Free Essay

Bio Organisms in Water

In: Science

Submitted By navo77
Words 707
Pages 3
Energy and nutrients – Chapter 7
Sources of energy: light, organic, and inorganic molecules

Rate of energy acquisition is limited
Optimal foraging theory helps explain choice and location of food items

Question:

How on Earth life is being fed ?

Energy use and kingdoms
How energy is obtained? Who captures Bacteria the most? What is the message here? What is PAR? (next) Animals Protists Heterotrophic PhotoChemosynthetic trophic

 








Plants
Fungi




 

1

Energy use and kingdoms
What is PAR? Photosynthetically active radiation Measured by photon flux. Photon flux – the number of photons striking 1m2/second Visible light (400-700 nanometers) carries ~45% of solar energy at sea level Three pathways for using this energy: 1. C3 (photosynthesis) – C3 plants 2. C4 – C4 plants 3. CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism)

Question:
What ecological consequences do these biochemical pathways of photosynthesis have?

C3 vs C4 plants
C4 plants use lower concentration of CO 2: - can afford to open stomata less than C 3 plants - conserve water The two pathways involve different number of carbon atoms in the initial photosynthate (3 vs 4) CAM plants combine day and night phases with C 3 pathway – very efficient water use

2

Question:
Are needs for nitrogen different between plants and animals? If yes, why?

Why does nitrogen take center stage?
Can you get nitrogen from the air (recall 1M03)?

What is it for?

So, how do we get it?
Do all organisms contain the same amount of nitrogen? C:N ratio (concept)

C:N ratio
C:N ratio tells us if the biomass is rich in protein Since animals, bacteria, and fungi have low C:N ratios, they must obtain much more nitrogen per unit of biomass (or C): Eating plants or each other is a solution Some plant material is of low value
Explains why many buffalo, antelopes but few lumber jacks .

High C:N ratio; low nutrition value – do not feed children with wood chips

Low C:N ratio; high nutrition value

3

Question:
But what is the plant perspective on the preference for greens?

Predation shapes plant chemistry
Both marine and terrestrial plants are more defended in the tropics
Why? More consistent and diverse attacks on plants in the tropics Result: a suite of anti-predatory defenses

Flexibility in resource use
Because nutritional values of various prey is similar, it allows predators to match their diet to what is locally available European otter diet changes from north to south; note the fish are in blue

Portugal England Shetlands

4

Chemical energy
In ocean depths, a different chain of energy acquisition develops

Symbiosis
Symbiosis is quite common; nitrogen fixing, corals, …

Question:
Does the amount of food consumed change depending on how much is available?

Is this change regular or can it take different forms?

Functional responses
How much a predator eats depends on prey density But it does not depend in the same way ..
Three types of response: Shapes: - linear - gradually saturating - slow to start They tell us how an animal finds or handles prey glutton

mechanical

connoisseur

5

Optimal foraging theory
Is based on balancing the energy invested and energy gained (optimization)
Can be applied to plants; helps predict the best way of using water and nutrients Low prey capture rate and high search effort are bad news

Optimization in plants
Root length changes in response to water availability? Same applies to other nutrients – plants optimize resource allocation
Root:shoot ratio – a measure of relative importance of above and below ground parts
Root:shoot ratio

More nitrogen -> less roots relative to the rest of the plant

Question:
Can a simple theoretical index (C:N ratio) help with management of environmental problems?

How, any suggestions?

6

Applying C:N ratio knowledge
Cyanide, CN, removed from gold mine ore Ore contains much N (1:1 ratio) but not much carbon

Bacteria eating CN have C:N = 5, so …
Thus adding sugar (C) to the ore speeds consumption of CN

Summary
Organisms use three sources of energy: light, organic, and inorganic molecules Only a fraction of energy contained in the three sources can effectively be used Optimum foraging theory helps to understand how costs and benefits of energy acquisition affects organisms (reading, skip math) Knowledge of nutrient requirements aids in new technologies (sewage, toxic compounds)

7…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Organism Physiology Paper

...Organism Physiology Paper BIO 101 10/27/2012 Hossam Ashour An organism that I had always found interesting to learn about is a snail. A snail, along with other organisms including clams, mussels, slugs, octopuses, squids and oysters are all in the same group of invertebrates called molluscs. There are two types of molluscs, land and marine molluscs. The purpose of this paper is to identify how molluscs evolve physiologically to become suited to its environment. Molluscs are soft-bodied animals, but most are protected by a hard shell (Dr. Anthoni, 2007). Some molluscs have internal shells that are internal that eventually fall off during the evolution process. One thing that seemed to intrigue me was how snails eat and survive. Snails, like many other molluscs have an organ call radula used to scoop up food. Snails use the radula to cut food into smaller pieces before eating it. In the diagram, the main organs shown are the heart, kidney, lung, genitals, stomach and the liver. One of three main parts of molluscs is the visceral mass which is where most of the internal organs are located. A snail falls under one of three major groups of a mollusc called gastropods. Most of these animals have a protected shell. A snail’s internal organs include the following: lung, digestive organs, a kidney, liver and reproductive organs which most were shown in the diagram of a mollusc. It can be very dangerous for a snail in terms of surviving and evolving. Due to their small size......

Words: 567 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Organism Physiology

...Organism Physiology Paper Bonnie Espanol BIO/101 October 9, 2012 Audrey Stevenson Organism Physiology Organism Physiology is the method in which many diverse living organisms are considered to have developed from earlier forms during the history of the earth that can be defined as Evolution. Several organisms have evolved as a result of environmental changes within their habitats. To understand better this paper will examine a diagram of a dolphin and give details about how the dolphin has evolved physiologically and has become adapted to fit the environment. Dolphin Characteristics Dolphins inhabit all oceans and the seven seas; some also inhabit larger river systems. Dolphins are extremely social organism and use communication for the function of hunting, defense, and reproduction. In general a dolphins live pods of up to a dozen individuals. Dolphin pods can emerge temporally forming a superpod the emerging pods may exceed thousands of dolphins. Attachments in pods are not set; interchange is regular. On the other hand, dolphins can generate great social bonds; they will remain with wounded or individuals in poor health, even assisting other dolphins to breathe by bringing them to the surface if required. Dolphins are carnivores their diet consists of fish, squid, octopus, cuttlefish, crabs, shrimps, and lobsters. Dolphins are a food source for sharks, and killer whales. The most dangerous predator for the dolphin is humankind. Man slaughters......

Words: 877 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Organism Physiology Paper

...Organism Physiology Monroe Handy Bio/101 June 9, 2013 Shawn Flanagan At the source of the tree of life lies a single- celled living thing, the 3.8 billion years old ancestor that gave rise to all of following life types. All living things are descendants of that ancestor and on the surface, it might not appear just like all living things are associated, however appearance may be misleading. A living thing regardless of how small or large has gone through modifications all through history. An organism development is significant to the existence of the types. As time alters so should the living thing. Without adjusting to these types of modifications the living thing won't exist and vanish. In this document it will be reviewed on the way the dolphin developed into the living thing that it's today to adjust to their surroundings. Dolphins have adapted their anatomic structures to survive in the water environment and so far, the behavior of their respiratory system during diving has not been fully understood, since they being protected species cannot be subjected to invasive analysis (“Experimental and computational biomechanical characterization of the tracheo-bronchial tree of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates) during diving,” 2011). . It is important for every living organism to adapt to the altering eras in order to survive. Dolphins, at one time, may have been dependent on land. They are one of the most ingenious mammals whose friendly appearance fun-......

Words: 1120 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Genetically Modified Organisms

...Genetically Modified Organisms Technology, Society, and Culture Table of Contents Technical Aspect of GMO by Chad Dookie Page 3 Moral and Ethical Aspect of GMO by Ronald Claude Page 7 Cultural and Legal Aspect of GMO by Evangelina Ramirez Page 14 Environmental Issues of GMO by Donovan Collins Page 23 References Page 32 Technical Aspect of GMO by Chad Dookie Description of GMOs and the associated science Most of the populations that do shopping in the groceries to buy food for their family are not aware of the “naturalness” of the food. Groceries sell items such as; cotton seeds, rice, soy, sugar beets, yeast, cassava, papaya, bananas, food flavoring, potatoes, corn, tomatoes, squash, oils, beef, pork, chicken, salmon, peas, alfalfa, and honey. Notice that most of the items listed either came from a plant or an animal. Those are the top 20 grocery items that have been genetically modified. What are genetically modified organisms? A genetically modified organism is any living thing that has had their DNA tampered with. This can be mutating, removing, or adding genetic material into the organism. All of the items listed in paragraph one has had their DNA tampered with. Most times when people talk about genetically modified organisms, they mostly refer to plants that are genetically modified. You may be wondering how the animals listed are considered genetically modified. This is because scientists modify the plants that are......

Words: 9591 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

Organism Physiology Paper

...Organism Physiology Paper Sarah Szafranski BIO / 101 6/26/2013 Alena Aviles There are many organisms that have survived throughout the history of the earth by adapting to ever-changing environments. One of these, dating back over 220 million years, is the turtle. With over 250 different species still around, this reptile has established a legacy of perseverance and resiliency. They have overcome numerous adversities such as earthquakes, floods, fire, droughts, predators, disease, and urban sprawl. Turtles can be found in every ecosystem spanning the globe from the tropics, the desert, to the ocean. While turtles have been known to predominantly live in the water, they have adapted to conditions on land. Their species have evolved over the years through breeding and acclimation to their environment. This evolution includes changes to their physical characteristics such as shells, shapes, and color, but also incorporates psychological changes such as breeding habits, defensive tactics and migration patterns. My favorite of these would be the majestic sea turtle. Sea turtles can be found in just about every sea throughout the world regardless of fresh water, salt water, light water, or brackish water. As seaworthy as they are, sea turtles still have a strong tie to land and coastal habitats. As seen in the diagram below, the sea turtle has many of the same organs and functions of other mammals however; their bodies are shaped hydrodynamic, meaning that they......

Words: 986 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Organism Physiology

...Organism Physiology Organism Physiology BIO/ 101 Nov. 30, 2012 University of Phoenix Organism Physiology My paper is going to discuss organism physiology and the basic fundamentals of organism while explaining what my understanding is and what I have learned. In order to better help me understand what organism is I had to first define the meaning. “Organisms are any living thing such as fungus, animals, plants, or micro-organism” (Dictionary.com) in which is a body made up of organs, organelles, along with different other parts that combine together to help continue the process of life. The continuous organisms never stop only cause it is what living things need to live for example the life of a dolphin. Dolphins have been known to be social creatures also being known for their interaction for the purpose of hunting, defense, and reproduction. (Aqua)They are also carnivores that feed on such sea creatures as fish, squid, octopus, cuttlefish, crabs, shrimps, and lobsters as for them; they are mostly food for sharks, killer whales, humans. Most expected age for an normal living Dolphins is said to be around the age of 30 years. Compare to a normal human that’s usually consider a young age. (UnderstandDolphins.com- (Diagram) In looking at the diagram, you see a lot of common factors that most living things have in order to live such as a heart, a brain, bones, and other organs that a body would need to live. As the same as human being animals have certain and...

Words: 935 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Organism Psysiology

...Organism Physiology Danny Moreno BIO/101 09/30/2014 Antonia Juvera Organism Physiology The enter octopus dofleini has evolved advanced organs that have been an important part of the species survival. All though very odd looking, and somewhat looking like a creature from another planet. The animal’s eyes and arms have adapted perfectly to capture its food. The octopus has the ability to blend into their environment by changing their color to comply with the environment they are in. This is somewhat of a natural built in camouflage to help the octopus catch their prey. The octopus also has the ability to change colors because they have light sensitive skin cells which are called chromataphores. These cells contain special pigment granules which ultimately give the octopus the ability to change colors. The brain of an octopus is located below the eyes and goes around its esophagus. There are sensory organs within the brain that are the most developed when compared to any other invertebrate species. It is thought believed that more than 75% of its brain is concentrated to its optical system and memory. This feature allows the octopus to remember the areas of the environment it lives in and what is the best place to feed. The octopus’s memory is a major factor that works to its advantage for its survival. Another survival mechanism that the octopus has is that when the octopus in put in a stressful or......

Words: 550 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Organism Physiology Paper

...Organism Physiology Paper Sarah Szafranski BIO / 101 6/26/2013 Alena Aviles There are many organisms that have survived throughout the history of the earth by adapting to ever-changing environments. One of these, dating back over 220 million years, is the turtle. With over 250 different species still around, this reptile has established a legacy of perseverance and resiliency. They have overcome numerous adversities such as earthquakes, floods, fire, droughts, predators, disease, and urban sprawl. Turtles can be found in every ecosystem spanning the globe from the tropics, the desert, to the ocean. While turtles have been known to predominantly live in the water, they have adapted to conditions on land. Their species have evolved over the years through breeding and acclimation to their environment. This evolution includes changes to their physical characteristics such as shells, shapes, and color, but also incorporates psychological changes such as breeding habits, defensive tactics and migration patterns. My favorite of these would be the majestic sea turtle. Sea turtles can be found in just about every sea throughout the world regardless of fresh water, salt water, light water, or brackish water. As seaworthy as they are, sea turtles still have a strong tie to land and coastal habitats. As seen in the diagram below, the sea turtle has many of the same organs and functions of other mammals however; their bodies are shaped hydrodynamic,......

Words: 295 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Organism Physiology

...Organism Physiology BIO/101 December 11, 2012 Organisms are several existing objects such as plants, animals, micro-organisms, or fungus. The organism is made up of organelles, organs, or other cells that coexist together to carry on the various stages of life. There are many organisms to choose from and I have chosen the giant octopus or Enteroctopus Dofleini for this assignment. The giant octopus is a marine invertebrate organism that inhabits the oceans off the coast of the United States. The octopus has a food source that consists of small fish, clams, mussels, crabs, and other marine animals. The giant octopus have developed different adaptations in the form of specialized organs to assist in its survival and is a predatory by nature. Those survival organs are the arms for capturing prey, the complex eyes, and the brain/nervous system. This paper will state different organs and how the Enteroctopus Dofleini adapts physiologically to its surroundings. The Enteroctopus Dofleini has a larger brain compare to other Mollusca located right below the optic socket and wraps around the esophagus. The central nervous system, brain, and the sense organs are the most extremely developed of the invertebrates. During the octopus’s lifetime the brain will continue to grow and will have more than 170 million nerve cells, of which 130 million will be optical. More than or about 350 million nerve cells will exist in the limbs of the Enteroctopus Dofleini and can......

Words: 1114 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Organism Paper

...Organism Physiology Paper Jason smith BIO/101 March 3, 2015 John stamos Organism Physiology Paper Kingdom: Anamalia, Phylum: Cordata, Class: Mammalia, Order: Cetacea, Sub-order: Odontoceti, Family: Delphinidae, Genus: Delphinus, Species: delphis, or better known as, Dolphin. Dolphins occupy all oceans and major seas, even some are in larger river systems. This paper will cover characteristics of a dolphin, the ancestry to the modern dolphin, and what adaptations the dolphin has gone through to be the survivor it is today. Characteristics. Dolphins are very social creatures and use interaction for the purpose of hunting, defense, and reproduction. Normally a dolphin will stay in a long-lasting group of 2-40 animals called pods, but larger groups of hundreds of dolphins have been reported and those are called herds. Dolphins are carnivores that feed on fish, squid, octopus, cuttlefish, crabs, shrimps, and lobsters. Dolphins are food for sharks, killer whales, humans. Man is the most dangerous predator for the dolphin. Humans will kill dolphins for their meat, their fat, even for being in the area they are fishing. Additionally, studies are currently being done to evaluate the affect of pollution in the water on dolphins. Dolphins bear live young, and the mother nurses the calf with her milk and provides care. The calf is nursed one and one half to three years and a mother will stay with her young three to eight years. Dolphins are believed to live about 30 years....

Words: 915 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Bio-Technology

...INTRODUCTION Biotechnology is one of the innovative branches of science. Biotechnology has created new revolutions in this era by contributing industries, medical sciences, food technologies and genetics. "Biotechnology is basically defined as the use of living organisms, their parts and their biochemical processes for the creation of beneficial products." Bio-technology has its roots in the distant past and has a large, highly profitable, modern industrial outlets of great value to society for e.g. the fermentation, bio-pharmaceutical and food industries. The main reasons must be associated with the rapid advances in molecular biology, in particular, recombinant DNA technology, which is now giving bio-scientists a remarkable understanding and control over biological processes. Some Technologies used in Biotechnology: 1. Bioprocessing technology * The use of bacteria, yeast, mammalian cells and/or enzymes to manufacture products * Large scale fermentation and cell cultures, carried out in huge bioreactors, manufacture useful products * Products: Insulin, vaccines, vitamins, antibiotics, amino acids, etc. 2. Monoclonal antibodies (MCAb) * Definition: Producing antibodies for medicine by cloning a single cell * MCAb are used for Home Pregnancy tests * Used to detect cancer (they bind to tumor cells) * Used to detect diseases in plants and animals and environmental pollutants 3. CELL...

Words: 8297 - Pages: 34

Free Essay

Organisms in a Drop of Water

...investigated the living organism in a drop of water, their manifestation of the different attributes in life. During the run of the experiment, paramecium and specie 1 were observed and were tested to determine the impact of different stimulus to microorganisms in three setups. At the end of the experiment, the variety of setups has been shown to affect the number and kinds of species seen, such as placing hay infusion in dark and the other one, exposed to sunlight, adding brine and sugar solution on the setups. The third section of this paper will deal with relative number of species observed and seen. This paper tackles how microorganism thrive and exemplify mechanisms for survival in the different setups for comparison Moreover, this proves that even in a small drop of water, still, life can exist and microorganisms prosper. I. INTRODUCTION Life on Earth was said to have begun 3.5 billions of years ago. Until now it is still dominating, counting and adding years to life’s age. For an organism to be considered living or possesses life, they must portray different attributes of life. This include mainly by movement, irritability, contractility, perpetuation of life, adaptation, nutrition and growth and development. Living organisms come across our vision because of their relative size. We easily see living organisms that are huge in size like gorillas and for some cases, even small organisms like ants. However, not all living organisms are of size that we......

Words: 1947 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Organisms in a Drop of Water (Unedited)

...Organisms in a Drop Of Water Edelene B. Polo BS Biology-1A July 11, 2012 A scientific paper submitted to Professor Jocelyn E. Serrano in partial fulfilment of the requirements in General Biology1, 1st Semester 2012-2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 2 ABSTRACT 4 I. INTRODUCTION 4 II. MATERIALS AND METHODS 6 A. Location and Duration of the Study 6 B. Hay Infusion 6 C. Treatments 6 D. Materials during the Experiment 7 E. Actual Experimentation 7 a. Tap Water 7 b. Water from the river stored in a room temperature 8 c. Water from the river stored in a dark room 8 F. Flow Chart of the Procedure 9 III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 16 Tap Water 16 Water from the River Stored In a Room Temperature 17 Water from the River Stored In a Dark Area 18 IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 19 A. Summary 19 B. Conclusion 20 BIBLIOGRAPHY 21 APPENDIX (LIST OF PLATES) 22 Plate 1.. 23 Plate 2.. 23 Plate 3.. 24 Plate 4.. 24 Plate 5. 25 Plate 6. 25 Plate 7. 26 Plate 8.. 26 Plate 9 27 Plate 10. 27 ABSTRACT The laboratory study was conducted at Room 106 in CSB3 of Bicol University College of Science, Legaspi City from July 2-5, 2012. Water sample was collected from Travesia River in Travesia, Guinobatan, Albay. Tap water was collected from the faucet at Polo’s Residence in Villa Maria Subdivision Travesia, Guinobatan, Albay. Dried Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrical) or locally known as Gogon grass was collected from Mabugos,......

Words: 2255 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Organisms in a Drop of Pond Water

...done using different set-ups that shows different number of organisms. Water from river, which is cultured for days exposed to sunlight, showed large number of microorganisms. Another set-up, the uncultured rain sample stocked on plants showed only small number. The 3rd set-up which is cultured water placed in dark place showed a larger number of organisms than the other two set-ups. Putting a sample in the cotton strand makes the organisms immobilized. Dropping salt solution, organisms moves away but dropping sugar solution makes the organisms move toward the solution. An organism is any contiguous living system (such as animal, fungus, micro-organism, or plant). In at least some form, all types of organisms are capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development, and maintenance of homeostasis as a stable whole. An organism may either be unicellular (a single cell) or, as in the case of humans, comprise many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs. The term multicellular (many cells) describes any organism made up of more than one cell. In this experiment, a microscope is a vital tool in seeing these organisms. Before we do the actual laboratory, we were supposed to prepare a hay infusion. To prepare a hay infusion, we need to get water, either in ponds, streams, or lakes, any natural water will do, but not tap water because it is already chlorinated to remove microbes and......

Words: 566 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Bio101 - Organism Physiology: the Octopus

...Organism Physiology: The Octopus Bio/101 January 17, 2010 Enteroctopus Dofleini or giant octopus is a marine invertebrate organism that inhabits the oceans off the coast of the United States. Its food source consists of crabs, small fish, clams, mussels and other marine animals. The octopus is predatory by nature and has developed many adaptations in the form of advance specialized organs to aid in its survival. The octopus has developed several organs that are vital to its survival, the brain/nervous system, complex eyes and arms for capturing its prey. In this paper the topic to discuss is these different organs and how they have adapted physiologically to its environment. The Giant Octopus has a considerably larger brain in comparison to other Mollusca which wraps around the esophagus and just below the optic socket. The brain, sense organs, and central nervous system are the most highly developed of the invertebrates. During its life span the brain will continue to grow and will consist of 170 million nerve cells, of which 130 million will be optical. 350 million nerve cells will reside in the arms of the giant octopus and can distinguish objects with the same sensitivity as its sight. As the octopus moves along the ocean floor, these nerve cells allow the octopus to learn its surroundings. The animal can remember its past environments and keep a working memory of areas they......

Words: 1750 - Pages: 7

Rami Malek | Nadia Nascimento | Private Message