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Auschwitz was a network of both a concentration and extermination camp built by the Nazis in 1940, during World War II. It consisted of Auschwitz I (the original camp), Auschwitz II–Birkenau (a combination concentration / extermination camp), Auschwitz III–Monowitz (a labor camp to staff an IG Farben factory), and 45 satellite camps. The Germans isolated all the camps and sub-camps from the outside world and surrounded them with barbed wire fencing. All contact with the outside world was forbidden. Auschwitz was the largest of the Nazi's camps and the most streamlined mass killing center ever created. At least 1.1 million prisoners died at Auschwitz, around 90 percent of them Jewish; approximately 1 in 6 Jews killed in the Holocaust died at the camp. The construction of 4 large gas chambers and crematoria began in Birkenau in 1942. They went into operation between March 22 and June 25-26, 1943. The gas chambers at crematoria II and III, like the undressing rooms, were located underground, while those at crematoria IV and V stood at ground level. About 2 thousand people at a time could be put to death in each of them. All Jews classified because of their age or physical condition as unfit for labor were subject to immediate extermination directly after their arrival in the camp, without being registered or assigned a number.

Character and Traits | Courage; Type; Page # | Cowardice; Page # | Scout: Adventurous, intelligent, confident, tough | When Atticus decides to stand alone outside the jail to defend Tom Robinson against the lynch mob, one of the men “nearly yanked Jem of his feet”. Consequently, Scout defends her brother by kicking the man which causes him to fall back in pain. | Dill and Jem hatch a plan to peep into a window with the loose shutter at the Radley house in order to attempt to see Boo. They expect Scout to join them, however she is reluctant and decides to stay back. | Jem: stubborn, protective, curious | When Atticus decides to stand alone outside the jail to defend Tom Robinson against the lynch mob, one of the men “nearly yanked Jem of his feet”. Consequently, Scout defends her brother by kicking the man which causes him to fall back in pain.When Dill says that Jem is too scared to put his toe in the Radley's front yard, Jem displays his bravery by going over to touch the house even though is reluctant and a bit scared. By overcoming his fear, Jem shows courage and determination. | | Atticus: Fair, caring, kind, understanding, courageous | Atticus displays, accepts the appointment to Tom Robinson's case — despite the fact that he courage doesn't like criminal law, knows before the trial begins that he's going to lose. Atticus is also aware that the people of Maycomb who want Tom Robinson dead, may turn their anger against him for defending Tom. | | Tom Robinson: Helpful, loyal, kind, goodnatured | Tom Robinson illustrates courage by testifying at court, even though he knew the jury would not take a black man's word against a white woman's. He was fearless in the truthful and descriptive account of the incident, despite how shocking it was. | Tom Robinson illustrates cowardice by trying to escape from prison, instead of waiting for his trial. | Mr.Ewell: Cruel, shady, disrespectful, menacing, | | Mr. Ewell displays cowardice by attacking Jem and Scout, two helpless children instead of confronting their father. | Mayella Ewell: Lonely,insecure | Tom Robinson and her insistence on lying to protect her debauched and abusive father, Mayella tries to defend herself in front of a judgmental audience. She is courageous in the sense that she tries to maintain self-dignity while on the stand. | Myella Ewell displays cowardice on her part by refusing to tell the truth on the stand and face the consequences of her actions. Instead she lies about the events that actually occurred in order to save her face. | Mrs. Dubose: Cranky, blunt, rude, unhappy, determined. | Mrs. Dubose is a good model of courage because she recognizes she has a flaw and that she has to fix. She is addicted to Morphine and makes a goal to die free of her weakness. She goes through a time of withdrawal that is difficult to survive. It still takes a great amount of self-confidence to be able to recognize that one has a flaw and even more to do something about it. | One afternoon, as Jem and Scout pass Mrs. Dubose on their way into town, she makes a loud and disparaging remark about Atticus "lawing for niggers" (110). She growls, "Your father's no better than the niggers and trash he works for!" (110). |

Taiwan Colonization
The island of Taiwan is located 120 kilometers off southeastern coast of Mainland China. The island has been inhabited for thousands of years, and was first discovered by the European sin 1544. Taiwan is surrounded by the East China Sea on its north, South China Sea to southeast and Philippine Sea to the east. The islands geographical area coverage is approximately 13,823 square miles. The shape of the island is similar to a sweet potato, therefore the Taiwanese people sometimes refers themselves as “Children of the Sweet Potato.” The name of the state that governs the island of Taiwan is actually the Republic of China. Because Taiwan is by far the largest island under its jurisdiction, and contains most of its population, the republic itself is commonly referred to as Taiwan, though it also incorporates a handful of smaller islands

Between 1895 and 1945 Taiwan was ruled by Empire of Japan. The Japanese, who had had their eye on Taiwan since the late 16th century, succeeded in gaining control of the island after China was defeated in the First Sino-Japanese War from 1894 to 1895. The expansion into Taiwan was a part of Imperial Japan's general policy of southward expansion during the late 19th century. Following the Sino-Japanese war, the Ch'ing ambassador Li Hung-chang was sent to Japan to conclude peace terms. The result was the Treaty of Shimonoseki of 1895, by the terms of which Taiwan was ceded to the Japanese.

When the residents of Taiwan learned that they were to be ceded to Japan, there was a fiery reaction. Shops shut down and general strikes were held, to express the people's opposition and to beg the government to reject this treaty ceding them over to foreign rule. When it was seen that all such protests were of no avail, the provincial government attempted to take matters into its own hands, vowing to fight the Japanese occupation to the death.

The province of Taiwan was renamed the Democratic Nation of Taiwan, and the provincial governor T'ang Ching-sung, now declared president, prepared to lead his people in a war of resistance against the Japanese. Imperialists who learned about this plan dispatched troops to take the island by force. On June 6, 1895, the Japanese force avoided the challenging fortifications at Keelung and Tam- sui and landed at Ao-di to occupy Taipei' city. As they pushed south, they were repeatedly confronted by Chinese resistance fighters with heavy losses on both sides. By September, however, all resistance had collapsed and the whole of Taiwan had fallen under Japanese rule.

The Japanese maintained a policy of repression to keep the people of Taiwan in a state of powerlessness. The Taiwanese population was reduced to a life of great hardship and suffered all manner of deprivations. After the Japanese invasion of China, the Japanese authorities set out to eliminate Chinese customs and the Chinese way of life in Taiwan.
The authorities strived to make the Taiwanese adapt to the Japanese ways of life. The Japanese tried to achieve their purpose of fostering their lifestyle and culture on the Taiwanese by promoting Japanese as the official language, encouraging the Taiwanese to follow Japanese traditions as well as dressing and even making the Taiwanese worship their Gods.

With the end of World War II, Taiwan was placed under the administrative control of the Republic of China by the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) after 50 years of colonial rule by Japan.

Bertha Adler

Bertha Adler, the second of two daughters was born on June 20th, 1928 in a village in Selo-Solotivina, Czechoslovakia to Yiddish speaking Jewish parents. Soon after Bertha was born, her parents moved the family to Liege, an industrial, largely Catholic city in Belgium that had many immigrants from Eastern Europe. At school, Bertha spoke French, and at home she spoke Yiddish. Sometimes her parents spoke Hungarian to each other, a language they had learned while growing up. Bertha's mother, who was religious, made sure that she also studied Hebrew Bertha, as instructed by her mother also encouraged her to practice of Hebrew. In 1940-44 when Bertha was 11, the Germans occupied Liege. Two years later, the Adlers, along with all the Jews, were ordered to register and Bertha and her sisters were forced out of school. Some close Catholic friends helped the Adlers obtain false identities and rented them house in a nearby village. Things took a turn for the worse when Berthas father fell ill one Friday, and was admitted in the hospital. Bertha promised to visit him in the hospital and bring him shaving cream. That Sunday, the Adler family was awakened at 5 a.m. by the Gestapo. They had been discovered. Fifteen-year-old Bertha was deported to Auschwitz on May 19, 1944. She was tragically gassed there two days later.

Dear Diary,
Things took a tragic turn for the worse today. Our kind Catholic friends aided us in obtaining false identities and rented us a house in a neighboring village. However, the Gestapo soon discovered our whereabouts, and are now sending us to Aushawitz, a concentration camp ten miles away. Never in my life have I witnessed people as cruel and merciless as the Gestapo. They treated as though we were worthless animals, not human beings. I feel extremely helpless and frightened. My worst fear is to be separated from my family. Additionally, on Friday, my father fell ill and was admitted to the hospital. I hope and pray that he will be able to muster up enough strength to endure the journey to the camp. My life has been completely turned upside down in a matter of a few days. I do not know what lies ahead of me or what is in store for my future. As of now, I am trying to stay positive and not lose faith. I hope that someday, my life will return to how it once was.

Terror I yelled against the wind Everyone lives and dies Don’t cry Don’t waste your tears I felt weak It was very cold I was afraid Then Terror Possessed me




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