Free Essay

Bone Mechanics

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By trinigirl93
Words 610
Pages 3
Title: Bone Mechanics

Objectives:-
-To become familiar with LabView software and National Instruments, in order to record and observe the strain signals from chicken bone and an aluminum rod.

Background:
Data acquisition is the use of computer software connected to a measuring device. Signals and measurements are recorded, which is converted into a digital signal only understood by a computer. Data is recorded at a certain speed that is processed in real time, and can be immediately interpreted by the user. For this lab, LabView Software was used as the main hub of the data acquisition system. LabView mainly consists of the Front Panel and Block Diagram, of which the Front Panel is the user interface and the Block Diagram is where the graphing codes are written for the application.
In this lab the strain response of two different materials were measured as stress was applied to them. The materials were an aluminum rod and a chicken bone. Strain (ᵋ) is the change of length of the material over the initial length.

As we increase the stress on the material, there will be an increase on the strain on the material as well. Stress is the force (F) over cross-sectional area (A) applied on the material. The area is constant, so stress can be assumed to be directly proportional to the force applied. In this lab, heavy objects (metal bolts) were hung from the chicken bone to apply stress. Gravity (G) is mass (m) by acceleration (a). Acceleration is a constant. ᵟ = FA E= σε

Method:
In this lab, the materials were already set up. The initial reference measurement of the aluminum rod was taken and calibrated to be within 0.05% error. As weight was progressively added to the cup, LabView was used to record the strain response of the material at the specific stress. The results were recorded and then the strain response of the chicken bone was observed. The task of adding weight progressively was repeated, and the results were recorded.

Results:
For aluminum rod

Date | ######## | | Time | 8:42:55 | | Y_Unit_Label | Strain (strain) | X_Dimension | Time (s) | | X0 | 42:55.3 | | Delta_X | 0.00062 | | ***End_of_Header*** | X_Value | Strain | Comment | 0 | 1.47E-05 | | 0.00062 | 1.49E-05 | | 0.00124 | 1.50E-05 | | 0.00186 | 1.48E-05 | | 0.00248 | 1.49E-05 | | 0.0031 | 1.56E-05 | | 0.00372 | 1.42E-05 | | 0.00434 | 1.43E-05 | | 0.00496 | 1.48E-05 | | 0.00558 | 1.54E-05 | | 0.0062 | 1.49E-05 | | 0.00682 | 1.45E-05 | | 0.00744 | 1.39E-05 | | 0.00806 | 1.40E-05 | | 0.00868 | 1.44E-05 | | 0.0093 | 1.51E-05 | | 0.00992 | 1.46E-05 | | 0.01054 | 1.43E-05 | | 0.01116 | 1.43E-05 | | 0.01178 | 1.52E-05 | | 0.0124 | 1.30E-05 | | 0.01302 | 1.54E-05 | | 0.01364 | 1.50E-05 | | 0.01426 | 1.44E-05 | | 0.01488 | 1.45E-05 | | | | | | | |

For Chicken Bone Date | ######## | | Time | 9:08:18 | | Y_Unit_Label | Strain (strain) | X_Dimension | Time (s) | | X0 | 07:47.6 | | Delta_X | 0.00062 | | ***End_of_Header*** | X_Value | Strain - | Comment | 0 | 0.000115 | | 0.00062 | 0.000113 | | 0.00124 | 0.000113 | | 0.00186 | 0.000112 | | 0.00248 | 0.000114 | | 0.0031 | 0.000113 | | 0.00372 | 0.000113 | | 0.00434 | 0.000114 | | 0.00496 | 0.000114 | | 0.00558 | 0.000113 | | 0.0062 | 0.000114 | | 0.00682 | 0.000114 | | 0.00744 | 0.000113 | | 0.00806 | 0.000114 | | 0.00868 | 0.000112 | | 0.0093 | 0.000113 | | 0.00992 | 0.000113 | | 0.01054 | 0.000113 | | 0.01116 | 0.000114 | | 0.01178 | 0.000114 | | 0.0124 | 0.000114 | | 0.01302 | 0.000112 | | 0.01364 | 0.000114 | | 0.01426 | 0.000112 | | 0.01488 | 0.000114 | | | | |…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Technology in Mechanics

...Technology in Mechanics Nowadays, there has been a significant advancement of technology in mechanics. These advancement made it possible for human being to walk on Moon (kurianjoseph1, 2013). This feature, in turn had created a fact as the powerful of technology.Various technologies surrounding us are helping people to improve their life with more luxury. So the using of technology in mechanics impacts to us positively. There are one cause and two effects why the technology is using. Mechanics is the basis of early and modern technology. According to a study by (B.Cotterell & J.Kamminga, 1992), the advancement of technology in mechanics plays a fundamental role in the study of material culture. In simple term, mechanics can explain how artifacts operate technologically and how efficient or the effective they are. For example, a cooling system is a technology in a mechanics. In relation to this, (V.A.W.Hillier, 2004) stated that the function of cooling system is to remove heat from the mechanics’ engine for keeping their temperature within safe limits and avoid any problems. With the engine combustion reaching extremely high temperature, the heat needs to be dissipated. A cooling system is essential to prevent the engine from burning. Another function of the cooling system is to regulate the temperature inside the passenger compartment and ensure the passengers’ comfort. So, it can be seem that the use of technology in mechanics has become an...

Words: 613 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Mechanics

...UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN |Centre |: Centre for Foundation Studies (CFS) |Unit Code |: FHSC1014 | |Course |: Foundation in Science |Unit Title |: Mechanics | |Year/ Trimester |: Year 1 / Trimester 1 | | | |Session |: 201401 | | | Tutorial 4: Application of Newton’s Laws. 1. The distance between two telephone poles is 50.0 m. When a 1.00 kg bird lands on the telephone wire midway between the poles, the wire sags 0.200 m. Draw a free-body diagram of the bird. How much tension does the bird produce in the wire? Ignore the weight of the wire. [614 N] 2. A 40 kg crate rests on a horizontal floor, and a 75 kg person is standing on the crate. Determine the magnitude of the normal force that (a) the floor exerts on the crate and (b) the crate exerts on the person. [(a) 1.13 x 103 N, (b) 735 N] 3. A worker stands still on a roof sloped at an angle of 45° above the horizontal. He is prevented from slipping by a static frictional force of 450 N. Find the mass of the worker. [85 kg] 4. A 4.0-kg bucket of water is raised from a well by a rope. If the upward acceleration of the......

Words: 937 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Bone Black

...Bone Black by Bell Hooks The book Bone Black, which was written by Bell Hooks primarily gives a soft and vivid look in the author’s own childhood experience. The author started off the book by explaining about a certain quilt that her mother entrusted to her. At first, she thought that such quilt was quite special because of course it was her mother who personally gave it to her and that her mother never gave if first to her other sisters. Later on, the author went on describing how the siblings in their family never had a clue that they were not rich until the later part of their lives and during the times that are already growing. They primarily liked certain dolls that they used to play with and the food that they usually eat. All of them never dared to wonder why they did not possess various things that their white neighbors used to have. The sisters frequently complain because when they are going to school they need to walk and that the white kids in their neighborhood are riding on the school bus. All of these experiences, the author though that her family had a pretty normal and simple family (NNDB). In the following chapters of her book, Bone Black, Bell Hooks lengthily discussed how they were raised by their parents to fear the white people in their community. The siblings in their family, whether young or old were always taught that black individuals like them who highly resembled white people would have a life better in the world. The author, through her......

Words: 986 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Bones

...skeletal system consists of bones, cartilage, and the membranes that line the bones. Each bone is an organ that includes connective tissue (bone, blood, cartilage, adipose tissue, and fibrous connective tissue), nervous tissue, and muscle and epithelial tissues (within the blood vessels). The three main functions of the skeletal system are:-mechanical, support bones provide a framework for the attachment of muscles and other tissues. Movement bones enable body movements by acting as levers and points of attachment for muscles. Protective, bones such as the skull and rib cage protect vital organs from injury. Bones also protect the marrow. Metabolic, mineral storage. Bones serve as a reservoir for calcium and phosphorus, essential minerals for various cellular activities throughout the body. Blood cell production. The production of blood cells, or hematopoietic, occurs in the red marrow found within the cavities of certain bones. Energy storage. Lipids (fats) stored in adipose cells of the yellow marrow serve as an energy reservoir. The whole package of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons that make up the human skeletal system account for about 20 percent of our body weight — not much for the big job of keeping us moving and healthy. To ensure that your bones stay healthy, aim to consume at least 1,200mg of calcium every day. The best sources of calcium include milk, yogurt and cheese. Other good sources include broccoli, kale, canned salmon with the bones and......

Words: 467 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Bone Cell

...There are two types of bone cells osteoclasts and osteoblasts .Osteoblasts are responsible for the creation of new bone tissue, they are essential in forming bones when a fetus is developing in the womb. Osteoclasts are responsible for breaking down bone tissue which is required for bone growth and healing, they also help regulate minerals through the blood stream. Bone cells are unique in comparison to other cells because there are two types of them and they all work together inside of the bones to help keep up the skeletal system. Without bone cells we wouldn’t have bones form while we are in the fetus, thus we wouldn’t have bones and we would just be gooey, floppy humans. Animal and Plant cells are both eukaryotic cells which means there not very different in structure, there are a few differences between them though. One of the first differences between a plant and animal cell is that a plant cell has a cell wall. Animals don’t have a cell wall because they have only cell membranes made up of phospholipid bilayers and proteins which protects and holds together the cell and its part. A second difference between an animal and a plant cell is that plant cells have chloroplast and anima cells don’t. Plant cells need chloroplast because that’s how they convert sun energy into food for the plant, where as animals actually eat other things. Lastly the difference between animal and plant cells is that plant cells have one large vacuole in their cell whereas animal cells have a......

Words: 332 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Lovely Bones

...Sally James EXP-201 Professor Atlas The Lovely Bones The story “The Lovely Bones” by Alice Sebold takes place in the 1970s in Philadelphia, and focuses on a 14 year old, Susie Salmon, and her family’s methods of coping with her murder. On her way home from school, Susie is taking a shortcut through a cornfield near her house, and is stopped by a neighbor, George Harvey, who says that he wants to show her an underground room. Mr. Harvey, however, ends up raping and murdering Susie that day. Susie watches from her heaven as her family struggles with their emotions about her death. She follows her father as he takes the investigation of her murder into his own hands, her mother as she drifts from her father and has an affair and her siblings as they do things that Susie knows she will never have the opportunity to do. As Susie watches her sister start a relationship with a boy named Samuel, she longs for her life back, and wishes that she could start a relationship with Ray Signh, her first and only love. While her father suspects that George Harvey is the murderer, the detective in charge of Susie’s case, Len Fernerman, doesn’t have the evidence to prove that he is guilty because Mr. Harvey dumps Susie’s remains into a sink hole and collapses he underground room. Meanwhile, as Susie’s father attempts to gather evidence; her mother begins an affair with Len. In the Fall Susie’s sister, Lindsey, breaks into Mr. Harvey’s home and finds evidence to connect him to Susie’s......

Words: 896 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Bio-Mechanics

...skills, information for use within a curriculum, and useful information for lesson plans to include one example lesson plan. When the average person looks at the body they would probably only consider the basics to the body such as; the arms, legs, head and the basic parts that help it operate such as the heart, lungs, blood, etc. This could all be called the anatomy of the body. Anatomy can be defined as the study of the structure and the relationship between body parts (Rodgers, 2009). But, does the average person ever think about the biomechanical aspects of the body parts? Biomechanics is the science of movement of a living body, including how muscles, bones, tendons, and ligaments work together to produce movements (Rodgers, 2009). With that being said all body movements are produced by the help of various muscle, bones, tendons, and ligaments. Anatomical and biomechanical aspects go hand and hand together to help with motor development. Understanding these aspects will cause a person’s motor development to flourish better and further than an individual who lacks the knowledge and understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the human body. Also analysis of movement through phases for the dip exercise will be conveyed within the paper. Within this paper the reader should gain a better analysis of the anatomy, biomechanics, and motor development of the human body through the dip exercise. Throughout this paper, the anatomy, biomechanical and motor skill analysis of......

Words: 7640 - Pages: 31

Free Essay

Winters Bone

...Winter’s Bone In “Winter’s Bone” the main character is a sixteen year old, adolescent, caretaking, high school dropout girl with “milk skin and abrupt green eyes” named Ree. Ree is a very strong character with the responsibility of a whole family with a missing farther and a mentally sick mom. Ree is a Dolly. Family is very important in the society in Missouri where she lives with her mother and two brothers. The setting in Missouri has made Ree who she is. She is stubborn, brave determined and responsible. With a criminal as a farther she is forced to be a grown up and to think and act as a mother at 16. She also breaks a family pattern of crime by living on the right side of the law and helping her siblings through school. When her daddy disappears and the police comes to take the house instead, it is her mission to go against the norms of society to safe her family. Ree lives in a closed lawless society, most people are related inbreds and everyone knows each other. It is a community where the goal is survival therefore the common man earns his living by cooking crank in his basement and it is very normal to take drugs. In the society there is not anything to fall back on, no safety-net for poor families making it the ideal “every man for himself” society. There are many unwritten rules you have to follow. Because of all the crime it is very important to shut your mouth, mind your own business and to not ask any question. The consequences of not following these......

Words: 798 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Biology of Bone

...2.1 Bone classification and its cellular structure There are two major types of bone. They denote different stages of a bone lifecycle. 1. Woven Bone – It is an unorganized and premature bone that is found in either growing bones or at fracture sites as newly-formed bone. 2. Lamellar Bone – It is a mature bone that results from the further remodeling of woven bone. Lamellar bone may be further divided into: a. Cortical Bone – It is a dense or compact bone, which constitutes approximately 80% of the skeleton. It is approximately 20% porous and consists of a dense bundle of vascular channels containing blood vessels surrounded by mature bone. It forms the middle 80% of long bones of the body – tibia, fibula in the lower leg, femur in the upper leg, the radius and ulna in the lower arm, and the humerus in the upper arm. b. Cancellous Bone – It is a spongy bone, which constitutes approximately 20% of the skeleton. It is approximately 70% porous, highly vascularized and consists of loosely formed matrix of beams designed to withstand the principal stresses and strains applied to the bone. The density of cortical bone is four to six times higher than cancellous bone. Cancellous bone constitutes the remaining 20% of bone located at the ends of the long bones and predominates in the pelvis and the 33 vertebrae from the neck to the tailbone. A fibrous membrane called the periosteum covers bone. In general, bone constitutes minerals, proteins, hormones, water, other......

Words: 928 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Quantum Mechanics

...Quantum mechanics Rohan Agarwal It is common knowledge that matter is comprised of particles. Or is it? We all think that light consists of waves. How true are these claims? Although it may seem counterintuitive on the surface, various experiments and supporting theories have proved that the line between what is particulate and what is wavelike is finer than we imagine. At a fundamental, sub-atomic level, matter and light are both wavelike and particulate; it is only on the macroscopic scale that the divisions become better defined. The study of the physical laws that govern the realm of the very small, such as atoms, protons, and the like; developed from Planck’s quantum principle and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle are termed as quantum mechanics. The principles of quantum mechanics revolve around two major theories- the wave-particle duality, and, in extension to this, the theory that it is possible for absolutely small particles to be in two different states at the same time. Theoretical physicists have arrived at these conclusions after powerful observations of experiments, and these will be discussed in due course. Before doing so, it is imperative to understand that this quantum strangeness does not transfer to the macroscopic world, and so some claims in this article will seem absurd. In order to demonstrate this, Erwin Schrodinger published a paper in 1935, containing a thought experiment, now popularly known as Schrodinger’s cat. A cat is put in a steel......

Words: 1219 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Mechanic

...UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN CentreCourseYear/ Trimester | : Centre for Foundation Studies (CFS): Foundation in Science: Year 1 / Trimester 1 | Session Course CodeCourse Title | : 201605: FHSC1014: Mechanics | Tutorial 1: Introduction 1. What are the dimensions for the physical quantity expressed as , where m, g, d, T and l are the mass, acceleration due to gravity, distance, period and length respectively. A MT2 B ML2 C MLT2 D MLT–2 [Answer: B] 2. Suppose A = BC, where A has the dimension LM–1 and C has the dimension LT–1. What is the dimension of B? A TM–1 B L2T–1M–1 C TML–2 D L2TM–1 [Answer: A] 3. (a) State the dimension for (i) velocity (ii) force (b) Suppose an equation related with force F, viscosity ƞ, speed v, radius r is given by this formula , where k is a dimensionless constant; x, y, and z are the power to which ƞ, v and r. Given that the dimensions of viscosity ƞ is ML–1T–1. Use dimensional analysis to determine the value of x, y and z. [Answer: (a) (i) LT–1, (ii) MLT–2; (b) 1, 1, 1] 4. (a) Discuss briefly whether in general the method of dimensional checking can positively confirm that an equation is correct. (b) Newton’s law of universal gravitation is represented by where F is the gravitational force, M and m are masses, and r is a length. Given that the dimensions of force is MLT–2. What are the dimensions and SI unit of the proportionality...

Words: 770 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Mechanics

...UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN |Centre |: Centre for Foundation Studies (CFS) |Unit Code |: FHSC1014 | |Course |: Foundation in Science |Unit Title |: Mechanics | |Year/ Trimester |: Year 1 / Trimester 1 |Lecturer | | |Session |: 201605 | | | Additional Tutorial 2: Vector and translational kinematics. 1. Find the x and y-components of: (a) a displacement of 200 km, at 30.0o. (b) a velocity of 40.0 km/h, at 120o; and (c) a force of 50.0 N at 330o. [(a) 173 km, 100 km, (b) -20.0 km/h, +34.6 km/h, (c) 43.3 N, -25.0 N] 2. Three forces are applied to an object, as indicated in the drawing. Force [pic] has a magnitude of 21.0 Newton (21.0 N) and is directed 30.0° to the left of the + y axis. Force [pic] has a magnitude of 15.0 N and points along the + x axis. What must be the magnitude and direction (specified by the angle ( in the drawing) of the third force [pic] such that the vector sum of the three forces is 0 N? [18.7 N, 76o] 3. A 200 N block rests on a 30o inclined plane as shown in figure below. If the weight of the block acts vertically downward, what are the components of......

Words: 989 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Fluid Mechanics

...Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids and the forces on them. (Fluids include liquids, gases, and plasmas.) Fluid mechanics can be divided into fluid kinematics, the study of fluid motion, and fluid dynamics, the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion, which can further be divided into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest, and fluid kinetics, the study of fluids in motion. Fluid mechanics is very important to engineers when observing flow in pipes, viscous effects of fluids, and the forces that act on a fluid. As a student, I am suppose to demonstrate an adequate understanding of many properties involved fluid mechanics. Some learning outcomes that must be accomplished by taking this class are: * Demonstrate understanding of fluid mechanics fundamentals, fluid and flow properties such as compressibility, viscosity, buoyancy, hydrostatic pressure and forces on surfaces * Apply Bernoulli equation to solve problems in fluid mechanics * Solve fluid mechanics problem using control volume analysis using conservation of mass, energy equation and irreversible flow * Use differential analysis of fluid flow, potential flow theory, viscous flow, Navier Stokes equations to solve problems * Perform modeling and similitude using Buckingham Pi theorem, correlation of experimental data. * Analyze flow in pipes to determine laminar and turbulent flow behaviors. * Apply energy and momentum equations to......

Words: 1681 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Bone Cancer

...Bone cancer can grow in anyone’s bones; it can start at any age. The main focus of this report is aimed at young adults and teens. First we will talk about the type of bone cancer that is most common in young adults and teenagers. Osteosarcoma is a common bone cancer that starts as a tumor in your bone over time the cells in the tumor start to behave differently and become abnormal. Let’s discuss risk factors. Your age can be considered a risk factor. If you have had many growth spurts in a short amount of time you could have bone cancer. Your height could be a sign that you have a chance to develop bone cancer in your arms or legs. Depending on your age group if you are tall for your age group you have a greater chance at developing bone cancer. More commonly boys develop bone cancer than girls due to the different growth periods. Girls have different growth periods and they are shorter than boys. There is a larger instance of bone cancer in African Americans than Caucasian Americans. The last risk factor is a very important one. Sometimes if you have had radiation therapy for another cancer the chances of you having bone cancer later in your life are greater. Certain bone diseases can lead to bone cancer also. One disease chondroma, causes non-cancerous tumors to grow in the bones. There are no prevention plans for bone cancer. Most cases of bone cancer are caught in the early stages before it spreads. Your symptoms could be a swelling in your arms or......

Words: 496 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Bone Cancer

...Did you know bone cancer can start at any age and can grow in anyone’s bones? This usually occurs to young adults and teens. There are different types of bone cancers. The most common one is Osteosarcoma. It’s a type of bone cancer that starts off as a tumor and later on the cells start to change and become abnormal. Your height could be a sign that you can develop bone cancer in your arms or legs. In other words, if you are tall for you age group or bigger that’s a bigger chance of you getting bone cancer. Bone cancer if very common and many people have it. Especially people who are larger than their age group. Guys develop it more than girls some times because of their different growth periods. Girls have different growth periods and are usually shorter than men which makes it more difficult for females to get bone cancer. Sometimes if you’ve had a different type of cancer before in your life, there is an even greater chance of you getting bone cancer. If you have a bone disease of any type that is another way of you getting bone cancer. There is one disease named chondroma, is causes non-cancerous tumors to grow in the bones. This cancer affects your body during rapid growth period in the body. The legs and arms tend to develop tumors more than fingers toes neck or backs. The bones which have the cancer is easier to break than your regular bones because the center of the bone where our morrow is contained has been replaced by cancer cells....

Words: 271 - Pages: 2

Religious | Rohr Rundrohr Edelstahlrohr V2A VA Edelstahlrundrohr Edelstahl Rohre bis 145 cm | Economic Analysis of Oligopoly - 1563 Words