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Blooms Taxonomy

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Mary Forehandv (o.J.) Bloom’s Taxonomy.- Georgia.
Web: http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Bloom%27s_Taxonomy (10.2.2012)
Bloom's Taxonomy
From Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology
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Mary Forehand
The University of Georgia
Independent Chapter Review
As an educator I find it interesting to teach and learn. I like to ask questions as a roadmap to my teaching experience. You did a fine job with the introduction for that. Yet, I would want a little more information in the introduction. This site is a wonderful Cliff Notes to Bloom’s
Taxonomy. The reference page is most helpful. However, I would also add a booklist for your reader. You only had one picture of the theory. I would challenge you to include more pictures and graphs for your reader. It just make things fun for us to see and feel. What about links to other sites so we can enhance our education in the learning process.
Linda Dunegan, Ph.D. (c)
CB Healing Institute, http://cbhealinginstitute.com/
Contents
[hide]
• 1 Introduction
• 2 History
• 3 What is Bloom's Taxonomy?
• 4 Revised Bloom's Taxonomy (RBT)
• 5 Terminology Changes
• 6 Structural changes
• 7 Changes in Emphasis
• 8 Why use Bloom's Taxonomy?
• 9 How can Bloom's Taxonomy Be Used?
• 10 Summary
• 11 Bloom - Biography
• 12 References
• 13 Bibliography
• 14 Additional Resources
• 15 Citation
Introduction
One of the basic questions facing educators has always been "Where do we begin in seeking to improve human thinking?" (Houghton, 2004). Fortunately we do not have to begin from scratch in searching for answers to this complicated question. The Communities Resolving
Our Problems (C.R.O.P.) recommends, "One place to begin is in defining the nature of thinking. Before we can make it better, we need to know more of what it is" (Houghton,
2004).
Benjamin S. Bloom extensively contemplated the nature of thinking, eventually authoring or co-authoring 18 books. According to a biography of Bloom, written by former student Elliot
W. Eisner, "It was clear that he was in love with the process of finding out, and finding out is what I think he did best. One of Bloom's great talents was having a nose for what is significant" (2002).
Although it received little attention when first published, Bloom's Taxonomy has since been translated into 22 languages and is one of the most widely applied and most often cited references in education. (Anderson & Sosniak, 1994, preface), (Houghton, 2004), (
Krathwohl, 2002), ( oz-TeacherNet, 2001). As of this writing, three other chapters in this ebook make reference to Bloom's Taxonomy, yet another testament to its relevance.
History
In 1780, Abigail Adams stated, "Learning is not attained by chance; it must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence" ( quotationspage.com, 2005). Learning, teaching, identifying educational goals, and thinking are all complicated concepts interwoven in an intricate web. Bloom was arduous, diligent, and patient while seeking to demystify these concepts and untangle this web. He made "the improvement of student learning" (Bloom
1971, Preface) the central focus of his life's work.
Discussions during the 1948 Convention of the American Psychological Association led
Bloom to spearhead a group of educators who eventually undertook the ambitious task of classifying educational goals and objectives. Their intent was to develop a method of classification for thinking behaviors that were believed to be important in the processes of learning. Eventually, this framework became a taxonomy of three domains:
• The cognitive - knowledge based domain, consisting of six levels
• The affective - attitudinal based domain, consisting of five levels, and
• The psychomotor - skills based domain, consisting of six levels.
In 1956, eight years after the group first began, work on the cognitive domain was completed and a handbook commonly referred to as "Bloom's Taxonomy" was published. This chapter focuses its attention on the cognitive domain.
While Bloom pushed for the use of the term "taxonomy," others in the group resisted because of the unfamiliarity of the term within educational circles. Eventually Bloom prevailed, forever linking his name and the term. The small volume intended for university examiners
"has been transformed into a basic reference for all educators worldwide. Unexpectedly, it has been used by curriculum planners, administrators, researchers, and classroom teachers at all levels of education" (Anderson & Sosniak, 1994, p. 1). While it should be noted that other educational taxonomies and hierarchical systems have been developed, it is Bloom's
Taxonomy which remains, even after nearly fifty years, the de facto standard.
What is Bloom's Taxonomy?
Understanding that "taxonomy" and "classification" are synonymous helps dispel uneasiness with the term. Bloom's Taxonomy is a multi-tiered model of classifying thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity. Throughout the years, the levels have often been depicted as a stairway, leading many teachers to encourage their students to "climb to a higher (level of) thought." The lowest three levels are: knowledge, comprehension, and application. The highest three levels are: analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. "The taxonomy is hierarchical; [in that] each level is subsumed by the higher levels. In other words, a student functioning at the
'application' level has also mastered the material at the 'knowledge' and 'comprehension' levels." (UW Teaching Academy, 2003). One can easily see how this arrangement led to natural divisions of lower and higher level thinking.
Clearly, Bloom's Taxonomy has stood the test of time. Due to its long history and popularity, it has been condensed, expanded, and reinterpreted in a variety of ways. Research findings have led to the discovery of a veritable smorgasbord of interpretations and applications falling on a continuum ranging from tight overviews to expanded explanations. Nonetheless, one recent revision (designed by one of the co-editors of the original taxonomy along with a former Bloom student) merits particular attention.
Revised Bloom's Taxonomy (RBT)
During the 1990's, a former student of Bloom's, Lorin Anderson, led a new assembly which met for the purpose of updating the taxonomy, hoping to add relevance for 21st century students and teachers. This time "representatives of three groups [were present]: cognitive psychologists, curriculum theorists and instructional researchers, and testing and assessment specialists" (Anderson, & Krathwohl, 2001, p. xxviii). Like the original group, they were also arduous and diligent in their pursuit of learning, spending six years to finalize their work.
Published in 2001, the revision includes several seemingly minor yet actually quite significant changes. Several excellent sources are available which detail the revisions and reasons for the changes. A more concise summary appears here. The changes occur in three broad categories: terminology, structure, and emphasis.
Terminology Changes
Changes in terminology between the two versions are perhaps the most obvious differences and can also cause the most confusion. Basically, Bloom's six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms. Additionally, the lowest level of the original, knowledge was renamed and became remembering. Finally, comprehension and synthesis were retitled to understanding and creating. In an effort to minimize the confusion, comparison images appear below. Caption: Terminology changes "The graphic is a representation of the NEW verbage associated with the long familiar Bloom's Taxonomy. Note the change from Nouns to Verbs
[e.g., Application to Applying] to describe the different levels of the taxonomy. Note that the top two levels are essentially exchanged from the Old to the New version." (Schultz, 2005)
(Evaluation moved from the top to Evaluating in the second from the top, Synthesis moved from second on top to the top as Creating.) Source: http://www.odu.edu/educ/llschult/blooms_taxonomy.htm The new terms are defined as:
• Remembering: Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from longterm memory. • Understanding: Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining.
• Applying: Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing.
• Analyzing: Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing.
• Evaluating: Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. • Creating: Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing. (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001, pp. 67-68)
Structural changes
Structural changes seem dramatic at first, yet are quite logical when closely examined.
Bloom's original cognitive taxonomy was a one-dimensional form. With the addition of products, the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy takes the form of a two-dimensional table. One of the dimensions identifies The Knowledge Dimension (or the kind of knowledge to be learned) while the second identifies The Cognitive Process Dimension (or the process used to learn).
As represented on the grid below, the intersection of the knowledge and cognitive process categories form twenty-four separate cells as represented on the "Taxonomy Table" below.
The Knowledge Dimension on the left side is composed of four levels that are defined as
Factual, Conceptual, Procedural, and Meta-Cognitive. The Cognitive Process Dimension across the top of the grid consists of six levels that are defined as Remember, Understand,
Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, and Create. Each level of both dimensions of the table is subdivided. Each of the four Knowledge Dimension levels is subdivided into either three or four categories (e.g. Factual is divided into Factual, Knowledge of Terminology, and Knowledge of Specific Details and Elements). The Cognitive Process Dimension levels are also subdivided with the number of sectors in each level ranging from a low of three to a high of eight categories. For example, Remember is subdivided into the three categories of
Remember, Recognizing, and Recalling while the Understanding level is divided into eight separate categories. The resulting grid, containing 19 subcategories is most helpful to teachers in both writing objectives and aligning standards with curricular. The "Why" and "How" sections of this chapter further discuss use of the Taxonomy Table as well as provide specific examples of applications.
Table1. Bloom's Taxonomy
The Knowledge
Dimension
The Cognitive Process Dimension
Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create
Factual Knowledge List Summarize Classify Order Rank Combine
Conceptual
Knowledge
Describe Interpret Experiment Explain Assess Plan
Procedural
Knowledge
Tabulate Predict Calculate Differentiate Conclude Compose
Meta-Cognitive
Knowledge
Appropriate
Use
Execute Construct Achieve Action Actualize
Copyright (c) 2005 Extended Campus -- Oregon State University http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/coursedev/models/id/taxonomy/#table Designer/Developer -
Dianna Fisher
Caption: As one can see from the Oregon State chart above, the intersection of the six
Cognitive Process defined dimensions (Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, and Create) with the four Knowledge Dimensions (defined as Factual, Conceptual,
Procedural, and Meta-Cognitive) forms a grid with twenty-four separate cells as represented.
Each of the cells contains a hyperlinked verb that launches a pop-up window containing definitions and examples.
Changes in Emphasis
Emphasis is the third and final category of changes. As noted earlier, Bloom himself recognized that the taxonomy was being "unexpectedly" used by countless groups never considered an audience for the original publication. The revised version of the taxonomy is intended for a much broader audience. Emphasis is placed upon its use as a "more authentic tool for curriculum planning, instructional delivery and assessment" (oz-TeacherNet, 2001).
Why use Bloom's Taxonomy?
As history has shown, this well known, widely applied scheme filled a void and provided educators with one of the first systematic classifications of the processes of thinking and learning. The cumulative hierarchical framework consisting of six categories each requiring achievement of the prior skill or ability before the next, more complex, one, remains easy to understand. Out of necessity, teachers must measure their students' ability. Accurately doing so requires a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. Bloom's
Taxonomy provided the measurement tool for thinking.
With the dramatic changes in society over the last five decades, the Revised Bloom's
Taxonomy provides an even more powerful tool to fit today's teachers' needs. The structure of the Revised Taxonomy Table matrix "provides a clear, concise visual representation"
(Krathwohl, 2002) of the alignment between standards and educational goals, objectives, products, and activities.
Today's teachers must make tough decisions about how to spend their classroom time. Clear alignment of educational objectives with local, state, and national standards is a necessity.
Like pieces of a huge puzzle, everything must fit properly. The Revised Bloom's Taxonomy
Table clarifies the fit of each lesson plan's purpose, "essential question," goal or objective.
The twenty-four-cell grid from Oregon State University that is shown above along with the
Printable Taxonomy Table Examples can easily be used in conjunction with a chart. When used in this manner the "Essential Question" or lesson objective becomes clearly defined.
How can Bloom's Taxonomy Be Used?
A search of the World Wide Web will yield clear evidence that Bloom's Taxonomy has been applied to a variety of situations. Current results include a broad spectrum of applications represented by articles and websites describing everything from corrosion training to medical preparation. In almost all circumstances when an instructor desires to move a group of students through a learning process utilizing an organized framework, Bloom's Taxonomy can prove helpful. Yet the educational setting (K-graduate) remains the most often used application. A brief explanation of one example is described below.
The educational journal Theory into Practice published an entire issue on the Revised Bloom's
Taxonomy. Included is an article entitled, "Using the Revised Taxonomy to Plan and Deliver
Team-Taught, Integrated, Thematic Units" (Ferguson, 2002).
The writer describes the use of the revised Bloom's Taxonomy to plan and deliver an integrated English and history course entitled "Western Culture." The taxonomy provided the team-teachers with a common language with which to translate and discuss state standards from two different subject areas. Moreover, it helped them to understand how their subjects overlapped and how they could develop conceptual and procedural knowledge concurrently.
Furthermore, the taxonomy table in the revised taxonomy provided the history and English teachers with a new outlook on assessment and enabled them to create assignments and projects that required students to operate at more complex levels of thinking (Abstract,
Ferguson, 2002).
Additionally, The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology website contains an excellent and extensive description of the use of the Revised Taxonomy Table in writing, examining and revising objectives to insure the alignment of the objectives with both the standards and the assessments. Three charts can be found on the site one of which compares "Unclear
Objectives" with "Revised Objectives".
Bloom's group initially met hoping to reduce the duplication of effort by faculty at various universities. In the beginning, the scope of their purpose was limited to facilitating the exchange of test items measuring the same educational objectives. Intending the Taxonomy
"as a method of classifying educational objectives, educational experiences, learning processes, and evaluation questions and problems" (Paul, 1985 p. 39), numerous examples of test items (mostly multiple choice) were included. This led to a natural linkage of specific verbs and products with each level of the taxonomy. Thus, when designing effective lesson plans, teachers often look to Bloom's Taxonomy for guidance.
Likewise the Revised Taxonomy includes specific verb and product linkage with each of the levels of the Cognitive Process Dimension. However, due to its 19 subcategories and twodimensional organization, there is more clarity and less confusion about the fit of a specific verb or product to a given level. Thus the Revised Taxonomy offers teachers an even more powerful tool to help design their lesson plans.
As touched upon earlier, through the years, Bloom's Taxonomy has given rise to educational concepts including terms such as high and low level thinking. It has also been closely linked with multiple intelligences (Noble, 2004) problem solving skills, creative and critical thinking, and more recently, technology integration. For example, currently, the State of
Georgia K-12 Technology Plan has included in its website an excellent graphic depicting technology alignment using Bloom's Taxonomy with learning through the two axes of instructional approach and authenticity.
Using the Revised Taxonomy in an adaptation from the Omaha Public Schools Teacher's
Corner, a lesson objective based upon the story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears is presented for each of the six levels of the Cognitive Process as shown on the Revised
Taxonomy Table.
Remember: Describe where Goldilocks lived.
Understand: Summarize what the Goldilocks story was about.
Apply: Construct a theory as to why Goldilocks went into the house.
Analyze: Differentiate between how Goldilocks reacted and how you would react in each story event.
Evaluate: Assess whether or not you think this really happened to Goldilocks.
Create: Compose a song, skit, poem, or rap to convey the Goldilocks story in a new form.
Although this is a very simple example of the application of Bloom's taxonomy the author is hopeful that it will demonstrate both the ease and the usefulness of the Revised Taxonomy
Table.
Summary
Countless people know, love and are comfortable with the original Bloom's Taxonomy and are understandably hesitant to change. After all, change is difficult for most people. The original Bloom's Taxonomy was and is a superb tool for educators. Yet, even "the original group always considered the [Taxonomy] framework a work in progress, neither finished nor final" (Anderson & Krathwohl 2001 p. xxvii). The new century has brought us the Revised
Bloom's Taxonomy which really is new and improved. Try it out; this author thinks you will like it better than cake.
Below is an animation illustrating how Bloom's Bakery has put all the puzzle pieces together to make one tasty, hot out of the oven, (recently revised), taxonomy treat.
Caption: The animation above illustrates the Bloom Cognitive Taxonomy (1956) as revised by Lorin Anderson (2001). The layers of the cake represent the levels of learning with each layer representing increasing complexity. Presented with each layer are sample verbs and products that describe actions or creations at that level of cognitive development. Layer one is
Remembering where memory is used to produce definitions, fact charts, lists, or recitations.
Layer two, Understanding, includes producing drawings or summaries to demonstrate understanding. Applying is layer three where concepts are applied to new situations through products like models, presentations, interviews or simulations. Distinguishing between the parts is the focus of layer four, Analyzing, by creating spreadsheets, surveys, charts, or diagrams. Critiques, recommendations, and reports are some of the products that can be created to demonstrate layer five which is identified as Evaluating. At the top, layer six,
Creating, puts the parts together in a new way with products such as puppet shows, cartoons, or new games. All of the levels of the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy come together to form a complete learning experience just as the animation comes together to form a complete cake.
Animation developed and created by Melanie Argiro, Mary Forehand, Julia Osteen, and
Wanda Taylor (2005).
Click Here to Download PowerPoint Quiz Caption: Test your taxonomy knowledge by taking this Bloom's PowerPoint quiz! You will be asked to recall information from the chapter, apply your knowledge of the different levels of Bloom's, as well as identify the taxonomic levels of various classroom activities. Good luck! This PowerPoint quiz was created by Nancy
Andrews, Amy McElveen, and Emily Hodge (2005).
Bloom - Biography
Written by Katie Davis, Yingnan Chen, Mike Cambell, Spring 2010
Caption: Photograph of Benjamin Bloom' Image Source: http://redie.uabc.mx/contenido/vol6no2/art-104-spa/bloom.png Benjamin Samuel Bloom, one of the greatest minds to influence the field of education, was born on February 21, 1913 in Lansford, Pennsylvania. As a young man, he was already an avid reader and curious researcher. Bloom received both a bachelor’s and master’s degree from Pennsylvania State University in 1935. He went on to earn a doctorate’s degree from the
University of Chicago in 1942, where he acted as first a staff member of the Board of
Examinations (1940-43), then a University Examiner (1943-59), as well as an instructor in the
Department of Education, beginning in 1944. In 1970, Bloom was honored with becoming a
Charles H. Swift Distinguished Professor at the University of Chicago.
Bloom’s most recognized and highly regarded initial work spawned from his collaboration with his mentor and fellow examiner Ralph W. Tyler and came to be known as Bloom’s
Taxonomy. These ideas are highlighted in his third publication, Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives: Handbook I, The Cognitive Domain. He later wrote a second handbook for the taxonomy in 1964, which focuses on the affective domain. Bloom’s research in early childhood education, published in his 1964 Stability and Change in Human Characteristics sparked widespread interest in children and learning and eventually and directly led to the formation of the Head Start program in America. In all, Bloom wrote or collaborated on eighteen publications from 1948-1993.
Aside from his scholarly contributions to the field of education, Benjamin Bloom was an international activist and educational consultant. In 1957, he traveled to India to conduct workshops on evaluation, which led to great changes in the Indian educational system. He helped create the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, the IEA, and organized the International Seminar for Advanced Training in Curriculum
Development. He developed the Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistical Analysis (MESA) program at eh University of Chicago. He was chairman of both the research and development committees of the College Entrance Examination Board and the president of the American
Educational Research Association.
Benjamin Bloom died in his home in Chicago on September 13, 1999. In addition to his many accomplishments, he was a dedicated family man and was survived by his wife and two sons.
Reference:
http://www.ibe.unesco.org/publications/ThinkersPdf/bloome.pdf http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Benjamin_Bloom http://www.nytimes.com/1999/09/15/us/benjamin-bloom-86-a-leader-in-the-creation-of-headstart. html?pagewanted=1 References
Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of educational objectives: Complete edition, New
York : Longman.
Anderson , L.W., & Sosniak, L.A. (Eds.). (1994). Bloom's taxonomy: a forty-year retrospective. Ninety-third yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Pt.2 .
, Chicago , IL . , University of Chicago Press.
Bloom, Benjamin S. & David R. Krathwohl. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives:
The classification of educational goals, by a committee of college and university examiners.
Handbook 1: Cognitive domain. New York , Longmans.
Cruz, E. (2004). Encyclopedia of Educational Technology: Bloom's Revised Taxonomy.
Retrieved March 19, 2005 from http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/bloomrev/
Eisner, E.W. (2002) Benjamin Bloom 1913-99, Retrieved March 31, 2005 from International
Bureau of Education: UNESCO, http://www.ibe.unesco.org/International/Publications/Thinkers/ThinkersPdf/bloome.pdf Ferguson , C. (2002). Using the Revised Taxonomy to Plan and Deliver Team- Taught,
Integrated, Thematic Units. Theory into Practice, 41 (4), 239-244.
Georgia Department of Education (2005). Georgia Department of Education: Office of information technology, Atlanta Georgia : Educational technology & media: Technology integration plan: Introduction, Retrieved March 24, 2005 from http://techservices.doe.k12.ga.us/edtech/TechPlan.htm Houghton, R.S.. (2004. March 17). Communities Resolving Our Problems (C.R.O.P.): the basic idea: Bloom's Taxonomy - Overview. Retrieved March 12, 2005 from http://www.ceap.wcu.edu/Houghton/Learner/think/bloomsTaxonomy.html Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of bloom's taxonomy: An overview. Theory into
Practice, 41 (4), 212-218.
Noble, T. (2004). Integrating the revised bloom's taxonomy with multiple intelligences: A planning tool for curriculum differentiation, Teachers College Record (Vol. 106, pp. 193):
Blackwell Publishing Limited.
Omaha Public Schools, (2005) Teacher's corner: Comprehension: Bloom's taxonomy.
Retrieved March 21, 2005 from http://www.ops.org/reading/blooms_taxonomy.html
Oregon State University . (2004). OSU extended campus: Course development: Instructional design -The Taxonomy Table. Retrieved April 3, 2005 from http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/coursedev/models/id/taxonomy/ oz-TeacherNet. (2001). oz-TeacherNet: Teachers helping teachers: Revised Bloom's
Taxonomy. Retrieved March 19, 2005 from http://rite.ed.qut.edu.au/ozteachernet/ index.php?module=ContentExpress&func=display&ceid=29 Paul, R. W. (1985a). Bloom's taxonomy and critical thinking instruction, Educational
Leadership (Vol. 42, pp. 36): Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.
Quotations Page (2005). The Quotations Page: Quotation Details: Quotation #3073 from
Laura Moncur's Motivational Quotations, Retrieved March 20, 2005 from http://www.quotationspage.com/quote/3072.html Schultz, L. (2005, January 25). Lynn Schultz: Old Dominion University : Bloom's taxonomy.
Retrieved March 5, 2005, from http://www.odu.edu/educ/llschult/blooms_taxonomy.htm
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State Department of Education: Taxonomy for teaching, learning, and assessing: (A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of educational objectives). Retrieved March 12, 2005 from http://www.myscschools.com/offices/cso/enhance/Taxonomy_Table.htm UW Teaching Academy Short-Course. (2003). Exam question types & student competencies:
How to measure learning accurately: Bloom's Taxonomy. Retrieved October 1, 2007 from http://teachingacademy.wisc.edu/archive/Assistance/course/blooms.htm Bibliography
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Additional Resources
Citation
APA Citation: Forehand, M. (2005). Bloom's taxonomy: Original and revised.. In M. Orey
(Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved , from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt…...

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...Bloom's Taxonomy Gina Hern-Martinez NUR/427 Bloom's Taxonomy Bloom’s taxonomy is a categorization of the levels of learning and thought processes. It shows the progression of learning from simple remembering of information to understanding, application, analysis, evaluation and creativity. (“How to Use Bloom’s Taxonomy”, 1999-2013). Nurses use the three domain of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor to help with nursing education and patients with chronic diseases on a daily basis. This paper will describe the research and application on how to manage patients with chronic disease and the three domain of Bloom’s Taxonomy. Bloom’s Taxonomy offers a framework for meeting nursing education goals. It is also a tool that nurses can use to educate their patients with chronic diseases, to ensure that what is thought is focused, clear, has standard of evaluation and is well documented. One of the essential goals for taking care of patients with chronic disease is to enhance nurses’ ability to improve patient care outcomes. Toward this goal, learners need to transfer learned knowledge to actual practice. Achieving effective transfer requires knowledge of thinking paradigms in relation to specific subject content. Educators can facilitate knowledge transfer by developing instructional designs that incorporate subject content and cognitive processes related to the use of the subject content. (SLACK Incorporated, 2011). Chronic diseases are diseases of long duration......

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Blooms Taxonomy

...Annotated Bibliography Strickland, D. (1996, July). Applying Watson's Theory for Caring Among Elders. Gerontological Nursing, 22(2). This article was about the elderly living in a retirement center and how volunteers came in and did an experiment using Jean Watson’s theory of caring and also a format called the Laughing spirit listening circles. During this experiment they gathered 6 elderly women to share their stories of the past, just listening and caring about what they had to say. The experiment was a success with the women saying it felt good to have someone just listen to them. In this article they touched on Jean Watsons carative factors and how important it is to use them in a health setting even though it may be difficult as we are always focusing on medical asspects. Sitzman, K. (2002, May). Interbeing and mindfulness: A bridge to understanding Jean Watson's theory of human caring. Nursing Education Perspectives, 23(3), 118. This article is about Jean Watson’s theory of caring and how it compares to different ideas of wholism. It compares the Zen method and Thich Naht Hanh’s concept of interbeing. All 0f the ideas are about focusing on a person as a whole and how we as nurses need to treat our patients with care and respect. The article also talks about how we can teach nursing students the idea behind caring and treating patients as a whole. Caruso, E., Cisar, N., & Pipe, T. (2008, April). Creating a Healing Environment:...

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Bloom

...Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy in the English Language Teaching classroom. Background: Traditional teaching is concerned with the teacher being the controller of the learning environment. Power and responsibility are held by the teacher and they pay the role of instructor and decision maker. They regard students as having “knowledge holes” that need to be filled with information. In short, the traditional teacher views that it is the teacher that causes learning to occur. (Novak, 1998) Today in 21 century we as teachers are doing everything to change this kind of teaching. The reason for that is because teacher is not anymore the only source of information. Traditional teaching was all about memorization. Bloom’s Taxonomy can be a powerful tool to transform teaching and learning. Bloom's Taxonomy was created in 1956 under the leadership of educational psychologist Dr Benjamin Bloom in order to promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating, rather than just remembering facts. By design, it focuses attention away from content and instruction, and instead emphasizes the “cognitive events” in the mind of a child. And this is no small change. But this kind of adjustment is necessary for 21 century; Bloom’s taxonomy should help teachers to forget traditional teaching but rather what kinds of things students are going to be thinking about and how they’ll prove they understand them. There is 6 levels of Bloom’s taxonomy and all should......

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Bloom Taxonomy

...Bloom’s Version Bloom’s Taxonomy was created by Benjamin Bloom in 1956. Bloom identified that there were three categories of learning. Cognitive: Mental skills (knowledge) Affective: Growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude) Psychomotor: Manual or physical skills (skills). Bloom and his committee created these learning domains strictly for academic context. The design was used to develop a system of learning behaviors to assist in designing educational learning. Teachers can use this theory in the classroom each and every day. These different levels or categories of learning can help the teachers to assess students in different areas. Bloom’s Taxonomy gives more options instead of just test students by written papers or multiple choice questions. Within the domains of course, learning is based on a higher level system. In order for one to attain knowledge on a topic, there has to be some sort of prerequisite knowledge and skills mastered at a lower level. This type of learning creates a more holistic form of education and can really challenge students to learn to the maximum extend of their ability. Knowledge: Remembering previously learned material Comprehension: Grasping the meaning of informational materials Application: The use of previously learned information in new and concrete ways to solve problems Analysis: Break down information into components and examine information to develop conclusions Synthesis: Creatively apply prior...

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Blooms Taxonomy

...Bloom's Taxonomy and its use in Nursing Education NUR/427 October 27, 2014 Dr. Shannon Smith Bloom's Taxonomy and its use in Nursing Education Registered Nurses (RN) make a commitment to being life-long learners. It is imperative that we stay up-to-date and current on standard practice in order to provide optimal education to our patients in managing chronic illness and disease. The origination, revision and domains: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor aspects of Bloom’s taxonomy in education and its use in nursing education will be the main focus of the following essay. In 1956, Benjamin Bloom along with a group of other educational psychologists published Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Educators of health use Bloom’s taxonomy to classify skills and learning objective for students. A revision of bloom's taxonomy by Anderson and Krathwohl in 2001 offers a range of three domains for learning which include cognitive, affective and psychomotor (Larkin and Burton, 2008). This system remains more effective to adult learners and is widely used by nurses for patient education. According to (Su and Osisek, 2011), education that is practical, relevant, and organized focusing on the problems and tasks that are applied to real life is preferred by the adult learner. Using this system allows nurses to plan for educational opportunities to a particular problem that is clear, concise and is easily understood by the patient. Using this system also allows......

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Blooms

...Bloom's Research and Response NUR/427 January 20, 2015 Trecia D. Jones, MSN, RN, CNL Bloom's Research and Response According to Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains, learning is divided into three main domains: cognitive is the thinking domain, affective is the emotion and feeling domain, and psychomotor is the physical and kinesthetic domain. Included in each domain is a taxonomy or classification. The taxonomies proceed from the simplest to most complex levels of the domain. The Cognitive Domain The cognitive domain includes content knowledge and the development of intellectual skill. There are six levels in the cognitive domain: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Knowledge is remembering or retrieving previously learned material. Verbs that describe this level of learning include: arrange, define, describe, list, memorize, recognize, and select. Comprehension is the ability to compose meaning from the material. Verbs that describe this level of learning are: explain, record, classify, summarize, and illustrate. Application is the competence to use the learned material or to implement material in new and concrete situations. Verbs used in this level of learning are use, apply, solve, produce, implement, and perform. Analysis is the ability to break down or to distinguish the parts of the material into its components so that its organizational structure is understood. Keywords at this level of learning are as follows: analyze...

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Blooms Taxonomy

...Bloom's Taxonomy of Education and its effect on Nursing Education "Bloom's Taxonomy has long been the standard framework among clinical nurse educators and staff development coordinators for designing learning experiences or, at the least, has provided general guidance in development of objectives" (Horton, 2007). Bloom’s Taxonomy of educational objectives was developed by Benjamin Bloom in 1956 as a means to classify learning objectives and create learning tools for testing. There are three domains each containing subcategories that make up Bloom’s taxonomy. They are the cognitive domain, the affective domain, and psychomotor domain. Anderson and Krathwokl revised Bloom's taxonomy in 2001. While Bloom's Taxonomy has been a guideline to teach nurses, it can also be utilized as a guide for providing patient education. Each level of taxonomy builds upon the next requiring the learner to achieve a satisfactory level of each before moving forward to the next phase (Horton, 2007). A learner can be in more than one domain at a time as some levels overlap within the respective domain. Each domain and level will be discussed with examples of patient education for diabetes as an example. The cognitive domain includes six categories: remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create. When a patient presents with a chronic illness, it has a huge impact on the patient and family. As teaching begins, the patient is given information that they are expected to remember for......

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Blooms Taxonomy

...Draw on Bloom's taxonomy to demonstrate the value of thinking about thinking. Good morning/afternoon/evening, wherever this presentation finds you. I will be drawing on Bloom’s taxonomy to understand and demonstrate the importance of thinking about thinking. I will be discussing a brief history surrounding the taxonomy, what it means today, the different levels of thinking involved and how they differ, plus demonstrate how we can reach sophisticated thinking within academia and our lives using fictional examples. First, a bit of history to understand the subject at hand. The original framework was conceived as a means of measuring educational objectives. Benjamin S. Bloom initiated the idea, beginning in 1949, with a final draft published in 1956 (Krathwohl, 2002). Initially, the term taxonomy was unfamiliar as an education term and misunderstood, receiving little attention at the time (Krathwohl, 2002). The revised framework, was developed 45 years later by Anderson and Krathwohl in 2001 in order to fit the more outcome-focused modern educational objectives (Huitt, 2011). The differing frameworks are illustrated and you can see the similarities between the two. They are arranged in a hierarchy from less to more complex. I like the acronyms used here from LOTS (lower order thinking skills) to HOTS (higher order thinking skills). Further to revision of the taxonomy, Anderson and Krathwohl added a conceptualisation of knowledge dimensions (as shown) within which these......

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Blooms Taxonomy

...Bloom's Taxonomy is a classification of learning objectives within education proposed in 1956 by a committee of educators chaired by Benjamin who also edited the first volume of the standard text, Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals[1] (referred to as simply "the Handbook" below). Although named for Bloom, the publication followed a series of conferences from 1949 to 1953, which were designed to improve communication between educators on the design of curricula and examinations.[2] [3] It refers to a classification of the different objectives that educators set for students (learning objectives). Bloom's Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three "domains": Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor (sometimes loosely described as knowing/head, feeling/heart and doing/hands respectively). Within the domains, learning at the higher levels is dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge and skills at lower levels.[4] A goal of Bloom's Taxonomy is to motivate educators to focus on all three domains, creating a more holistic form of education.[1] A revised version of the taxonomy was created in 2000.[5] [6] [7] Bloom's Taxonomy is considered to be a foundational and essential element within the education community as evidenced in the 1981 survey significant writings that have influenced the curriculum: 1906-1981, by H.G. Shane and the 1994 yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. 1. 2.......

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...Bloom Taxonomy for Smart Homes All parents need their young ones to utilize critical thinking strategies. Bloom's Taxonomy has fulfilled this need. Parents can create and reinforce their young one's reasoning abilities at home. Blossom's Taxonomy is named after Benjamin Bloom, an analyst who in 1956 added to the arrangement of addressing as indicated by six levels of larger amount considering. Most if not all instructors are taught to utilize Bloom's Taxonomy in planning lesson targets for their understudies. On the other hand, most smart homes have not been taught how to utilize Bloom's Taxonomy in conversing with their youngsters. In the event that it is useful for school setups, it is clearly also useful for smart homes (Anderson, 2009). "Smart Home" is the term regularly used to characterize a home that has machines, lighting, warming, aerating and cooling, TVs, PCs, amusement sound and video frameworks, security, and camera frameworks that are fit for corresponding with each other and can be controlled remotely by a period plan, from any room in the home, and additionally remotely from any area on the planet by telephone or web (Miller, 2015). Consequently, Bloom taxonomy can easily be intergrated in a smart home setup through the use of the various devices that are available. Technologies and Devices in Smart Homes for Bloom Taxonomy Application A parent queries the children on how to take care of a given genuine issue. Inquiry as to why they think something is......

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Taxonomy

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