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Biochemistry Task 4 Wgu

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Submitted By eaeilts
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Task 4: Metabolism

1. They speed up reactions and do not change themselves, which means they can be used over and over. Enzymes help facilitate chemical reactions. Enzymes will lower the activation energy needed to start the reaction and that is how the reaction will be sped up. Enzymes are specific for certain reactions and are proteins. Not all catalysts though are enzymes.
(Sanders, 2014)

2.

(Gresham HS IB Biology, 2007)

3.

(Hudon-Miller, S. 2012)
4 & 5. When table sugar is consumed, it is broken down into glucose and fructose. Glucose is used in the blood stream. Glucose can be stored in the liver as glycogen. Fructose does enter glycolysis, but first two steps are original to fructose. The first step involves breaking down fructose into fructose-1 phosphate by the enzyme, fructokinase. Fructose is the substrate of fructokinase and it’s product is fructose-1 phosphate. Fructose-1 phosphate is converted into DHAP and glyceraldehyde (products), by the enzyme aldolase B which will enter the glycolysis pathway.
(Hudon-Miller, S. 2012)
In HFI, there is an aldolase deficiency, so there is no conversion of fructose-1 phosphate into DHAP and glyceraldehyde, so they do not enter the glycolysis pathway to produce ATP or in gluconeogenesis. The fructose is still achieving phosphorylation by fructokinase, which results in a build up of fructose-1 phosphate. The liver cells are unable to utilze fructose as energy. There becomes an abundant buildup of fructose-1 phosphate because that signal is still working, which results in the free phosphate in the blood going down. There is a decreased potential for free the phosphates to enter the electron transport chain, which makes ATP. As the ATP decreases for the liver cells, liver damage oocurs and quite possibly liver failure as a results if high amounts of fructose are consumed.
The other issue is…...

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