance in an emergency, crisis or other time of need. (a) Uniform and equipment shall be maintained in a serviceable condition and shall be ready at all times for immediate use. Uniforms shall be neat, clean, and appear professionally pressed. All peace officers of this department shall possess and maintain at all times, a serviceable uniform and the necessary equipment to perform uniformed field duty. Personnel shall wear only the uniform specified for their rank and assignment. The uniform is to be worn in compliance with the specifications set forth in the department's uniform specifications that are maintained separately from this policy. All supervisors will perform periodic inspections of their personnel to ensure conformance to these regulations. Civilian attire shall not be worn in combination with any distinguishable part of the uniform. Uniforms are only to be worn while on duty, while in transit to or from work, for court, or at other official department functions or events. If the uniform is worn while in transit, an outer garment shall be worn over the uniform shirt so as not to bring attention to the employee while he/she is off duty. Employees are not to purchase or drink alcoholic beverages......

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...SUNWAY COLLEGE JOHOR BAHRU DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION COURSEWORK / ASSIGNMENT (GROUP) Module Code Module Title Semester Issue Date Due Date Lecturer : BMGT 0304 : HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT : MARCH-JUNE 2015 : WEEK 2 : WEEK 6 (30th April 2015) : ANTHONY WONG INSTRUCTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. There are SEVEN (7) pages in this assignment including the cover page. The assignment must be completed in groups as per instruction. The submitted assignment must include the Assignment Cover Page. References must be acknowledged accordingly. Plagiarism/cheating will result in the assignment being marked FAIL. The assignment must be submitted in hardcopy (printed) format and presented. IMPORTANT Assignments must be submitted on their due dates. If an assignment is submitted after its due date, the following penalisation will be imposed: ● ● ● One to two days late Three to five days late More than five days late 20% deducted from the total assignment marks 40% deducted from the total assignment marks Assignment will not be marked. 1 INTRODUCTION This assignment is a partial fulfillment of requirements leading to Diploma in Hotel Management/Business Admin for students taking a subject in Human Resource Management. The assignment will be done by students in suitable group size which approved by the lecturer. PURPOSES The purposes of this assignment are to assess a student’s ability to: 1. Understand the basic concepts or theories learned in the subject matter.......

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...new water feature. Please ensure that you address all the criteria contained within the ‘Assessment Task 1 Marking Sheet’. This assignment will be marked generally in accordance with the Marking Sheet where marks are deducted for non-conformities. Please be aware that simply mentioning the marking criteria/addressing it in a half-sentence or similar does not guarantee full marks; the thoroughness and completeness of how the marking criteria are addressed will determine how many marks for each separate criterion will be awarded; this can be either the full mark, or parts thereof. Furthermore, it is vital that you familiarise yourself with precisely what a Risk Assessment and Risk Treatment incorporate for ISO 31,000 – due to the word count limit, it is advisable to not deviate from the task given, while meeting the marking criteria. Word count limit: The body of this assignment will be in the range of 3000 to 5000 words, excluding any Appendices. You may need to simplify and define the boundaries carefully in order to achieve the word limit. A single hard copy will be submitted in class. The assignment must also be uploaded to the 49006 Turnitin folder within UTSOnline before the due date. Please make sure to submit the complete assignment including Cover Page, Table of Contents, Reference list and Appendices. Emailed assignments will not be accepted. Be aware that several students have fallen foul, in previous semesters, of the sophisticated systems in......

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...Assignment front sheet Qualification Unit number and title Pearson BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma Business Unit 1: Business Environment Learner name Assessor name Nour Hawarneh Date issued Completion date Submitted on Nov 08, 2015 Jan 18, 2016 Assignment title Your company’s environment LO2 LO3 Assessment Criteria In this assessment you will have the opportunity to present evidence that shows you are able to: 1.1 organisational purposes of businesses Identify the purposes of different types of organisation 1 1.2 Describe the extent to which an organisation meets the objectives of different stakeholders 1 1.3 LO1 Learning outcome Understand the Learning Outcom e Explain the responsibilities of an organisation and strategies employed to meet them 2.1 Explain how economic systems attempt to allocate resources effectively 2 2.2 Assess the impact of fiscal and monetary policy on business organisations and their activities Evaluate the impact of competition policy and other regulatory mechanisms on the activities of a selected organisation 2 Understand the nature of the national environment in which businesses operate Understand the behaviour for oganisations in their market environment 2.3 3.1 LO4 2 Illustrate the way in which market forces shape organisational responses using a range of examples Judge how the business and cultural environments shape the behaviour of a selected organisation 3.3 Be able to assess the significance of the......

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...|Assignment brief – QCF BTEC (L3 ONLY) | |Assignment front sheet | |Qualification |Unit number and title | |BTEC L3 Diploma/Ext. Dipl. – Business |UNIT 1 – BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT | |Learner name | Assessor name | | |MARY EC ZAFRA | |Date issued | Hand in deadline |Submitted on | |14 OCTOBER 2015 | 15 November 2015 |18NOV2015 | | | | |Assignment No. & title |Assignment 1/2 - The Businesses We See | |In this assessment you will have opportunities to provide......

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...Application Exercise (Assignment to be submitted) (90 min.) (Not exceeding five pages) |Apply the five forces analysis to your company/division and assess the attractiveness of your industry. | | |Compare the industry attractiveness five years back and today due to the shift in the forces. | | |Guidelines for the assignment | | | | | |Brief introduction of your company, its product portfolio and the markets/segments it caters to. If it | | |is in multiple industries, choose any one industry for the purpose of this assignment. (refer to 2008 | | |HBS note for definition of industry) | | | | | |Consider each threat individually. Take each factor in it and explain its role and significance in your | | |industry. Rate its effect based on the above explanation. (template if shown in class may be used for | | |structured approach but the spirit of the analysis matters more than......

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...and analysed to present their financial standing at the end of the year. Comparing the relationships of these ratios reveals that Orica decreased their liquidity, but suffered lower profitability with heavy influences from Minova’s impairment of goodwill. With high asset utilisation and stable efficiency, Orica should focus on improving their maintenance and reliability by addressing the Kooragang plant shutdown. Furthermore, Orica is financing more with debt than equity which introduces some risk to the company given their higher expenses for 2012. Finally, the investment ratios indicate that Orica could be poised for high growth with a stable return, but should first focus on maximising their plants and equipment. Sample Assignment: Part of the content removed II TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary ............................................................................................................................. II Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................... III A. List of Tables ...............................................................................................................................IV 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 1 2. Ratios....................................................................

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