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Brm Research Methods

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Contents 2.1 Motivation 2 2.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 2 2.3 Drives for Employee Motivation 3 2.4.1 Management Commitment 4 2.4.2 Training and Development 4 2.4.3 Respect and Recognition 4 2.4.4 Role of pay 5 2.4.5 Proposed Replica to Motivate Workers in McDonald 6 Introduction 7 3.1 Qualitative & Quantitative Research Methods 7 3.2 Final selection for the project 7 2.3 Primary data or secondary data 8 2.4 Research Tools 8 2.5 Population Sample 8 2.6 Sampling technique 8 2.7 Advantages of qualitative research methods 9 2.8 interviews 9 2.8.1 Advantages and disadvantages of face to face interviews. 9

Literature Review
2.1 Motivation
By Anne (2010) motivation basically came from a Latin-word-mover whose basic meanings indicate movement, in simple way using efficient approach/way for reaching final targets. According to Edwards (2007) nowadays in organizations motivation is treated like catalyst for getting competitive edge over rivals. By Jaffery (2009) a strong relationship exists between motivation and job performance. In view of Halverson (2005) motivation acts like oxygen for organizations and it is of huge importance especially in such business (services) where workers have direct link with consumers as in food business. It is a million dollar advice for managers in fats food companies that they must focus on identifying indicators which definitely stimulate workers for performing their jobs in an efficient manner. Fast food business has become very competitive nowadays almost all over the world.
2.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s theory of motivations considered extremely well-known among practitioners of motivations, in that theory Abraham Maslow recognized key basic needs of employees which are categorized in five sections , that categorizations takes in physiological-needs, safety needs, belonging needs,-esteem needs and last one is self-actualization (Kamalian & Yaghoubi,2009), Maslow theory actually explains managers need to understand that employees in an organization stimulate by different motivational factors , intelligent managers must understand at what stage which particular factor stimulates employees. Maslow’s theory indicates that people initially need basic needs like food, clothes and shelter, after fulfilling of these needs they go to other needs.

Source: Kamalian & Yaghoubi (2009),
Such as clothes, house and basic groceries etc, usually these types of needs are characteristically accomplished through possessing adequate amount of pay.
Safety: second section from downside of Maslow’s motivational safety needs, it includes job safety and health safety etc, these kinds of needs could be fulfilling trough providing job-security and health-insurances etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Drives for Employee Motivation
According to Anne (2010) drivers or indicators for motivation is very complex area, motivational factors keep varying in different business sectors according to precise business needs. By Kamalian & Yaghoubi (2009) an important point to keep in mind is that motivational factors for employees in developed countries is different as compare to the motivational factors for employees in developing countries. According to Jaffery (2009) precise society norms and country culture also affects motivational factors for workers. Different studies carried out by different researchers found out almost similar results regarding the motivation indicators, a research work by Jaffery (2009) in UK found out that most of the workers in hospitality service prefer admirations and gratitude from managers to, whereas similar study conducted in India (Chandigarh) by Anne (2010) found out that pay is key motivational factor for the employees working in hospitality sector, though this research was conducted on small number of medium level organizations in hospitality .

Basically this research work is conducted in Pakistan (Lahore) which is a developing country, so most probably motivational factors for employees working on McDonald could be different as compare to motivational indicators in developed countries. According to Kamalian & Yaghoubi (2009) one of the most interesting things is how manager can find out what exactly.
2.4.1 Management Commitment
It is an open secret that a loyal and committed managers in an organization would play a huge role in producing committed workers, demonstration of high level of commitment from managers would force subordinates to perform in same manner in order to prove them a useful part of their company. According to Griffin & Moorhead (2012) unfortunately presence of autocratic system in Asian countries especially states freed from Britain like Indo-Pakistan where business norms are different for junior and senor level employees, in Asian companies managers take credit of their junior work and in case of any incidental disaster whole blame comes to junior level employees, while Gary & Christopher (2006) stated that in multinational organizations working in African and Asian countries are very conscious to their brand image, so they keep making sure that business procedures and operations being utilized are according to international business law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2 Training and Development
According to Anne (2010) most of the successful and big brands consider their workers as the most important assets and do their best to pay as much attention on their workers training and coaching as possible. By Edwards (2007) investing on employees training is not just waste of money but that money actually comes back in form of huge revenue generated by those trained workers.
2.4.3 Respect and Recognition typically it has been seen almost each kind of workers demand esteem, respect and appreciation from management, it is also mentioned in the hierarchy of needs theory that respect and appreciation from managers implement very pleasant effects on performance of workers Anne (2010) .according to Jaffery (2009) admiration type needs could be fulfill by different sorts of backings, a range of admirations through verbal and written form. According to Edwards (2007) manager must understand that workers do not want to treat like a strange persons who works for earning money, but manager must make them feel that they are an active part of the organization and their presence affects the company positively.
2.4.4 Role of pay
According to Edwards (2007) there is no doubt that majority of workers work for money in order to buy basic essentials of life like food. , cloths and shelter, but by Jaffery (2009) things are not like in workers hierarchy especially in multinational organizations, he added that often managers in global companies like to have good status in a society and reputable name, in case of those personalities admiration and respect can be said major motivational factors for them. at the end the researcher would like to state that developing countries got different motivational factors as compare to employees of developed countries, though Lahore is considered second biggest economical city of Pakistan where consumers got enough money to spend on especially fast food, in a society like Pakistan where easting out in expansive restaurant is known as status symbol, in the researcher’s view pay is the most important motivational factors for workers in Pakistan , then the respect and finally career development is the major concern for both the workers working ohm industry sector in Pakistan.

2.4.5 Proposed Replica to Motivate Workers in McDonald
The researcher designed a self model which shows how management at McDonald Lahore can motivate their workers and also the researcher categorized key motivational factors in that too.

Dedication of management

Training & improvement
Respect & Gratitude

Human Capacity

Working circumstances

Worker Motivation

Vales link to Culture

Faithfulness of company

Promotion

Pay /Wages

Job stress

Proposed Replica to motivate workers in Fast-Food sector
Source: (own)

Methdology Introduction
In this art of the thesis the researcher described what research methods are used by him in data gathering phase, the researcher also justified why he selected precise research methods and also mentioned benefits and drawbacks of using the selected research methods.
3.1 Qualitative & Quantitative Research Methods
According to Oliver & Smith (2009) two extremely famous research methods are given name of qualitative reserch methods and quantitative research methods. By Schilling (2006) normally it has been seen that researchers and professionals use one of this method in data gathering phase, though in some cases mixture of these two techniques is also used in data gathering phase, Oliver & Smith (2009) stated that qualitative research methods are used when an entity (researcher/researchers) or (company/companies) are interested in discovering exact bond/connection among variables, these variables could be two or more than two. Whereas qualitative research methods are utilized in cases when a deep understanding and explanation of topic of concern, theme or phenomenon required. According to Schilling (2006) it is essential to keep in mind that final selection of qualitative and quantitative purely relies on type of required data and research purposes. by Oliver & Smith (2009) it is essential to keep in mind that analysis of quantitative data is easier as compare to analysis of qualitative data, he further gave its reasons because nature of data in quantitative research methods is numeric whereas in qualitative data has text shape. According to Schilling (2006) a lot of tools are available like SSPS, statistical analysis and R Square test for analysis of quantitative data whereas analysis of qualitative data requires huge amount of knowledge for researchers on the topic.
3.2 Final selection for the project
As the researcher is interested in deep understanding of motivational factors for the employees of McDonald working in Lahore branch, and also according to research objectives detailed data is required in order to conduct analysis, all these reasons made the researcher to use qualitative research methods in data gathering phase.
2.3 Primary data or secondary data. according to Schilling (2006) definition of the primary data can be given as the first hand data or innovative/latest data, it is such data which is gathered for a precise purposes which was not available before carrying out particular research work. While Chamber (2000) defined secondary data as used or second hand data, it is that kind of data which was gathered by any other entity but that entity allows other researcher to use that as reference. According to Schilling (2006) primary data can be said reliable data because that is gathered for a precise purpose and no modification is required in that. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Research Tools there are many research tools which can be use for data gathering , like surveys and interviews, as the researcher decided to use the qualitative research methods for data gathering, that’s interview tool is chosen for data gathering from the employees of the McDonalds ( Lahore) and the managers.
2.5 Population Sample in the research work the researcher selected eleven junior level employees from the selected McDonald, employees belong to from both day an night shift and it was made sure the researcher that the selected employees have at least O level dedication and aware of motivation concept very well. The researcher selected two managers too for data gathering, the researcher did his best to expand the list of respondents from company, but due to the busy schedule of the managers the researcher could not achieve that
2.6 Sampling technique
The researcher used convenience sampling as he had no choice except that, the researcher talked to fourteen junior level employees for participating in the data gathering phase, though the researcher had to get permission first from the manager of the Lahore branch for including junior level employees on data gathering phase.
2.7 Advantages of qualitative research methods
According to Eveleigh & Paul (2008) qualitative research methods are famous for providing data in bulk which increase richness of data. By Schilling (2006) qualitative research methods are also famous got discovering new aspects especially when face to face interviews are used for data gathering with the help of open ended questions.
2.8 interviews
According to Oliver & Smith (2009) there is no doubt that interviews style is known as most famous technique of data gathering from particular respondents of focus group. Holliday (2007) stated that data gathering by using interviews can of different kinds, like face to face interview, distant interviews by telephone/mobile or audio interviews using innovative technology applications and products. In the research work the researcher used face to face interview style for data gathering.
2.8.1 Advantages and disadvantages of face to face interviews. The researcher considered a lot of benefits of face to face interviews before finally deciding to choose them, in the end of the paragraph some of the disadvantages of face to face interviews also presented. according to Eveleigh & Paul (2008) face to face interview is considered best tool for explaining inner meanings of a open ended questionnaires if desired by respondent or focus group, and also by Schilling (2006) face to face interview with open ended questionnaires help a lot in creating friendly environment where partipcnatsn express their feelings , ideas on topic of concern freely, according to Oliver & Smith (2009) in face to face interviews researchers have maximum chances of getting huge amount of data by assuring respondents that their views on a precise topic are of huge importance for the study and their designations and names would be mention anywhere in the project without their permission, such admiration and encouragement from researchers make respondents to speak openly and thus sometimes respondents give a new way to a research by telling something new to a study. according to Schilling (2006) disadvantage of face to face interviews is that they are time consuming and also it is not easy to convince respondents for partipcnating in face to face interviews, Eveleigh & Paul (2008) stated that a it is hard for a researcher to collect correct data who never went for a face to face interview, but the researcher in the project conducted face to face interview in order to increase the worth and reliability of the project.

* Anne B (2010) .How to Motivate Every Employee: 24 Proven Tactics to Spark Productivity in workplace. McGrath Hill G * Edwards N. (2007). Competitive insinuation of Main worker Mobility. Strategic-Management pp. 175-187. * Griffin K & Moorhead F (2012) .Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. South Western Cenaga Learning * Halverson D (2005). An Investigation of Employee Satisfaction and Employee Empowerment Specific to on-Site Supervisors in The Residential Construction Industry, A thesis for master degree submitted to the faculty of Brigham Young University.pp. 123-125 * Gary P & Christopher (2006). Keys to motivating tomorrow's workforce. Human Resource Management Review. 2006, 16: 181–198. * Jaffery F (2009). Ways to opening the black box of motivation: A cross-cultural assessment between Australia and Canada. International Business Review. Pp.45–167. * Kamalian R & Yaghoubi N (2009). Survey of connection between Organizational Justice and Empowerment (A Case Study). Pp. 13-17 * Mathew H (2007). A comprehensive approach to Qualitative Research (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, pp. 89-122 * Peter P (2010). The Executive Guide to Business Process Management: How to Maximize ‘Lean. Complete Six Sigma Snnyergy.pp. 233-248 * * * Rukhmani K & Jayakrishnan J (2010). Effect of Leadership Styles on Organizational Effectiveness. European Journal of Social Sciences, 15 (3), 365-369. * Oliver Q & Smith Z. (2009). Tools for analysis of financial data. A complete guide on using mathematical instruments for analysis if quantitative data. 2nd Ed. Perth Australia * Eveleigh N & Paul W (2008) Qualitative Vs Quantitative (4rd Ed.). Guide for new professionals pp. 291-315. . . . . . . . . . . . . * * Holliday R. (2007). Doing and Writing Qualitative Research, 2nd Edition. London: Sage Publications * * Schamber L. (2000). Time-line interviews and inductive content analysis: Their effectiveness for exploring cognitive behaviors. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 51(8), 734-744. * Schilling J. (2006). On the pragmatics of qualitative assessment: Designing the process for content analysis. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 22(1), 28-37.…...

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...Research Method Hypothesis and Theory Hypotheses can be developed and tested to recognize the relationships between categories. Silverman (1991:1) defined hypothesis as a ‘testable proposition’. The appearance of an apparent relationship or connection between categories will need to be tested in order to find out whether there is an actual relationship (Saunders, 1997:344). The importance of hypothesis is that it will bring a specific direction and focus to a research study. The theory on the other hand, is usually drawn from the hypothesis. Theories are usually generated from attempts at explaining observations and thus prediction or expectations can be made (Gill, 1991:25). Deduction and Induction There are two methods of establishing what is true or false and of drawing conclusion. These two methods are deduction and induction. Induction is made by empirical evidence based, while deduction is logic based. Through induction, a general conclusion can be made from empirical observation. It goes by the process of assumption to conclusion (Ghauri, 1995:8). From deduction, conclusions are draw through logical reasoning and it is not necessary to be reality. When an observation is made to generate a theory with consistent facts, it is called induction, on the contrary deduction involves the gathering of facts to confirm or disprove hypothesized relationships among variables that have been deduced from proposition or earlier theories (Ghauri, 1995:9). Research method and......

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Research Method

...Measurement and Survey Research Measurement and Survey Research Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh Measurement and Survey Research Measurement and Survey Research Fundamental ideas construct validity (the degree inference can made from study to theory) Reliability (the quality of measurement) random and systematic error, Reliability and validity related Scales of measurements Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh Measurement and Survey Research Arithmetic strength of scales of measurements Levels Nominal Ordinal Interval Arithmetic Counting Counting Ranking Counting Ranking Addition/Subtraction Counting Ranking Addition/Subtraction Multiplication/Division Features Categories Categories Ranks Categories Ranks Has equal units Categories Ranks Has equal units Has absolute zero Examples Religion Economic class IQ score Ratio Weight Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh Measurement and Survey Research Information strength of Scales of measurements Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh Measurement and Survey Research Types of Survey research Types Questionnaire mail......

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