Premium Essay

Biology Paper

In: Science

Submitted By mikki456
Words 3605
Pages 15
Kitch 1
Tristan Kitch
Mrs. Hayden
IB Biology HL 2
8 September 2014
An Investigation of the Effect of Wavelength on Photosynthesis
DESIGN:
Research Question:
The purpose of this lab is to determine how the wavelength of light that alfalfa sprouts are exposed to affects the rate of photosynthesis in those plants.
Hypothesis:
Photosynthesis will occur at the highest frequency when the alfalfa plants are exposed to blue light (475 nm) ("What Wavelength Goes With a Color?"). The second highest amount of photosynthesis will occur when the alfalfa plants are exposed to red light (650 nm) ("What
Wavelength Goes With a Color?"), and the lowest amount of photosynthesis will occur when the alfalfa plants are exposed to green light (510 nm) ("What Wavelength Goes With a Color?").
This is because the pigments in the plants’ chloroplasts, such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids, absorb the most light in the blue color range, the second most light (of the selected colors) in the red range, and the least amount of light in the green range (see Figure 1).

Kitch 2
Figure 1: Amount of Light Absorbed by Chloroplast Pigments

Chlorophyll a absorbs the most light in the blue to indigo and red to orange ranges, chlorophyll b absorbs the most light in the blue and orange ranges, and carotenoids absorb the most light in the blue to blue-green range (“Absorption Spectrum”).
Background:
Originally, an experiment was run using chloroplast solutions rather than alfalfa sprouts.
However, CO₂ levels did not change significantly throughout the experiment, so the method had to be changed. Then, peas that had already germinated were used instead of chloroplast solutions. CO₂ concentrations increased throughout that experiment, indicating a large amount of

Kitch 3 cellular respiration was being undergone rather than photosynthesis. Then, it was…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Biology Hl Paper 2007

...c 1 hour IB DIPLOMA PROGRAMME PROGRAMME DU DIPLÔME DU BI PROGRAMA DEL DIPLOMA DEL BI M02/410/H(1) BIOLOGY HIGHER LEVEL PAPER 1 Thursday 9 May 2002 (afternoon) INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES ! ! ! Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so. Answer all the questions. For each question, choose the answer you consider to be the best and indicate your choice on the answer sheet provided. 222-134 18 pages –2– 1. Which processes occur during interphase? I. II. III. A. B. C. D. DNA replication DNA transcription Separation of replicated DNA molecules M02/410/H(1)+ I and II only I and III only II and III only I, II and III 2. What is the ratio of the relative size of a eukaryotic cell, a virus and a prokaryotic cell? Eukaryotic cell A. B. C. D. 100 100 100 1000 Virus 1 10 10 1 Prokaryotic cell 1 10 1 10 3. Which characteristic of water explains its thermal properties? A. B. C. D. Adhesion Surface tension Solvent properties Hydrogen bonding 222-134 –3– 4. Which structures represent a generalised amino acid and glycerol? I. H H N H R C C OH O M02/410/H(1)+ II. H H N H R1 H H C C N C C OH O R2 O III. OH H C H OH C H OH C H H IV. H H C H OH C H H Amino acid A. B. C. D. I II I II Glycerol IV III III IV 222-134 Turn over –4– 5. What is the arrangement of nucleotides in a single DNA strand? S = sugar, P = phosphate group, B = organic base M02/410/H(1)+ S A. P S B P B P B. B B C. P...

Words: 1345 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Biology

...not supposing to excide 3 minutes (over exercising). Method The pulse rate was taken on the radial artery using two fingers whilst the participant was sitting quietly in a comfortable position. It was measured for three times before exercises and recorded in a suitable table. After measuring the pulse rate the participant took some exercises (aerobically)for three minutes jogging or running around the laboratory. Immediately after the exercises, the participant then measured the pulse rate using a stop clock. For three consecutive times repeated. Lastly, then finds out how long it takes the pulse rate and respiratory rate to get back to normal using a stop watch .All the results were recorded in a table. The apparatus used Stop watch, paper and pen Results See the table below shows the recorded results | TIME/MINUTES |PULSE RATE/BPM | |-1 |78 | |-2 |74 | |-3 |76 | |0 |- | |1 |- | |2 |-......

Words: 851 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Ib Biology Respiration Lab Paper

...oxygen need to increase respiration needs. This will test the effect of a set exercise on the respiratory needs of a human. After this, they will have to do a set of 10 push-ups and 15 jumping jacks. If 10 push-ups are not possible, a substitute of 15 curl-ups should be administered instead. Hypothesis: When exercise is complete, the respiratory needs of one human should be significantly higher than it was previous to the exercise. Independent Variable: Human fitness level, exercise set Dependent Variable: How fast the human goes Controlled Variable: Temperature, time for exercise, amount of oxygen in air Materials: * Piece of paper for general observations as well as data recording * 4-6 humans * Timer (ipod, clock, something) * Water (if needed for human) Procedure: 1. Use the stairs next to the Biology classroom, select one human to go first and rotate turns until all humans have gone or until necessary data is gathered 2. Record the rate of exhales of the human (normal breathing) for 30 seconds and any other general observations 3. Have the human do the following: a. 3 sets of running up and down the stairs (going down and up constitutes as 1 set for a total of 6 ups and downs) as fast as they possibly can b. 10 push-ups OR 15 curl-ups c. 15 jumping jacks 4. Afterwards, record the rate of exhale of the human (after exercise) for 30 seconds and any other general observations 5. Look over data to see......

Words: 354 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Biology Paper

...Chemistry of Life – Lab Report The purpose of this lab exercise is to perform chemical tests on a variety of foods to identify the presence of any major molecules essential to life. After acquiring the results we will analyze them and we will be able to describe the general chemical content of those foods. In order to determine which specific major molecules were present in certain foods we conducted four different tests. The iodine test tested for starch by putting a few drops of iodine on a food substance. If the food turned a blue-black color then it was positive for starch. The Benedict’s test tested for the presence of sugar. In order to test you put 1 ml of solution to be tested and add an equal volume of Benedict’s reagent in a test tube and heat in a water bath for two minutes. If the solution goes from blue, to green-yellow, then to a red-brown color it means it is positive for sugar. The next test is the Biuret test and its tests for peptide bonds in proteins. To test you add a few drops of Biuret reagent to a food substance. If it turns a violet-purple color then it is positive for protein. The final test is the Grease Spot test for lipids. If there is a “grease spot” present after conducting this test, then the food tested positive for lipids. The first group of foods that were tested was the fruits and they consisted of apples, bananas, plantains, and avocados. The apple, banana, and plantain contained starch and sugar and this is correct because these......

Words: 783 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Biology Paper

...“Biology Article” Yolanda Haskins Professor Lynn Roginsky Introduction to Biology May 9, 2013 A New System for Cancer Detection This article summarizes a new technique that would allow for cancer cell detection without being invasive to a person’s body. It states that currently, human cancer cell detection is conducted through a person being cut on or biopsied. This new procedure allows for humans bodily fluids to be utilized in detecting cancer cells. P.Chandra states, “While current cancer-diagnosis methods rely on an invasive biopsy” to relay that many may not feel the need or desire to undergo biopsy, a type of simplistic surgery, for cancer cell detection. This article relates to this course by the basic information I learned about the plasma membrane known as cell membranes. Cell membranes are lipid bilayers that consist mainly of phospholipids. However, when it comes to cancer cell membranes they tend to have more anionic lipids than normal cells. Our course text in Chapter 3 talks about the “Cell Structure” and gives us the break down on “What, Exactly is a cell? The Structure of Cell Membranes, Introduction of Prokaryotic Cells, etc.”. This article does not provide enough background information to help me understand this article. In my opinion, I would have like to read more about the differences between the normal cells and cancer cell membranes and how they are made up. This article caught my attention due to my family member surviving stage......

Words: 540 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Biology Question Paper 1. Oct Nov 2012

...w w w e tr .X m eP e ap UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level .c rs om 5090/12 BIOLOGY Paper 1 Multiple Choice Additional Materials: Multiple Choice Answer Sheet Soft clean eraser Soft pencil (type B or HB is recommended) October/November 2012 1 hour *4900384293* READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST Write in soft pencil. Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid. Write your name, Centre number and candidate number on the Answer Sheet in the spaces provided unless this has been done for you. There are forty questions on this paper. Answer all questions. For each question there are four possible answers A, B, C and D. Choose the one you consider correct and record your choice in soft pencil on the separate Answer Sheet. Read the instructions on the Answer Sheet very carefully. Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer. Any rough working should be done in this booklet. This document consists of 18 printed pages and 2 blank pages. IB12 11_5090_12/4RP © UCLES 2012 [Turn over 2 1 Some processes which occur in flowering plants are listed. 1 2 3 4 ion uptake by roots hairs water uptake by root hairs ion movement up the xylem in the stem water vapour loss by the mesophyll cells of the leaves Which processes are controlled by cell surface membranes? A B C D 2 1 only 1 and 3 2 only 3 and 4 Through which organs do carbon......

Words: 2543 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Biology

...BIOL 110 Principles of Biology Worksheet 7, Week 7 Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper and submit it to Dropbox 1 by midnight Central Time on Sunday. 1. What is the genetic material of organisms? 2. What are the requirements for DNA to be the genetic material? 3. Who can be credited with determining that DNA is the genetic material of living things? 4. What nucleotides are contained in DNA? 5. What is the difference between pyrimidine and purine bases? 6. State Chargaff’s rules. 7. What is the estimate of the number of base pairs on each human chromosome? 8. Describe the Watson-Crick model for DNA. 9. Explain the meaning of complementary base pairings. 10. What enzyme is required for DNA replication? 11. What molecules form the backbone of a DNA molecule? 12. What type of molecules does the genetic code in DNA produce? 13. Identify three differences between DNA and RNA. 14. What is the role of mRNA? 15. What is transcription? 16. What is translation? 17. What does it mean to say the genetic code is unambiguous? 18. What role is performed by transfer RNA? 19. If a DNA strand is represented by the bases: A-C-T-G-G-C what are the bases that will be included in the replicated strand? 20. If a DNA strand is A-C-T-G-G-C, what is the base representation that will be......

Words: 359 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ap Biology Response to Scientific Paper

...not providing any information to allow someone to look further into the specific example, you have forced the reader into one belief. Which you stated was one of the reasons that made all these anti-GMO groups putting labels stating nutritional information the makers of a bad idea, insinuating that they are bad. As a reader of Scientific American magazine, I was surprised to see this article written with hypocritical statements and no names, making me believe that the writers did not want their names on the commentary. It was a very controversial topic, and writing an opinion-based article is understandable. However, the fact that there is missing information throughout the piece really takes away from the respect given to a scientific paper. Overall, this article shows a very narrow view of a very large and controversial international issue....

Words: 327 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Biology 160 Paper on Genetically Modified Organisms

...Biology 160 Term Paper Genetically Modified Organisms INTRODUCTION There is a lot of controversy surrounding genetically-modified organisms and whether they ultimately do more harm than good. Genetically-modified organisms are most commonly used to refer to “crop plants created for human or animal consumption using the latest molecular biology techniques” (Whitman). The goal of modifying these organisms is to enhance or introduce a desired trait, such as increased resistance to herbicides or improving the nutritional content of the particular organism. This is generally done in a lab using a “Gene Gun” or an Agrobacterium method as described in detail in the next section. However, as convenient and simple as this idea sounds, there are many concerns that will more than likely change the course of future modifications in organisms. First, I'll be describing the methods used to date to modify the genetic composition of an organism. Then, I'll be highlighting the benefits and the potential consequences of genetically-modifying organisms. SCIENCE BEHIND GMO'S Upon researching, I discovered an interesting fact about genetically modified organism's: it has apparently occurred in nature for millions of years through a species called Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which turns out is the cause of crown gall diseases in many ornamental and fruit plants (Keefer). Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a species of soil-dwelling bacteria that has the ability to infect plant cells with a piece......

Words: 2241 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Biology

...and altruism, endosymbiosis and eukaryotic cell evolution, evolutionary developmental biology, phenotypic plasticity, epigenetic inheritance and molecular evolution, experimental bacterial evolution, and computer simulations (in silico evolution of digital organisms). In addition, we discuss the expansion of the modern synthesis, embracing all branches of scientific disciplines. It is concluded that the basic tenets Dedicated to Prof. Dr. Dr. hc mult. Ernst Mayr on the occasion of his 100th birthday U. Kutschera ()) Institut für Biologie, Universität Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Strasse 40, 34109 Kassel, Germany e-mail: kut@uni-kassel.de Fax: +49-561-8044009 K. J. Niklas Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA of the synthetic theory have survived, but in modified form. These sub-theories require continued elaboration, particularly in light of molecular biology, to answer openended questions concerning the mechanisms of evolution in all five kingdoms of life. Introduction Physicists and chemists investigate the properties and interactions of objects, such as electrons, photons, and atoms, which are physically uniform and invariant in their characteristic traits and behavior. Accordingly, a single experiment adducing the properties of a single entity (e.g., electron or proton) can be used to extrapolate the properties of all comparable entities in the universe. In biology, the “science of the living world,” both past and present (Mayr 1997), the......

Words: 17126 - Pages: 69

Free Essay

Biology Paper

...Campbell's Biology, 9e (Reece et al.) Chapter 1 Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life This introductory chapter explores the basic themes and concepts of biology, with emphasis on the core theme of evolution. It also introduces students to the thinking of scientists. Questions are therefore general; however, an effort has been made to include some from each skill level. As in the rest of this test bank, questions that feature art or those for which several questions follow upon some data or a scenario are placed together at the end of the chapter. Multiple-Choice Questions 1) A localized group of organisms that belong to the same species is called a A) biosystem. B) community. C) population. D) ecosystem. E) family. Answer: C Topic: Concept 1.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension 2) Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy. For example, plant chloroplasts convert the energy of sunlight into A) the energy of motion. B) carbon dioxide and water. C) the potential energy of chemical bonds. D) oxygen. E) kinetic energy. Answer: C Topic: Concept 1.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension 3) The main source of energy for producers in an ecosystem is A) light energy. B) kinetic energy. C) thermal energy. D) chemical energy. E) ATP. Answer: A Topic: Concept 1.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension 4) Which of the following types of cells utilize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as their genetic material but do not have......

Words: 4638 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Biology

...Biology From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Biology (disambiguation). Biology deals with the study of the many varieties of living organisms. Clockwise from top left: Salmonella typhimurium, Phascolarctos cinereus, Athyrium filix-femina, Amanita muscaria, Agalychnis callidryas, and Brachypelma smithi Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.[1] Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines. Among the most important topics are five unifying principles that can be said to be the fundamental axioms of modern biology:[2] 1. Cells are the basic unit of life 2. New species and inherited traits are the product of evolution 3. Genes are the basic unit of heredity 4. An organism regulates its internal environment to maintain a stable and constant condition 5. Living organisms consume and transform energy. Subdisciplines of biology are recognized on the basis of the scale at which organisms are studied and the methods used to study them: biochemistry examines the rudimentary chemistry of life; molecular biology studies the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules; cellular biology examines the basic building block of all life, the cell; physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of the tissues, organs, and organ systems of an organism; and......

Words: 3394 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Written Assignment 2: Biology and Technology in the Real World (Position Paper

...Written Assignment 2: Biology and Technology in the Real World (Position Paper Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/written-assignment-2-biology-technology-real-world-position-paper/ Course Outcomes This assignment is designed to help you achieve two of the four major course outcomes: • use knowledge of biological principles to ask relevant questions about the natural world • make observations and discriminate between scientific and pseudoscientific explanations 1. Select one of the topics below. a) Genetically modified food. Your daughter comes home from school a little perplexed. In her home economics class, her teacher informed her that you have probably been feeding her genetically modified foods. She did not quite understand what was meant by genetically modified food. In an attempt to help her understand, write a paper for her which includes the following: • The purpose of human-made genetic recombinations in food. • Whether or not foods that contain genes resulting from artificial genetic recombinations are really safe. • A list of foods in your supermarket that result from genetic recombination. • What types of regulations exist for these foods. • A conclusion of your own opinion on genetically modified foods (For help, you might search the Food and Drug Administration website.) b) Stem cells. Your friend suffered a spinal cord injury after a bad car accident. The medical team has decided that your......

Words: 690 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Biology

...ULTRAVIOLET/VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY PURDUE UNIVERSITY INSTRUMENT VAN PROJECT ANALYSIS OF PLANT PIGMENTS USING PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY AND VISIBLE AND/OR UV SPECTROSCOPY (1-31-96) INTRODUCTION We have seen that all cells must constantly consume fuel molecules to maintain themselves, grow, and reproduce. Fuel molecules such as glucose constitute an immediate source of energy for biological work that can be released by catabolic cell processes. However it is necessary that life on earth have a constant source of energy that can be harvested and used to generate complex fuel molecules from simple starting materials. The ultimate energy source upon which all life forms depend is visible light from the sun. Light energy must first be transformed into chemical(bond) energy before it can be utilized by the living cell. This transformation is achieved only in the cells of green plants and certain bacteria. In green plants it is coupled with a transformation of matter in which relatively low-energy compounds, carbon dioxide and water, are converted into high energy chemical molecules that become subunits of carbohydrates. There are four different pigment groups present in leaves of photosynthesizing plants. Studies indicate that only the chlorophyll IS involved in the actual absorption of light energy and later conversion to chemical energy of living cells. The other pigments also absorb light energy, but it is transferred to the chlorophyll for conversion to chemical energy. Biochemists......

Words: 2526 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Biology Suicide Paper

...This paper looks at how depression continues to be one of most common medical conditions for the elderly. It also examines the increase in the suicidal tendencies of the depressed, taking into account the wrong assumption that aging necessitates depression and the difficulty of health care providers in recognizing depression. It examines how symptoms may take months to worsen and show up and how aging individuals should be treated similarly to younger patients when seen by the doctor. It is up to family and health care providers to be vigilant and notice changes, and with care, individuals can be helped. Some of these symptoms include depressed mood, loss of interest in work and activities, psychic anxiety, somatic symptoms, general (decreased energy), somatic anxiety, guilt, middle insomnia, late insomnia, and suicidal ideation. Literature into the issue of depression and the suicide rate where elderly people are concerned is important for several reasons. Consider these facts: The highest rate of suicide in the United States is among the elderly population. Moreover, suicide rates steadily increase as age advances in individuals of all races and both genders. Those that are 65 years and older successfully complete suicide fifty percent more often than the national average. Every 90 minutes a senior citizen in the United States commits suicide. Population experts estimate that by 2030, the elderly population will be about 20% of the population-about 75 million people......

Words: 530 - Pages: 3

As Told By Ginger (60) | One Piece 507 | 9-06-2018, 07:37