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Augustus

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a) What do these passages tell us about how Augustus treated members of his family? (10)
According to to the passage by Younger Seneca, Augustus could be seen as rather harsh in dealing with his daughter Julia, as due to her 'promiscuity' and 'the scandals' these led to, he 'sent his own daughter into exile' as not only was she said to make 'herself available to armies of adulterers', it was believed her favourite place to carry out these acts was where Augustus 'had moved the law against adultery', showing the lack of respect Julia had for her father. The passage then goes on to show how Augustus tried to shame Julia out of her ways by making her actions known to the public, showing that although this could also be seen as a harsh way to treat your daughter, it does show he cared about her and did try other methods to make her stop her ways before exiling her due to 'shame'. Tacitus also shows us Augustus' no nonsense approach to family members, especially those involved with Julia as he shows how Augustus 'executed' his nephew, Illius Antonius 'for adultery with Julia', however he did not stop at this, he even sent Illius' son Lucius Antonius, who at the time was 'little more than a boy' to the 'state of Massilia', effectively exiling him 'under the pretext of furthering his academic studies', showing Augustus could be rather ruthless towards family members, even those who had done nothing wrong if it meant keeping them away from Julia, also showing he was rather protective of his daughter.

b) What can we learn from other sources about the importance of his family to Augustus? (20)
We can learn of the importance of family to Augustus from various sources. I will first be looking at the Res Gestae where the only family Augustus mentions are his 'sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar', whom before their early deaths Augustus gave many honours to, including making them 'consuls' and at the very young age of 15 were 'presented with a silver shield and spear' and were 'hailed as princeps luventutis', showing he cared greatly for his future heirs and did everything in his power to ensure they had a standing in Rome.
Suetonius is also helpful in showing the importance of family to Augustus, starting with hugs daughter Julia, who was clearly very important to Augustus in regard to the fact she was the only one who could produce him a blood heir, which Augustus clearly took seriously, marrying Julia to several different people to try and ensure this happend, which it did as Julia had 'three sons Gaius, Lucius and Agrippa Postumus'. Suetonius then explained how Augustus adopted Gaius and Lucius, treating them like sons get trained them in 'business go government' and 'sent them as commanders in chief', showing they as heirs were very important to him, this is not reinforced in Augustus' reaction to their deaths however as Suetonius claims 'Augustus took his loss with more resignation than when they disgraced themselves', reacting far more to 'Julia's adulteries', suggesting perhaps he only cared about family members who could effect his reign. Thus us reinforced in his treatment towards female family members who 'were forbidden to do or say anything' 'that could not decently figure imperial book' and 'prevented them from firming friendships without his consent'. He also dealt with those who 'disgraced themselves' badly, exiling both his daughter and grandson.
Tacitus is also useful in showing the importance in family to Augustus, as he shows how he raised his son in laws, Marcellus 'to the pontificate and the curule aedileship' and Agrippa as a 'good soldier', again showing how much time and effort he put into looking after his family and was very upset when they both died.
The final source I will be looking at is by Horace of 'the army to which eager Drusus led', this shows the trust Augustus had in Drusus to run the army, at rust which was also given to Tiberius when both where sent on campaign to Germany and showed themselves to be very successful generals, especially when Germany was so unstable, showing he put a lot if trust in his family.

c) On the basis of these passages and other sources you have studied, how far did Augustus try to involve members of his family in governing Rome? (25)
It is clear, according to many sources,Augustus attempted to involve his family in governing Rome through both civil and military roles.
According to the Res Gestae, Gaius and Lucius were very much 'groomed' from a young age, making them 'designated consuls' at just 'their fifteenth year' as well as being 'hailed as princeps iuventutis', showing how Augustus put measures in place to ensure his adopted sons had control and a high standing in Rome. The Res Gestae can be seen as a reliable source as it was written by Augustus himself about his life, he can therefore give the greatest detail and accuracy on his own life. On the other hand, however, because it is self-written it could show a subjective view as Augustus would want to make both him and his family look good, and could therefore exaggerate, for example, he claimed the 'senate' 'decreed' Gaius and Lucius should become 'councils of the state' when in fact it was Augustus who decreed this.
Tacitus is also a useful source as it tells us how Augustus also involved his step-sons in the governing of Rome by granting 'imperial titles to Tiberius Nero and Claudius Drusus'. After the death of Gaius and Lucius, 'Nero was Augustus' only surviving stepson', 'with Drusus long since dead' meaning all of Augustus' hopes of a family heir, rested on him. He was therefore 'adopted as Augustus' son' and effectively helped Augustus in his reign, even becoming Augustus' 'colleague in imperium, and partner in the tribunician power' showing him to be very involved in governing Rome alongside Augustus, mainly due to his relations to him. Tacitus also shows how he also ensured his 'safeguards' were family members by 'ordering Tiberius to adopt' 'Drusus' son, Germanicus', also giving him some power in governing Rome by giving him 'command of the eight legions of the Rhine'. This wasn't the case throughout Augustus' reign however as Tacitus also shows how 'Marcus Agrippa, of undistinguished origins' 'helped him to victory', Augustus even giving him co-consulship up to 23BC as well as making him aedile all before he was actually a family member, even providing aqueducts although Augustus did eventually marry him to his daughter Julia effectively then making him his son in law. Tacitus can be seen as a reliable source as he was often considered as one of the best Roman historians.…...

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