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Back to the Basics: an Instrumental Pedagogy Paradigm Shift

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BACK TO THE BASICS: AN INSTRUMENTAL PEDAGOGY PARADIGM SHIFT by Jaime Santucci “Musician Con Fuoco” May 2012

Copyright © 2012 Jaime Santucci MusicianConFuoco.com. All Rights Reserved.

Santucci 2

Introduction This paper proposes a new approach, or a new paradigm if you will, to instrumental instruction that combines the foundational principles of language, singing, and psychophysics (awareness of physiology and psychology). I argue that instrumental pedagogy and methodology should necessarily introduce, or in some cases reintroduce, the basic skills in question, using disciplines at every level of instruction. Below, I introduce the skills in question. Those same skills are often the offending skills when taken as parts instead of a whole and when ill-instructed. I introduce the skills using flute pedagogy as a demonstrative example, and discuss why their combined and concurrent application can develop instrumental students more holistically. I see deficiency in current instrumental instruction methods because they seem opposite to the human experience. We are all exposed to language and singing from birth, and on some level we gain awareness of physiology and psychology. Yet the fact that our early lives combine these experience naturally seems lost on traditional instrumental pedagogy. Linguistics, vocal, and pyschophysical instruction usually are taught as completely separate entities. A new, more holistic paradigm would result from changing the instrumental instructional methodology by applying the Natural LEarning Process and Perceptual-Motor Learning. Three correlated modi operandi could include the integration and basic study of human physiology and psychology, vocal study, and phonology of French (or other language relevant per instrument).

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Santucci 3 Few pedagogues throughout history have recognized the instrumental connection and instituted such an eclectic and unconventional pedagogical methodology into the standard framework of instrumental instruction. J.J. Quantz, Marcel Moyse, Michel Debost, James Galway, Robert Dick, and Phyllis Avidan Louke were all forward-thinking musical educators. Why, for so long, have we as pedagogues, disregarded or ignored the information and knowledge which lies before us? Why have we not put the scientific, musical, and linguistic discoveries to use to revise our pedagogical standards from disassociation of parts to that of inclusion and wholeness? Johann Joachim Quantz, an exceptional teacher and first pedagogue to write a thorough and insightful flute method, captured the motivation behind an interdisciplinary method when he wrote that the aim is “to train a skilled and intelligent musician, and not just a mechanical player.”1 If we are to truly “sing the music through the flute”2 as William Bennett states, we must first learn to ‘be’ through the awareness of the physical and psychological; from this our instrumental ‘voice’ will be recognized. The Perceptual Learning Process & Psychophysiology Before one is able to make beautiful music, or any music at all, one must first learn how to move; a musician must physically learn to use their body in conjunction with an instrument to produce music. To successfully learn this physical skill and progress with some form of adeptness, an instructor or some form of instruction is needed. How does a person learn music or any kind of physical skill? According to indepth research, through Perceptual Motor Learning and a process called the Natural
1

J.J. Quantz, On Flute Playing, trans. and ed. by Edward R. Reilly, 2 ed. (Northeastern University Press, 2011), Flute Method Treatise Manuscript. ix.
2

Austin Peay State University, "William Bennett Summer Flute Academy," http://www.apsu.edu/music/ william-bennett-summer-flute-academy-home-0.

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Santucci 4 Learning Process. The Natural Learning Process (NLP) is the process of using mental imagery, imitation, and trial-and-error practice as primary methods of learning. It uses body-feedback for detection and correction of errors.3 What better way to learn how a person’s body and psyche works in conjunction with playing an instrument, then through the NLP. This is the very system humans use to learn to walk, talk, eat, and subsequently live. Teaching music and instrumentalism through a holistic and thorough psychophysiological approach requires both informal guidance and formal instruction. The instrumental instructor must be able to recognize and use both forms of instruction. The use of the NLP is perfect for learning the ergonomics of music making. By recognizing and incorporating psychophysiological principles and techniques into instruction, one will gain a deeper understanding and more mature perspective of how to become a musician, thus communicating the language of music to those around us. The goal is avoiding mindless and mechanical approaches to learning music; it also endeavors to avoid potential physical and, sometimes, psychological damage which can come from improper use of one’s body during ‘music making.’ The goal is to understand and convey what, constitutes for each individual, the correct posture training to eliminate excessive muscular tension and damage, thus improving neuromuscular coordination and health translating into comfortable production of music. Musicianship is an intricate art and skill and should be treated with care and wisdom. “Efficient perceptual-motor performance depends upon four prime elements: good mental conception, relaxed concentration, awareness of body feedback and good posture. All of these elements can be learned by musicians, dancers, and athletes through self3

Daniel L. Kohut, Musical Performance Learning Theory and Pedagogy (Champaign, Illinois: Stipes Publishing Co., 1992). 4-5.

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Santucci 5 initiated trial-and-error practice via the NLP.”4 As teachers we should assist students greatly by providing them with ideal learning conditions; however, we, as instructors, require training and understanding to impart such knowledge correctly. A proven way to teach the basics of psychophysiological awareness and techniques is through “synthesis-analysis-synthesis,” or simply put, whole-part-whole.5 First the instructor introduces the concept, so in this case whole body awareness in conjunction with music making. Secondly the teacher breaks out the concept into parts, i.e., mental conception, concentration, body feedback, and posture. Finally, after careful examination of the ‘parts,’ the instructor then reintroduces the ‘whole’ or ‘synthesis.’ Emily Skala, flutist with the Baltimore Symphony and faculty member at Peabody Conservatory, is an example of a musician who suffered and recovered from injury and pain from the improper use of the body while making music and from the lack of instruction early on to prevent it. She now strives in her instruction to help each student shift one’s playing physically to experience the before and after, more effortlessly, more expansively, which facilitates music making.6 Specifically, she is trained in and uses the Feldenkrais Method with her students to address the psychophysiological aspect of teaching. As Michel Debost, world-renown flute pedagogue, says, “No pain, no gain. The puritan ethic does not always apply.” He goes on to state when talking about practicing and playing, “Effort, yes; pain, never.”7

4 5 6 7

Ibid., 58. Ibid., 80. Susan Hayes, "Baltimore Flutist Emily Skala," Feldenkrais Institute, no. March (1999): 1.

Michel Debost, The Simple Flute: From A to Z (Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), Flute Teaching. 224.

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Santucci 6 The anatomy and physiology of the tone-production mechanism is a crucial topic to study when learning how to become an instrumentalist and musician. Surprisingly, upon pondering past instruction, many realize a fairly insignificant amount of time was spent on the topic; especially time spent learning detailed and scientifically proven and correct information. Most of the time it is just left up to interpretation or the passing on of information from one’s previous instructor, whether scientifically correct or not! Considering the definition of an instrumentalist and thus output, should this topic not demand specific devotion to learning and the imparting of accurate information? According to Daniel Kohut regarding the instruction of anatomy and physiology of the tone-production mechanism, “We need to eliminate some of the confusion by exposing some of the myths and other erroneous concepts currently surrounding the subject. These need to be replaced with reliable information that can be used by teachers . . .” 8 One prime example of incorrect information that has been passed along over time from instructor to student is the incorrect understanding, improper use, and therefore instruction, of the ‘diaphragm.’ Sorry to break the news, but the ‘diaphragm’ is not what many instructors have been telling their students it is, nor does it function in the way they say. Inline with the inclusion of correct instruction on the topics of anatomy and physiology are the principles and methods of breathing. “The essence of all singing is tone, and breath is its life giving force. Breathing is fundamentally the most important aspect of playing any wind instrument. . . .Correct breathing, therefore, is an essential requisite to good performance, since it affects practically every aspect of tone production and musical expression. . . .Good tone production depends upon proper

8

Kohut, Musical Performance: 150.

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Santucci 7 function of all parts of the tone production mechanism.”9 Considering this theory of proper function for tone-production, would it not behoove instructors and pupils to learn the detailed mechanism and how to achieve this “good tone production?” It would be like asking a child to drive a car when they have yet to learn the key aspects of the car and how to make it drive; the child would irresponsibly be guessing and driving blindly. Consider this possibility; through effortless and painless playing, the performer will be able to achieve a much higher level of playing than someone with pain. This makes sense, right? If not, why else do world-class athletes visit chiropractors, acupuncturists, physical therapists or participate in yoga? Why do world-class athletes and musicians take pain medication when they have discomfort before a performance or an event? The answer is to relieve or get rid of stress and/or pain because it is distracting and lowers the chances of achieving the highest capabilities. Again, the old adage “no pain, no gain” is preposterous. So, the goal as instructors and students, should be to attain and maintain stress-free and pain-free playing. Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) is a major problem for musicians. As Sir James Galway said, “There is no way you can get carpal-tunnel when playing the flute properly, unless you play sixteen hours a day.”10 So let’s learn those techniques that many physical therapists and other professionals have researched and employ them to make us stronger, more efficient, and successful musicians. There are methods tested and proven to help attain this goal. World-class musicians and athletes alike are training and utilizing these methods because they have experienced firsthand the benefit. Some have even experienced

9

Ibid., 163.

10

Jesse Clark, "Arm Pain and Playing the Flute," Jesse Clark, http://www.fluteinfo.com/Health/ArmPain/ intro.html.

Copyright © 2012 Jaime Santucci MusicianConFuoco.com. All Rights Reserved.

Santucci 8 restoration of their capabilities that were once lost because of misuse and injury. These valuable methods are as follows: Body Mapping through the utilization of the Alexander Technique and Feldenkrais Method. Both the Alexander Technique (AT) and the Feldenkrais Method (FM) are often considered similar because they both teach people to become more aware of their coordination and how they move. However, while AT and FM share similar goals, the means by which they do it are quite distinct.11 Body mapping was developed by William Conable, professor of cello at Ohio State University School of Music. Conable observed many of his own students and came to the conclusion that students who had a good perception of how their bodies work, had much more responsive and expressive tone.12 Body mapping uses mental imagery, which is the first step in the NLP, to initiate the mapping. If one has imagined an improper or inadequate body map, the joints may be working harder than needed. As children most of us all had perfect body maps, but due to bad habits, most develop an improper concept of how certain parts of the body work.13 Body mapping is a perfect example of how to teach using whole-part-whole method. Body mapping is something that is learned just like talking or walking; it is learned through the National Learning Process. Through the use of and experiencing joints and limbs, a body map is established. Since the body map was learned at birth and then modified later in life, it can be changed.14 The flutist must develop inclusive attention. Inclusive attention is a

11

Nora Nausbaum, "What is the Difference Between the Alexander Technique and Feldenkrais Method?," Strings 64, no. Sept/October 1997 (1997).
12

Barbara Conable, What Every Musician Needs to Know About the Body (Oregon: Andover Press, 2000). 5.
13 14

Lea Pearson, Body Mapping for the Flutist (Columbus, OH: Flutibia Press, 2002). 19. Ibid., 20.

Copyright © 2012 Jaime Santucci MusicianConFuoco.com. All Rights Reserved.

Santucci 9 state where you are ware of all your surroundings and your placement. The goal as musicians is to be aware and know how to rid the body of stress and pain while playing. For example, if the body map for one’s wrists is incorrect, then one might use the wrists improperly. If a musician has pain in the wrists and understands how the wrists work from the body map, then the pain in the wrists is being caused by another part of the body.15 This is an inclusive awareness and knowledge of a correct body map. The Alexander Technique (AT) is a method of learning how to rid your body of excess pain. AT was discovered and established by Frederic Matthias Alexander when he lost his voice on stage in the 1890s. Alexander, also known as the “breathing man,” decided to investigate the reason. He discovered that the head-neck-back relationship is a key to good overall coordination and the elimination of habitual tension. Instead of exercises or manipulation, the student learns how to incorporate improved coordination in daily activities, including playing music. The Alexander Technique is taught on a oneto-one basis.16 He developed his technique to “re-educate,” through restoring conditions that have changed for the worse by subconscious bad habits. In particular, Alexander stated sage advice regarding playing the flute. He stated, “There is no activity of the fingers, lips, or breath which does not involve the whole organism: the head (with our wonderful brain), the neck (through which flows food for thought), and the torso (the engine, driving the whole unit). How to intelligently involve the whole self

15 16

Ibid., 21. Nausbaum, "What is the Difference Between the Alexander Technique and Feldenkrais Method?."

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Santucci 10 in one’s flute playing, naturally and spontaneously, is the purpose of the Alexander Technique.17 The Feldenkrais Method (FM) was developed in response to Moishe Feldenkrais’s own injuries during the 1940s. He drew from several sources including martial arts, (Judo and Tai Chi being a great source) what he knew of the Alexander Technique, psychology, and biomechanics. He was a black belt in judo and many of his ideas sought to evoke the qualities of that form: groundedness, grace, and ease. Specific criteria for well-organized movement includes using minimal effort, increasing the flexibility of the joints, and distributing effort evenly within the neuromuscular system. The method uses two formats: group work (movement sequences) and individual work (manipulation).18 As mentioned above, Repetitive Strain Injury is a major problem for musicians. Each method has its own approach. AT sees the root of RSI as an imbalance of the head relative to the top of the spine, creating a pattern of tension involving the neck, shoulder, arm, wrist, and hand. FM attacks RSI by ensuring, through manipulation, the body is comfortably stabilized with the larger muscles and larger bony segments responsible for as much movement as possible, thus helping the efficiency of using the hands. Through body mapping, AT, and FM, instructors and musicians will become aware of and learn how to correct and use habitual patterns and whole-body movement. The awareness of Psychophysiology through Perceptual Motor Learning and the

17

Alexander Murray, "The Alexander Technique and Flute Playing," The Insider's Guide to the Alexander Technique, http://www.alexandercenter.com/pa/fluteiii.html.
18

Nausbaum, "What is the Difference Between the Alexander Technique and Feldenkrais Method?."

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Santucci 11 Natural Learning Process is the most basic, but most important step in developing mature, healthy, and adept musicians and instructors. Breath, The Life Giving Force to Find Your ‘Voice’ So many times throughout history, famous pedagogues and performers have made statements connecting the voice and one’s skill of singing to that of not only playing the flute but ‘singing’ through the flute. William Bennett’s motto in teaching is “sing the music through the flute.”19 In other cases, voice not only refers to one’s speaking and singing ‘voice’ but the ‘voice of the flute.’ Sir James Galway describes one of the fundamentals of flute playing, the tone, as the “singing tone.” To Galway vibrato is the heart of “singing sonority.” It is the natural beat stemming from the rhythmic “HA” sound which must be and can only be sustained adequately through abdominal breathing and support. It is strictly correlated to musical expression and sound projection. This is why singing is so important in flute playing and why he so often reminds people that his first flute teacher was a singer, Muriel Dawn. He goes on to advise that listening to great voice soloists and singers are essential sources to draw inspiration.20 Marcel Moyse, one of the most famous French flutists of our time and direct successors in the line of original French Flute School masters, wrote technical method books and expanded his approach to include studies for the development of sounds and expression. He promotes a manner of playing linked to the naturalness of the human voice. His book Tone Development Through Interpretation, uses opera

19 20

University, "William Bennett Summer Flute Academy". Philippe Franḉois, "James Galway Back in Paris to the Origins of the French Flute School," (2008): 5-6.

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Santucci 12 melodies to teach students to sing through the instrument like a soprano or tenor.21 The human voice is our most natural musical instrument, since it exists within the body, it is, therefore, far more closely connected to the musical ear than any other musical instrument. The musical ear being where musical conception resides. Through singing, the player learns to develop the musical ear more thoroughly and establish good musical conception with greater clarity. Through singing, the instructor and player can evaluate the player’s musical mind’s accuracy via listening to the voice. This concept is not knew and has been around for centuries now, particularly developed throughout Europe and in particular, France.22 This is very insightful, especially regarding the correlation, to be discussed later in the paper, between learning French phonology during instrumental instruction. The French are expected to become reasonably proficient sight singers long before they are allowed to study an instrument. Transcending the expression and musical ear gained from incorporating singing into instrumental pedagogy, are the fundamentals derived from singing which are necessary for the ability to play any instrument. The crucial skill of breathing correctly to produce a sound is the foundation of playing any instrument. That ‘sound’ whether human voice or instrument tone, is developed and directly comes from the air generated from the lungs which then moves through the vocal chords in the throat, then through the mouth and eventually out of the body. One would think the logical steps to learning an instrument would be first, learning how to breath and lastly, learning how to project sound through use of the air.

21

Nina Perlove, "L'esprit franḉais: The Mysterious Workings of the French Flute School," Windplayer: For Woodwind and Brass Musicians, no. 60: 33.
22

Kohut, Musical Performance: 63.

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Santucci 13 Consider flute playing. What is the tone of the flute and what influences it? The flute tone is not just the tone made in the instrument, it is a complex combination of the flutist and the flute. The sound we hear is that of the air vibrating within the flute, but resonating within the body of the flutist. The air is blown across the edge of the embouchure hole, creating oscillation in and out of the flute, through the Bernoulli effect. The vibration passes not only forward from the embouchure into the flute, but back through the mouth, neck, and chest. The four primary resonators affecting the tone are the chest, neck (especially the vocal chords), mouth, and then the flute.23 The sinus cavities are resonators as well. The throat acts as a resonating tube in which the air flows. The vocal chords themselves have a resonant frequency which determines voice pitch.24 The vocal chords are held in the same position they would be if one were preparing to sing the note about to be played on the flute. Before a note is sung, there is a change in the throat when the vocal chords are brought to the correct position to sing the pitch. When the vocal chords are held in position to sing a given pitch, the throat is in position to resonate that pitch best! The accuracy of pitch is necessary for excellent flute tone. The mastery of throat tuning is achieved by practice of singing and of simultaneously singing and playing the flute. Pitch matching, like anything else, involves practice. Many musicians who have excellent hearing cannot control their voices well enough to match pitches well. The ear-voice connection develops through use, and is vital to all aspects of artistic flute playing.25

23

Robert Dick, "Tone Developement Through Extended Techniques," (St. Louis, MO: Multiple Breath Music Company, 1986), 9.
24 25

Ibid.

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Santucci 14 The Assimilable Language, French and Flute Playing France is known for so many beautiful and delightful attributes. The living and lifestyle has been described as lending itself to a more relaxed, temperate, and sweet way of life. According to Moyse, “Living is easy.” The French are full of passion, yet know how to enjoy and relax at the same time. The French language itself is known for its complexity, yet lush, open, and fluid sound and articulation. Is there something to be said about learning and teaching French parallel to learning to play the flute? Does the French Flute School really exist and if so, is it truly superior to any other style of flute playing? These are questions that have been researched and debated for some time and will continue to be in question as long as flute playing and music history exist. ‘Agree to disagree!‘ Even Michel Debost, world-renown flute pedagogue and Oberlin Conservatory Flute Professor, and Louis Moyse, (Marcel Moyse’s son) dislike categorizing musicians into national schools. Yet, “Finesse of tone and dynamics, a clear, singing sound, an infinite color palette, and a spirited yet thoughtful interpretive personality dedicated to the composer’s intentions” are the qualities most often cited in conversations and dissertations attempting to define the French Flute School of Playing.26 I believe there is something to be said about studying foreign language in conjunction with instrumental instruction. In particular for flute pedagogy, learning French. As Moyse stated, “I learned there was a true French School. It’s a language. . . .an assimilable language. I know, because the English assimilated it.”27 “Leone Buyse, Ransom Wilson, Linda Chesis and Robert Stallman are only a few of the

26 27

Ann McCutchan, Marcel Moyse: Voice of the Flute (Portland: Amadeus Press, 1994). 47. Ibid.

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Santucci 15 many prominent American flutists who were trained in France. They were immediately struck by the high level of playing. . . .incredible détaché [articulation], long phrases, beautiful and effortless tone production.” Ransom Wilson, Yale University Flute Professor, studied with Jean-Pierre Rampal. He said that Rampal believed that knowing French was an indispensable prerequisite to great flute playing. The idea seemed chauvinistic and comical to Wilson, however, he came to understand that speaking French well requires an incredible amount of control and discipline of the mouth, lips, tongue, throat and jaw muscles. Leone Buyse described their playing as with “sparkling articulation, technical security, energy and a fine concept of sound and timbral colors.” They soon realized the style of playing promoted open sound and lightening quick articulation.28 Many believe this fluidity in tone and articulation derives from the French language itself. In fact, Linda Chesis made a statement to me that a native French speaking child has a natural advantage. According to her, any French child could pick up a flute and naturally have the appropriate and optimum embouchure for flute playing.29 This is because in French pronunciation many sounds are produced in a forward position, leading to an immediacy of tone production and magically rapid articulation. At the same time, there is an amazing control required for the pronunciation of gutturals and sounds at the back of the throat and tongue. The French flute stye of playing is related to French pronunciation. “The French pronounce ‘eu‘ a certain way, and you [Americans] pronounce it ‘oo,‘ you see,” Moyse told an American reporter. The position of the mouth and the tongue required to speak French is a

28 29

Perlove, "L'esprit franḉais: The Mysterious Workings of the French Flute School." Linda Chesis, April 2012 2012.

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Santucci 16 natural one to produce the flute tone.30 According to Linda Chesis, for Americans it’s a combination of “oo” and “ee” in the forward part of the mouth. Combine that and you get the French “eu.”31 Articulation is crucial in speaking, singing, and playing. “Articulation implies the word article, a locution allowing the language to be clearer, more legible, more . . . Articulate . . . Each musical phrase can be taken as a spoken sentence, each element of this phrase as a word, and each note as a syllable. This, in turn, consists of consonants and vowels.” The sound equivalent of any syllable is unique to each language.32 Consider the “u” or “oo” vowel sound in various languages and the subtle changes and difference within the mouth to produce them. Just as consonant “t” and “d” can be more dental or forward than in other languages. The consonants and vowels are the primary factor shaping our sound and articulation. Especially the “attaching vowels” to the consonants. Where they fall within the mouth when produced, how the tongues lies, and the level of openness within the throat and nasal production are very important. According to Dr. Steven Weinberger, Professor of Linguistics at GMU, the French language is a more forward language. It has more front rounded vowels and “dental sounds.” In other words, the “d” and “t” are dental, which means they are softer and lighter. Thus providing for lighter and quicker tonguing on flute; attaching the front rounded vowels will produce the open sound so often spoken of above. When comparing French to English one can see the differences in forward and open vowels. See charts below:
30 31 32

McCutchan, Marcel Moyse: 47. Chesis. Debost, The Simple Flute: From A to Z: 26-27.

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Santucci 17 In French there are eight frontal vowels compared to five in English. Of those eight, three are rounded vowels, compared to only one in English. There are four vowels projected in the back of the mouth in French, all of which are rounded, compared to seven in English. More vowels in French are open and frontal which produce a more open and forward, quick or light sound production. FRENCH:

ENGLISH:

FRENCH:

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Santucci 18

ENGLISH:

In French, it is noted below the linguistics chart, “t,d,n,s,z,n” consonants are ALL dentalized.33 This is very important because the “t,d,k,g” are all used for tonguing.34 The further forward or dental, the clearer and more articulate, as opposed to guttural. Attach the appropriate vowel and you have sound production for flute playing.
33 34

Dr. Steven Weinberger, April 2012 2012. Debost, The Simple Flute: From A to Z: 26-27.

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Santucci 19 James Galway’s teacher, Muriel Dawn, as mentioned earlier, was not only a singer, but she taught the French style of flute playing from the Paris Conservatoire. She taught Galway how to modify the position of his lips and avert him from the English “smiling” and tight embouchure. Galway consistently emphasizes the qualities of this relaxed and controlled embouchure in his masterclasses. After fifty years it has never failed him under any circumstances. However demanding the score, his embouchure is the basis of a reliable and flexible tone in all registers of the flute.35 Conclusion The intent of this paper was to provide enough evidence and support to justify the argument of altering current instrumental methodology to that of a more holistic instructional approach. A combined and concurrent application of the skills and techniques as mentioned in the paper should occur at all levels of instruction. The holistic approach should include psychophysiology training for understanding of various physiological methods (body mapping, the Alexander Technique, and the Feldenkrais Method), the inclusion of vocal study, and study of the French language and phonology. To develop and produce educated music professionals, instruction on the topics mentioned above are imperative. The study of this information should be standard within a top-to-bottom level educational approach. Otherwise, where will the inclusive and far-reaching musicians come from? How else will the music community and educators evolve to create comprehensively functioning musicians? “In a nutshell. Involve your whole body in your playing, from the ground up.” [Michel Debost]36 The

35 36

Franḉois, "James Galway and French Flute School," 1-2. Debost, The Simple Flute: From A to Z: 26.

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Santucci 20 goal, as J.J. Quantz stated, is to produce “skilled and intelligent musicians.” 37 The knowledge and information is at our fingertips. Let’s grasp it and use it to enhance our expertise!

Bibliography
Chesis, Linda. April 2012 2012. Clark, Jesse. "Arm Pain and Playing the Flute." Jesse Clark, http://www.fluteinfo.com/ Health/ArmPain/intro.html. Conable, Barbara. What Every Musician Needs to Know About the Body. Oregon: Andover Press, 2000. Debost, Michel. The Simple Flute: From a to Z. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Flute Teaching. Dick, Robert. "Tone Developement through Extended Techniques." 59. St. Louis, MO: Multiple Breath Music Company, 1986. Franḉois, Philippe. "James Galway Back in Paris to the Origins of the French Flute School." (November 2008 2008): 8. Hayes, Susan. "Baltimore Flutist Emily Skala." Feldenkrais Institute, no. March (1999). Kohut, Daniel L. Musical Performance Learning Theory and Pedagogy. Champaign, Illinois: Stipes Publishing Co., 1992. McCutchan, Ann. Marcel Moyse: Voice of the Flute. Portland: Amadeus Press, 1994. Murray, Alexander. "The Alexander Technique and Flute Playing." The Insider's Guide to the Alexander Technique, http://www.alexandercenter.com/pa/fluteiii.html. Nausbaum, Nora. "What Is the Difference between the Alexander Technique and Feldenkrais Method?". Strings 64, no. Sept/October 1997 (1997 1997). Nave, C.R. "Hyperphysics." Georgia State University, http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/music/voice.html. Pearson, Lea. Body Mapping for the Flutist. Columbus, OH: Flutibia Press, 2002. Perlove, Nina. "L'esprit Franḉais: The Mysterious Workings of the French Flute School." Windplayer: For Woodwind and Brass Musicians, no. 60 (1999. Quantz, J.J. On Flute Playing. Translated and edited by Edward R. Reilly. 2 ed.: Northeastern University Press, 2011. Flute Method Treatise Manuscript. 1752. University, Austin Peay State. "William Bennett Summer Flute Academy." http:// www.apsu.edu/music/william-bennett-summer-flute-academy-home-0. Weinberger, Dr. Steven. April 2012 2012.

37

Quantz, J.J. Quantz Flute Playing: ix.

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...PARADIGM SHIFTS: PAPERBACKS TO E-BOOKS. A paradigm shift is a change from one way of thinking or doing to another. Thomas Kuhn wrote in his book, The Structure of Scientific Revolution published in 1962, that scientific advancement is not evolutionary, but rather is a “series of peaceful interludes punctuated by intellectually violent revolutions”, and in those revolutions “one conceptual world view is replaced by another” It doesn’t just happen, but is driven by agents of change. In this paper I will look at the shift from paperback books to e-books or e-readers. Paperback books have been around for over a thousand years. The first paperback book was said to have been published in the 6th century during the Tang dynasty in china. Before that books were written on pieces of paper and sewn or lashed together with twine or leather. Horace mentioned booksellers in ancient Rome. Publishing books arose out of the need to make copies of manuscripts and other religious articles. The first real movable set printing was invented in the middle of the 14th century by Johann Gutenberg. He is most famous for the Gutenberg bible, which he completed between 1450 and 1455. Early documentation says that a total of 200 copies were printed on rag cotton linen paper, and 30 copies on velum animal skin. It’s not exactly known how many copies were actually printed. By the middle of the 15th century mass publishing and printing had taken off in Europe. The Elzevir family of Holland was...

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Paradigm Shift

...Paradigm Shift Jonathan Park Problem Solving Theory ITT Abstract There are many technologies that have drastically change the world that we live in. One of those technologies is Nanotechnology. Nanotechnology refers to materials, applications and processes designed to work on extremely tiny scales. Nanotechnology is being used every day in healthcare products, technology, cosmetics, sports equipment, food and agriculture, and usually people are none the wiser that they are using products with nanotechnology in it. This paper will discuss three different impacts that nanotechnology has had in our lives today and then how it might change how we live in the future. Paradigm Shift Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. Nanotechnology has many implementations but the three specific ones this paper will talk about are the effects that it has had on the environmental, agricultural, and technological aspects of our lives today and how it may even grow to change our lives in the future. Nanotechnology was first introduced by Nobel laureate Professor Richard P. Feynman in a 1959 lecture titled "There's plenty of room at the bottom,” at this time however nanotechnology was based on theoretical speculation. Since then nanotechnology has become a reality and is now, today among the fastest growing areas of science. In order to improve the environment nanotechnology is currently being used in several applications, such as......

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...Paradigm Shift Problem Solving Theory ITT Technical Institute: School of Information Technology Over the years, technology has come a long way. Computers went from taking up a whole room, to only requiring a desk space. Telephones went from requiring a wire, to wireless and touch screen. Thinking of what is to come in the future brings up many possibilities. There are three things that cell phones may change how we in live in 20 years; competition, market size, and technology improvement. Cell phones are wireless devices that one can use to communicate with others by calling or texting. Some can also access the internet and some are even Wi-Fi capable. The market for cell phones in today`s society is very competitive because companies offer the same products and services but has a different physical appearance. Companies lower the cost to attract customers. Customers want good service and a reliable product for a affordable price. When companies make their products more affordable, it attracts more customers, which increases the competition. Companies have to come up with something better for an affordable price over the years to keep attracting customers. The competition in 20 years will most likely be outrageous, especially with the industry growing every day. The cell phone industry is growing larger every day because a cell phone is now considered a necessity. Parents buy their children cell phones to keep contact with them and communicate with one another...

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Paradigm Shift

...Paradigm Shift Christopher Kutz NT1110 This paper will discuss how video games and how it has effected people. We will also discuss if video games create jobs for people and how it affects the economy. Also what might prevent them from advancing? And what might make it obsolete? Video games have become a part of every day. People use the daily for entertainment from Phones, video arcades and gaming consoles. The purpose of video games is for entertainment or to just pass time while waiting in line for your daily coffee or in-between classes. Video games have become increasingly better more and more popular with better graphics story lines and the online capability to lay with random people across the world. Kids these days spend more time playing video games than they do outside with friends like when I was a kid. On the upside with online playing kids and adults are learning to be better communicators and pick up on other traits as well like confidence, and teamwork. Some games make you use your head and strategize to achieve a certain task. Video games have good and bad effects on people I guess it just depends which side of the fence you choose to be on. Video games have created many jobs for people like programmers, game testers, story writers and the graphic design team responsible for making it seem as real as possible. They have also created jobs in other fields like the game exchange businesses all over the world. The video game...

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Paradigm Shift

...Paradigm Shift: Televisions Think of a paradigm shift as a change from one way of thinking to another. Home entertainment has advanced rapidly over the course of the last decade. From VHS to DVD, CD players, surround sound systems, and televisions. The most common technology people have in their homes is the TV. A television is a system for transmitting visual images and sound that are reproduced on screens, generally used to broadcast programs for entertainment, information, and education. Televisions have evolved from the big boxes with antennas on top to a sleek more attractive trend that people will spend anywhere from $500 to $5000 on. Within the next two decades I believe that today’s television will be in a museum. In twenty years I presume that the impact of televisions will rapidly advance. The television, though used generally for entertainment, will soon be used for more than just that. Social dynamics and synergistic experiences will drive more event-based viewing. While the viewing landscape grows increasingly fractured, consumers still want to be part of the collective social experience of events such as the Super Bowl or the Grammy Awards. If content creators can build a strong social experience around a program (e.g., gaming and other social second screen experiences) viewers will not want to be left out and be driven back to the screen. Bingeing will drive more innovation in measurement and personalization. “M&E companies will need to measure......

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...Paradigm Shifts Today’s cars technology are on the rises. For so many years, cars have been part of ours everyday lives. We uses cars to get from one place to another within the city and out of towns. Apparently, cars could save us lot of times through traveling. Cars had been upgraded and improved ever since. Like nowadays, we now have a driverless car which still waiting for approval from the government. What will happen in the next 20 years from now, if our cars technology are improving much more than what we actually have? I thinks that if we continue with the technology that we have now, we'll be in greater advance in the next 20 years or so. The futures cars will be flying in the air like in the movies called (“Back To The Future” and “The Fifth Element”). Ours future cars most likely be able to flow in midair by having magnet on the bottom of the cars and the roads should be made of magnet with the opposite side of magnetism, which will forces and lifts up the car in midair by the magnet from the car and the road. The Car should have a fan in the back which will be powered by electricity battery system motor. While the motor is being turn on, it will generate the power and move the car forward or backward in midair (kind of like the hovercraft designed by Christopher Cockerell back in 1955). The only different is that the car will be in midair but not in water or land. The first impact is on rules and regulations of traffic. The cars are no longer using the roads...

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Paradigm Shift

...Paradigm Shift ITT Technical Institute A paradigm shift is the term used by Thomas Kuhn in his book “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” written in 1962 to describe a change in basic assumptions within the ruling theory of science. It is in contrast of his idea of what normal science was. What is a paradigm? A paradigm is perception, values and practices shared by a particular group and how that group organizes itself. That would make a paradigm shift a change in how things are seen and viewed and how they will change the way that particular group reacts with the shift. A technological example of a technological paradigm shift could be a personal computer and how it has evolved and changed society. Keep in mind throughout this paper my shift is based on the personal computer and not to be confused with the first computer invented. A personal computer can be defined by its size and capabilities that allow it to be more convenient for the end user. The first personal computer that was commercially available was the Programma 101. It was produced by an Italian company named Olivetti. It was invented by an engineer named, Pier Giorgio Perotto at a cost of $3200 in 1965. It allowed users to access applications such as word processing, data management, financial matters, and computer games. The term personal computer is described as a machine that used a microprocessor to execute applications. However, computers didn’t evolve to meet the standards of society until the...

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Paradigm Shift

...Paradigm Shift Problem Solving Theory Research Paper 1 October 2, 2014 What is a Paradigm Shift? A paradigm shift is defined as a “radical change in an underlying theory” (taketheleap.com). Thomas Kuhn in 1962 describes Paradigm shift as when new knowledge replaces old knowledge (www.taketheleap.com) In technology there has been a definite paradigm shift. Globally we use technology in our daily lives. The Paradigm shift in technology began at the creation of the PC, following internet. Technology impacts our personal, business, education and recreation. (www.taketheleap.com) Just think of the baby boomers and older adults. They have had to adjust to a huge paradigm shift in technology throughout their life time. Going from only having access to radio, to black and white TV, to Colored TV, now HD and 3D. To function in society it is almost impossible to do without some sort of technological device. Whether it be a tablet, laptop, PC or smartphone, we need them in our daily lives. This can be frustrating to the baby boomers. They have had to completely change the way they are able to get through their daily lives, banking, paying bills, email, social network media. To some it makes sense it is easier, everything is at your fingertips. Our children on the other hand have no idea what it is like not to have technology. When our children begin school and they are used to learning programs on computers, phones and tablets, now have to use a pencil and paper to apply......

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...Paradigm Shift Joshua Hall GS1140 Cheri Meadowlark Nothing is more troublesome than coming home after a long day’s work only to realize you have to make a trip to the grocery store. Crowded isles, long checkout lines, and the inability to find some items make even the smallest of grocery list a daunting task. New technology seeks to improve the consumer shopping experience making it as easy as walking in and walking out. Grocery stores date back as early as the 14th century when only bulk dry goods were sold. Shopping list were handed to a grocer behind the counter who would pick and package your items for you. That all changed in 1916 when a paradigm shift in the grocery store science occurred. Clarence Saunders opened the first Piggly Wiggly in Memphis Tennessee. This was the first self-service grocery store that allowed consumers to pick their own items and then be checked out. A lot of things have changed since the first Piggly Wiggly and the grocery store is growing more convenient every day. The grocery store of today has many modern conveniences such as digital coupons, customer loyalty cards, and even self-checkout. Many grocery stores today offer pre prepared meals for more convenience. Stores often utilize the one stop shopping mentality offering a wide variety of items from greeting cards and flowers to movies and clothing. The development of store brand goods has also helped consumers save money; in fact it is estimated to save......

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...organisational development, change practitioners teams, as well an organisational strategy ownersand various employees. The aim of the interviews were informal conversations about leadership capacity, change and building innovation and resilience to change within the bank and it’s various business units. Background As the global economies scrabbled to recover, they were also redefining themselves. Gippel (2012) citing Lo, 2011) talks about ‘a new world order’ and the need for a complete ‘ paradigm shift’ to understand and cope with the new way people – customers and shareholders – see the banking world. The dominant values and norms of banking world that Durkheim (1893) describes are trustworthiness, tradition and conservative values. Up until 2007, the description still suited the large Australian financial institutions, which were by definition stable, dependable organisations, that were heavily regulated and traditional. Post GFC, Australian banking and it’s reputation had a fundamental shift. Although a heavily regulated environment saved the local industry from heavy losses, the culture of the sector was called into question. In this environment, a radical change of culture, inward and externally, was needed, and a different style of leadership was needed to bring the change about. Since 2007, the bank has undergone wave after wave of leadership change, and has recently appointed it’s third CEO. The bank’s previous CEO, appointed in 2008, represented a strong,......

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Paradigm Shifts

...Paradigm Shifts A paradigm shift is a shift in world view which occurs whenever there is a period of stagnation and presents a radical new idea, such as the transition from steam to combustion engines. If paradigm shifts occur at an exponential rate, change approaches infinite, and is expected to reach a singularity where after that point; nothing can be known which NASA has categorized it as an impending event, estimated for 2035. As paradigm shifts occur exponentially, so will the symptoms of the Dark Age be exacerbated including the five beneficent pillars. The meanings of words exponentially vary causing lexical complexity to decay along with the ability to discern reality until it is virtual due to semantic shifts. The severity of higher education may soon become nil as nanotechnology will allow scanning of the brain thus, all thoughts, memories and knowledge can be transferred, recreated or stored for another human. Science and technology won’t help us master reality but instead further enslave the population due to greater dependences on things like nanotechnology to fight disease. Since that is power, governments will ignore needs and possibilities to focus on the prior, and no opposition will exist as semantic shifts further confuse population and government between mechanism and purpose. Finally, the individual must constantly adapt to growing environments due to paradigm shifts, and therefore causes greater inauthenticity which leads to greater ironic detachment.......

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Paradigm Shift

...Paradigm Shift-GPS A technology currently in use is the global positioning system or GPS. The GPS is a network of about thirty satellites orbiting the earth. The satellites emit radio signals that can be received by anyone with a GPS device. (How Does GPS work?, April 2012) These devices are available through cell phones and handheld GPS units to name a few. For example, your GPS enabled cell phone can receive signals from the satellites which calculates your location by how long it takes for the messages to arrive between satellites. (How Does GPS Work?, April 2012) GPS is used daily today. A common use is for it is to find an exact location. Many people have upgraded to GPS from maps made of paper. Today a handheld GPS device can show you turn-by-turn directions as well as a satellite view. Today's GPS devices are also equipped with audio which tells you which direction to go. The GPS has impacted the medical field by helping them to improve faster response times. Emergency medical workers are able to locate injured people much faster via medical helicopters or ambulance by receiving their location or address and being able to get to them directly. The same goes for law enforcement to aide in 911 calls. Many car service companies generate more revenue because of GPS. Once again faster response time play a key role. For example, a taxi company can locate their customers faster as well as the customer's destination. ...

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Paradigm Shift

...Paradigm Shift Paper Introduction The cell phone revolutionized the way communicate and interact with other and into society. The first Cell Phone was invented by Martin Cooper in 1973. The first phone was called the DynaTac 8000x it weighed 2.5 pounds and measured up to 10inches, giving it the nickname “The Brick”. The phone only had 20 minutes of use before it needed to be recharged for 10 hours. Now cell phones are much smaller and more compact, calls last much longer than 20 minutes and charge time usually is 30 mins or less. With the advance in technology Cell phones can do more than just make calls. So the question now is what’s next for cell phones, how will they change the way we live in the next 20 years? Summary of Key Findings The impact cell phones had on people as a whole was huge. To be able to tell people that you have the opportunity to call any of your loved ones wherever they are in the world, without being stuck in your car or at home, but while you’re at the store or at the park or even walking your dog. That is an impact on its own many people have loved ones who are miles and miles away from them, limited to a letter in the mail or a postcard. Cellphones aren’t limited to just calls in this day and age. Text Messaging, Games, Web Browsing, Video Chat, even using your phone to pay for items with a digital wallet and Credit Card. Cellphones are being engineered so that people won’t need a long list of things to do on different platforms. If you could......

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Paradigm Shift

...a significant change in the paradigm of any discipline or group: “Putting skilled, tenured teachers in failing schools would cause a paradigm shift in teaching and education.” 08 Fall Paradigm Shift A Paradigm Shift is not just a small change in science, or the modification of a theory. It is a scientific revolution and completely changes the way in which science looks at the world. It often dictates how the public looks at the world. A paradigm shift is often the result of scientists working at the fringe of the paradigm, performing research that most other researchers feel is a little misguided, or a dead end. In most instances, this view is correct but, every so often, a scientist has a revelation. More often than not, they feel the weight of scientific and public opinion, and become ridiculed. However, slowly but surely, other scientists try out the research, and a few lost voices in the wilderness increase into a new way of thinking. For example, explorations of chaos theory took a long time to take root, and his ideas were marginalized, because they lay outside the established classical paradigm of physics. Early Chaos Theorists found difficulties in receiving funding, finding supervisors, and finding journals willing to publish their research. Kuhn’s paradigm definition is a little more than a theory, although the terms are often used interchangeably. It is a complete and overall view of a phenomenon, often relying upon some basic principles. This process......

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