Free Essay

Candle Swing

In: Science

Submitted By xyophrio
Words 2463
Pages 10
St. Michael’s College
Basic Education Department
Brgy. San Miguel, Iligan City
S.Y: 2014-2015

CANDLE SWING

Members:
Bagamaspad, Maegan D.
Cariño, Aaron Joefferson R.
Cantoja, Christian Dominic G.
Heolin, John Paul M.
Layug, Manuel Kent M.
Maminta, Alyssa Mae D.
Suzon, Patrick Miguel B.
Tan, Hilary Marie Vien C.
Villamor, Rom Timothy Marro S.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................ xi
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. About the project ........................................................................................ 1
B. Statement of the problem ........................................................................... 2
C. Null Hypothesis ........................................................................................... 2
D. Scope and Limitation .................................................................................. 2
E. Significance of the Study ............................................................................ 3
F. Definition of Terms ....................................................................................... 3

CHAPTER II
Review of Related Literature ........................................................................... 4

CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
A. Materials .................................................................................................... 8
B. Procedure .................................................................................. 8

CHAPTER IV
RESULTS, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION
A. Results ..................................................................................... 9
B. Discussions ............................................................................ 10
C. Summary ............................................................................... 10
D. Conclusion ............................................................................ 10
E. Recommendation .................................................................. 10

CHAPTER V
Bibliography ............................................................................... 11
About the author ........................................................................ 12

Acknowledgement
Having a successful investigatory project is really a great pleasure to us. Yet all these will not have been possible if not for hardwork, persistence and cooperation among the researchers. We would like to extend our sincerest appreciation to the following people who helped accomplish the Investigatory project. They are the people who contributed much for the success of this endeavor.
First of all,we would like to thank our parents and benefactors who have shown their unending support and provided us with necessary materials we needed.
Second, We would like to thank our Investigatory Project Instructor and Physics teacher, Sir Julius G. Baldesco for teaching us the fundamental research and investigatory writing and for showing a great deal of patience through the time.
And above all, we would like to thank God for giving us the gift of wisdom and understanding and for answering our prayers.

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. About the Project
Candle is an important material and is sometimes used in our community. In our modern times, it is used mainly for its aesthetic purposes and scent. Its fragrant smell is known for This study will be conducted in order to know the capabilities of the candle with used cooking oil and learn the difference of it from the commercially produced candles. This study aims to develop a better product that the commercial candles. By doing this, we could refrain from throwing cooking oil after being used, and make use of it as an additive material in making candles. The researchers wanted to develop a cheaper and recycled candle that can be easily made at home and with materials that are eco-friendly, recycled and can be commonly seen. It is easy to make a candle and is a good hobby. By doing this, we can save money and save mother earth.aromatherapy. Candles are also essential especially during power failures and emergencies.

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B. Statement of the Problem
This study aims to answer the following questions:
• What are the different characteristics of sample candles in terms of color, odor, texture and span?
•What is the purpose of the Candle Swing? C. Null Hypothesis
• The candles made used cooking oil will not be as effective as commercially produced candles.
• To give us a better understanding about equality. D. Scope and Limitation
This study was conducted at St. Michael’s College-Basic Education Department SY:2014-2015. This also includes given factors such as: the parents, and teachers.
Furthermore, the researchers value the opinions, suggestions, comments, and clarifications.

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E. Significance of the Study
This study will help in the conservation of water forms. This study will also produce candle which can be substituted to the commercially produced candles. With this, there will be less pollution coming from factories. It can also be a source of livelihood to other people.This study will help the citizen in saving money, for they don’t need to spend money buying candles. Instead, they could do it on their self.
F. Definition of Terms * Flax- a blue-flowered herbaceous plant that is cultivated for its seed (linseed) and for textile fiber made from its stalks. * Paraffin- a flammable, whitish, translucent, waxy solid consisting of a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons, obtained by distillation from petroleum or shale and used in candles, cosmetics, polishes, and sealing and waterproofing compounds. * Petrochemicals- a chemical obtained from petroleum and natural gas. * Polyurethane- a synthetic resin in which the polymer units are linked by urethane groups, used chiefly as constituents of paints, varnishes, adhesives, and foams. * Wick- astrip of porous material up which liquid fuel is drawn by capillary action to the flame in a candle, lamp, or lighter.
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CHAPTER II
Review of Related Literature
Candles used to be largely made up of solid combustible waxes of fatty substance formed around a wick. It is a source of light. Beeswax candles were used in Egypt and Crete as early as 3000 B.C. Much later, candles were made by pouring molten wax or tallow into molds, containing wicks. Next came the paraffin wax, which is crystallized from petroleum. Today, commercially available candles are approximately made up of 65 percent paraffin wax and 35 percent stearic acid. Waxes compromises a broad group of opaque, water repellent, essentially solid materials having varied chemical composition and many diverse applications. Its name applied originally to naturally occurring esters of fatty acids and monohydric alcohols but not refers to both natural and manufactured products resembling these esters. They soften gradually on heating, going through a soft, malleable state before ultimately forming a liquid.
Oils are greasy, generally combustible liquid of vegetables, animals or mineral origin which is insoluble in alcohol and always in Ether. Oils are used as food, for lubricating, illuminating and as fuel. It is also used in the manufacture of soap, candles, cosmetics, perfumery, etc.Wick were made up of cotton or linen woven and braided in such a way that it will burn in one direction, curling so as to texture its end into oxidizing zone of the candles flame for complete combustion.

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As candles started to wane as the major light source due to the introduction of the light bulb, they became more of a decorative item. Candles became available in a broad array of sizes, shapes and colors, and consumer interest in scented candles began togrow. During the 1990s, new types of candle waxes were being developed due to an unusually high demand for candles. New waxes have been introduced including soybean wax, which was a softer and slower burning wax than paraffin wax, and palm wax.
Candles themselves can generate very little electricity and like coal, would have to be used to make steam from the heat of bulbs, which then might be used to make electricity. But it would be quite inefficient. The best source of illuminating an electric light bulb is current from a source such as hydroelectric, oil, or coal power. Hydroelectric or solar power is the best ways to generate electricity, as they do not pollute. One of the early inventors working with electricity, Nikola Tesla, was able to show how electric light bulbs could be lit from current that runs through the ground, and even people. He was shut down by money and propaganda from his rival, Thomas Edison, who wanted to profit from the invention, not allow people to get free electricity. However, the strength of an electric light bulb is sometimes measured in “Candlepower”, that is, how many candles it would take to make the same light as a single electric bulb. Usually, however, these are given in “Watts”.

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Candlepower is a way of measuring how much light is produced by a light bulb, LED or by striking an arc in a Carbon-Arc spotlight. Is it a measure of how much light falls upon an object some distance away? No. That’s illuminance. Is it a measure of how well we see an object that is illuminated by that light source? No. That’s something altogether different, and we are not going there. Nowadays, we use the term CANDELA instead of candlepower. Candlepower or CANDELA is a measure of how much light the bulb produces, measured at the bulb, rather than how much falls upon the thing you want to light up. Further confusing the matter is beam focus. That’s how much candlepower can be focused using a reflector/lens assembly. Obviously, if you project all your light bulbs intensity at a given spot, or towards something, it will be more intense, and the illuminance will be higher.

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Candlelight was used for most ordinary activities throughout the Victorian period, from dining and playing cards to cooking, particularly in areas where there was no gas, until finally eclipsed by electric light. Photographs of interiors taken by the architectural photographer H Bedford Lemere between 1890 and 1910 (reproduced in The Opulent Eye - see Recommended Reading) show that in the 1890s fashionable hotels and homes were still being lit by candlelight and oil lamps. In the drawing rooms and dining rooms of the wealthy, candelabra were often positioned on the mantlepiece in front of a pier glass mirror, sconces were also common and on the tables there were oil lamps, candlesticks and candelabra, often in addition to gasoliers above. In most cases the candles had shades, some with frills and tassels, others plain, perhaps made of paper. In the photographs taken in the early 20th century, many of the candle fittings seen were empty.

The frills and tassels had gone, and the interiors were cool and uncluttered by comparison. Many of the electric light fittings shown were converted chandeliers and sconces with light bulbs protruding from imitation candles, illustrating a nostalgia for the candle which remains as strong today.

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CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY

I. Materials
The materials needed for the accomplishment of this study are the following:
• Candle • 2 Glass
• Match
• Needle

II. Procedure
1. get someone with decent personal liability insurance to cut the bottom 1cm off the candle so the wick is exposed, and to poke the darning needle through the middle of the candle (the closer to the middle you are, the better it’ll work)
2. put your two glasses upside down and balance the ends of the needle on them, so the candle can swing through between them.
3. make sure the candle is balanced, and then light one end and then the other.

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CHAPTER IV
RESULTS, DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATION

I. Results
The making of the candle power light bulb is indeed successful. To prove it here are some pictures of the result.

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II. Discussions
Candle swing is good and it is also beneficial for the present/future students. In order, for them to understand about Torque and about the Second Condition of Equilibrium.
III. Summary
To sum up everything, candle swing are a great example on how Torque and the Second Condition of Equilibrium works.
IV. Conclusion
It was concluded by the researchers that if you use the candle swing as a learning example or experience for us to learn/comprehend how nature works under the Torque and the Second Condition of Equilibrium. Candle Swing can also be use as a symbol of our life, through ups and downs we can still find balance.
V. Recommendation
The researchers recommended the future researchers to have a research about candle swing so that they will find an alternative solution to any power failures.

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CHAPTER V
A. Bibliography http://prezi.com/2e8r4cluc1q6/investigatory-project-presentation/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3ECaYPQxK4 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candlepower http://www.ehow.com/how_6852884_do-electricity-using-small-candles_.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Cn_8Yawq9Y http://www.abc.net.au/science/experimentals/experiments/episode23_1.htm

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C. About the Author
I. PERSONAL INFORMATION
Name:Maegan D. Bagamaspad
Nickname:Meg
Age: 16
Address:Brgy. Hinaplanon, Iligan City
Birthdate: March 19, 1998
Birthplace:Dasmarinas, Cavite City
Religion: Roman Catholic
Citizenship: Filipino
Contact Number: 09358269316
Mother’s Name: Jennifer D. Bagamaspad
Father’s Name: Allan A. Bagamaspad

II. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Elementary: Mary Infant Jesus School
Secondary: St. Michael’s College, Basic Education Department

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I. PERSONAL INFORMATION
Name: Aaron Joefferson R. Carino
Nickname: Aaron; Aron; A.J
Age: 16
Address: Tambo Bayug, Iligan City
Birthdate: April 24, 1998
Birthplace:Iligan City
Religion: Roman Catholic
Citizenship: Filipino
Contact Number: 09264230692
Mother’s Name: Jocelyn R. Carino
Father’s Name:Arnolo S. Carino

II. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Elementary: St. Michaels’ College, Basic Education Department
Secondary: St. Michaels’ College, Basic Education Department
13
I. PERSONAL INFORMATION
Name: Christian Dominic G. Cantoja
Nickname: CD
Age: 15
Address:Lugait, Misamis Oriental
Birthdate: December 24, 1998
Birthplace:Lugait, Misamis Oriental
Religion: Roman Catholic
Citizenship: Filipino
Mother’s Name:Coracatherine G. Cantoja
Father’s Name:Dominador G. Cantoja

II. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Elementary: Our Lady of Peace Parish Church
Secondary: St. Michaels’ College, Basic Education Department

14
I. PERSONAL INFORMATION
Name: John Paul M. Heolin
Nickname:Ampoy
Age: 16
Address:Tipanoy, Iligan City
Birthdate: February 1, 1998
Birthplace:Iligan City
Religion: Roman Catholic
Citizenship: Filipino
Contact Number: 09361220705
Mother’s Name: Myrna M. Heolin
Father’s Name: Bernardino V. Heolin

II. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Elementary: UDCMCS
Secondary: St. Michael’s College, Basic Education Department
15
I. PERSONAL INFORMATION
Name: Manuel Kent M. Layug
Nickname: Malachi
Age: 16
Address:Luinab, Iligan City
Birthdate: October 8, 1997
Birthplace:Iligan City
Religion: Roman Catholic
Citizenship: Filipino
Mother’s Name:MaureneLayug Hartley
Father’s Name: David Wayne Hartley

II. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Elementary: Corpus Christi
Secondary: St. Michaels’ College, Basic Education Department

16
I. PERSONAL INFORMATION
Name: Alyssa MaeMaminta
Nickname:Chabs; Chabing
Age: 16
Address: Zone 2, Brgy. San Miguel, Iligan City
Birthdate: May 27, 1998
Birthplace:Iligan City
Religion: Roman Catholic
Citizenship: Filipino
Contact Number: 09059626001
Mother’s Name:NidaMaminta

II. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Elementary: Living Spring Academy
Secondary: St. Michaels’ College, Basic Education Department

17
I. PERSONAL INFORMATION
Name: Patrick Miguel B. Suzon
Nickname: Pat; Trick; Patweck; Torps
Age: 16
Address: Dona Maria Subdivision, Bara-as, Iligan City
Birthdate: September 2, 1998
Birthplace:Iligan City
Religion: Roman Catholic
Citizenship: Filipino
Contact Number: 09067656035
Mother’s Name:Felma B. Suzon
Father’s Name: Roberto W. Suzon

II. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Elementary: F. Margaret Anne Learning Center
Secondary: St. Michaels’ College, Basic Education Department
18
I. PERSONAL INFORMATION
Name: Hilary Marie Vien C. Tan
Nickname:BenBen; Laryang
Age: 15
Address: St. Mary St., Iligan City
Birthdate:January 13, 1999
Birthplace:Iligan City
Religion: Roman Catholic
Citizenship: Filipino
Contact Number: 09058569748
Mother’s Name:Vivianne C. Tan
Father’s Name:Olivio C. Tan Jr.

II. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Elementary: St. Michaels’ College, Basic Education Department
Secondary: St. Michaels’ College, Basic Education Department
19
I. PERSONAL INFORMATION
Name: Rom Timothy Marro S. Villamor
Nickname:Timoy
Age: 15
Address:Andrada Compound, Mahayahay, Iligan City
Birthdate: January 18, 1999
Birthplace:Iligan City
Religion: Protestant
Citizenship: Filipino
Contact Number: 09053240598
Mother’s Name: Anna S. Villamor
Father’s Name: Rommel D. Villamor

II. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Elementary: St. Michaels’ College, Basic Education Department
Secondary: St. Michaels’ College, Basic Education Department
20…...

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...a)Swing: Sales: 5000 Price per unit: $10 Variable Cost per unit: $2.5 Fixed Cost: $35000 Current Profit: $ 2500 New Price per additional unit: 0 New Contribution Margin = New Price per unit – Variable cost per unit =$8.5-$2.5 =$6 New Sales unit @40% additional sales= 5000*40%= 2000 Additional profit @40% additional Sales = Additional Sales* New Contribution Margin =2000*6 =$12000 New Sales unit @20% additional sales= 5000*20%= 1000 Additional profit @20% additional Sales = Additional Sales* New Contribution Margin =1000*6 =$6000 Steady: Sales: 5000 Price per unit: $10 Variable Cost per unit: $5.5 Fixed Cost: $35000 Current Profit: $ 2500 New Price per additional unit: $8.5 New Contribution Margin = New Price per unit – Variable cost per unit =$8.5-$5.5 =$3 New Sales unit @40% additional sales= 5000*40%= 2000 Additional profit @40% additional Sales = Additional Sales* New Contribution Margin =2000*3 =$6000 New Sales unit @20% additional sales= 5000*20%= 1000 Additional profit @20% additional Sales = Additional Sales* New Contribution Margin =1000*3 =$3000 Both the companies should enter the market as they are realizing additional profits by charging a lower price for the new market. b)Swing : ∆P =-1.5 CM= Price- Variable Cost= $10-$2.5 =$7.5 % Break-even sales change= -∆P/(CM + ∆P) = 1.5/(7.5-1.5) = 25% % Break-even sales change in units =5000*25% =1250 Total Break-even sales=5000+1250= 6250 Change in Profit for 40% increase in sales=......

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Candle Making

...CANDLE MAKING LEAFLET NO. A531 Candle Making Margaret Bass Introduction In the past, candles were made from beeswax obtained from the honeycombs of bees or tallow produced from the suet of beef, pork, lamb etc. Nowadays candlemakers generally use candlewax blends based on paraffin wax and stearin to make candles. Beeswax is sometimes used today, but it is scarce and expensive. This booklet will explain the basic principles of candlemaking. Once mastered, the creative possibilities are limitless, and you will be able to make your own unique candles. Materials required for Candle Making Good quality paraffin wax. Wicking. Moulds. Stearin. (This is sold in the form of powdery white crystals. It is added to melted paraffin wax to make the candle more opaque. It makes white candles white, and improves the brightness of coloured candles. It also raises the melting point of wax so that the candles do not bend or sag, and it improves the burning quality of the candle). Mould sealer. Dyes. Perfume. (Not essential). Fig. 1 Page 2 Equipment required for Candle Making • • • • • Two pans, one larger than the other. Thermometer, reading to at least 100°C. Bucket or plastic bowl. (Not essential). Hammer. Newspapers, knives, scissors, spoons, old jug, saucepans. Heat source. Although domestic heating rings can be used, electric pots with thermostatic control are available, either of the 'water-jacket' or water-less type. Care and Safety The same care MUST be......

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Beeswax Candles

...This paper presents a life cycle assessment of beeswax candles in the effort to confirm that beeswax candles are more sustainable and environmentally friendly than other comparable variations. Various types of candles are burned every year by millions of consumers; the United States Environmental Protection Agency reports that candle and incense sales exceeded a million dollars in 1999 (Knight, Levin, & Mendenhall, 2001). Beeswax candles, however, are one of the few sustainable and environmentally friendly types of candles available to consumers. Through the exploration of how the collection beeswax affects bees, the energy used and pollution created through candle production and transportation, and the effects burning candles and their disposal have on the environment, a thorough life cycle assessment will support the claim that beeswax candles are the most sustainable and environmentally friendly candle available on the market. To support the aforementioned claims, the environmental effects of other types of candles will be compared to those of beeswax candles. The collection of beeswax can be traced back millions of years and these traditional ways of beekeeping are still used today (Bradbear, 2009, p.1). Breadbear describes that beekeepers have found that the end of a flowering season is the best time of the year to harvest the honey (2009, p. 42). She explains more thoroughly, The honeycomb can be simply cut into pieces and sold as fresh, cut comb honey.......

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Swing

...The Swing How do you like to go up in a swing,  Up in the air so blue?  Oh, I do think it the pleasantest thing  Ever a child can do!  Up in the air and over the wall,  Till I can see so wide,  River and trees and cattle and all  Over the countryside--  Till I look down on the garden green,  Down on the roof so brown--  Up in the air I go flying again,  Up in the air and down!  Robert Louis Stevenson Because I Could Not Stop for Death( personification) Top of Form Because I could not stop for Death, He kindly stopped for me; The carriage held but just ourselves And Immortality. We slowly drove, he knew no haste, And I had put away My labour, and my leisure too, For his civility. We passed the school where children played, Their lessons scarcely done; We passed the fields of gazing grain, We passed the setting sun. We paused before a house that seemed A swelling of the ground; The roof was scarcely visible, The cornice but a mound. Since then 'tis centuries; but each Feels shorter than the day I first surmised the horses' heads Were toward eternity. The poem by Emily Dickinson "Because I could not stop for Death" is know to be one of the best poems in English. Every image extends and intensifies each other. But there are some pro and cons in this poem. The poem helps us to characterize and bring death down to a more personal level. It shows a different perspective of death that the more popular views of death being brutal......

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