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Biological Basis: Neonatal Development or Infancy

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Biological Basis: Neonatal Development or Infancy

Explanation of Neonate Development: Neonate development or infancy is a period of postnatal. An infant is a child in the first period of life from zero to two to three years. It is the shortest period of all developmental stages or periods. The infant or the period of the neonate occurs from the cutting of the umbilical cord to the end of the second week of postnatal life. An infant is a child that must adjust to the new environment outside the mother’s body. Growth is still very rapid during this period.

Characteristics:
This stage is characterized by rapid growth and development. The survival of the child depends on physiological, social, psychological, digestive and physical adjustments that must be made at this stage of development. Physiologically, the child’s survival depends on the adjustment of outside the womb body in terms of breathing in and breathing out of oxygen. Psychologically the result of complaints during birth is completed when the infant beings to show signs of development progress in behavior (Hurlock,1972); the digestive adjustment of the child boarders on proper feeding and elimination of excretory waste products in order to determine the amount of sleep and comfort of the child. This feeding, sleeping and crying are process of adjustment of the child which determines developmental changes in size, weight and structure of the infant. This stage is also characterized by stoppage or half in growth and developmental environment. This is a period of plateau in development.

Physical and Motor Development
The infant growth and development follow two patterns basically cephalocandal and proximodistal principle. After birth, there are manifestations of physical and motor development. Physical development refers to developmental changes in size, height, weight and strength of various parts of the body. It is also depends on the ability of the infant to control and coordinate the movements of the head, trunk and leg muscles. Motor development is closely related. The infant’s is physical growth takes place in generally orderly fashion with predictable changes occurring at different age levels. The motor development follows the cephalocandal law. The infant’s motor development depends upon the overall physical growth. Precisely, the levels of skeletal and muscular development enable the infant to craw, walk, climb and grip objects. The infant also gain mastery over his head followed by his trunk and leg muscles. The infant’s development of manual skills proceeds through the proximodistal law. Not all body system grow at the same rate, for example, the skeletal and internal organ system show growth spurts, one in entry infancy and the other at adolescence. Infancy and adolescence are marked acceleration of growth called the infant growth spurt or the adolescence growth spurt. Apart from physical and motor development in infant experiences perceptual development. The infant experiences a pattern sequence of changes the focusing and organizing visual events.

Reference: http://www.nou.edu.ng/noun/NOUN_OCL/pdf/EDUs/PED%20221%20DEVELOPMENTAL%20PSYCHOLOGY.pdf…...

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