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Faculty & Research

Note on Measuring Brand Awareness, Brand
Image, Brand Equity and Brand Value by P. Chandon

2003/19/MKT

Working Paper Series

Note on Measuring Brand Awareness, Brand Image, Brand Equity and Brand Value

Pierre Chandon*
INSEAD

March 2003

*

Pierre Chandon is Assistant Professor of Marketing at INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance,
77300 Fontainebleau, France. Tel: +33 (0)1 60 72 49 87, e-mail: pierre.chandon@insead.edu.

Note on Measuring Brand Awareness, Brand Image, Brand Equity and Brand Value
The purpose of this note is to provide an overview and references on the various methods that can be used to measure brand knowledge (brand awareness and brand image), brand equity and brand value. This note provides a short definition of each concept and illustrations of the most widely-used measurement techniques. Once you know what you want to measure, it is important to look at the original sources cited to understand how to properly use these techniques. Keller’s (2003) excellent book also provides detailed information on each concept and its measurement.
1.

Brand knowledge

Brand knowledge refers to brand awareness (whether, and when, consumers know the brand) and brand image (what are the associations that consumers have with the brand) (Keller
2001). The different dimensions of brand knowledge can be classified in a pyramid (adapted from Keller 2001), in which each lower-level element provides the foundations of the higherlevel element. In other words, brand attachment stems from rational and emotional brand evaluations, which derive from functional and emotional brand associations, and which necessitate brand awareness.
FIGURE 1
The Brand Knowledge Pyramid

ATTACHMENT
Loyalty, sense of community, engagement
RATIONAL
EVALUATION
Brand value, credibility FUNCTIONAL IMAGE
AND BENEFITS
Physique…...

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