Premium Essay

Case Paper Enron Worldcom Tyco

In: Business and Management

Submitted By RShull01
Words 538
Pages 3
CASE PAPER: Enron, WorldCom, Tyco

Enron, 2001
Enron, a Houston-based energy trading company, was the seventh largest company in the U.S before it filed for bankruptcy in 2001. It employed over 25,000 people, and paid its tops executives a sum of $1.4 billion in 2000. According to Fortune magazine, it was one of the “most admired companies” in the U.S. at the time. The reason Enron was so successful was that it kept hundreds of millions worth of debt off its books through the use of some unethical accounting practices called “shell companies”. “Shell companies” used to record fictitious revenues, that essentially record one dollar of revenue multiples times, thus creating the appearance of high income. As a result, the company’s stock value decreased from $90 to less than .70 cents a share.

By continuing to use “shell companies” to hide Enron’s debt, the company demonstrated “the means-ends ethic” and “the might-equals-right ethic“. Enron went to extreme and illegal acts to hide their business practices, and seized the opportunity to grow richer as a result.

WorldCom, 2002
WorldCom, a telecommunications giant, grew to be the second largest telecommunications carrier in the U.S. until it filed for bankruptcy in 2002. Tens of thousands of employees lost their jobs, as investors watched WorldCom’s stock price plummet from $60 to less than .03 cents a share. While Enron hid debt, WorldCom hid operating expenses. From 2001 through 2002, a total of $3.8 billion worth of normal operating expenses (office pens, pencils, paper, use of other companies’ phone lines, etc.) were capitalized on as investments for the company’s future. This accounting trick exaggerated profit for the year the expenses incurred and in 2001 WorldCom reported profits of $1.3 billion.

Similar to Enron, WorldCom practiced unethical accounting strategies. By trying to hide…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Tyco Case

...Ethical Decision Making and Leadership October 17, 2011 Tyco Case 1. What role did Tyco’s corporate culture play in the scandal? Tyco’s corporate culture played a huge role in the scandal. From the beginning when Kozlowski worked under then CEO Joesph Gaziano, he was impressed by the extravagant lifestyle that his friend and mentor portrayed. Once his mentor passed in 1982 an a new CEO was put in place for Tyco, Kozlowski still desired to follow in Gaziano’s footsteps even if he had to take some cues from the new CEO, John F. Fort III. Rising up the corporate ladder, Kozlowski maintained an aggressive approach that concerned Fort. This concern lead to the board of directors siding with Kozlowski’s theory that the firm should continue to acquire profitable companies that met guidelines which lead to an ousting of Fort and establishing Kozlowski as the new CEO of Tyco once Fort resigned. 2. How did Dennis Kozlowski have the opportunity to steal $137 million in unauthorized bonuses? Kozlowski had the opportunity to steal $137 million in unauthorized bonuses because he controlled a decentralized firm, where he as the CEO was also the board chair. Also he was allowed to handpick his own board of directors, by choosing trusted individuals and placing them in key positions, instead of having the shareholders take a vote for them. 3. Why is Kozlowski, now a prisoner for a long time, unrepentant about his conduct as CEO of Tyco? Kozlowski feels that he did no wrong. Even......

Words: 344 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Worldcom Case

...Daniels Fund Ethics Initiative University of New Mexico http://danielsethics.mgt.unm.edu WorldCom’s Bankruptcy Crisis INTRODUCTION The story of WorldCom began in 1983 when businessmen Murray Waldron and William Rector sketched out a plan to create a long-distance telephone service provider on a napkin in a coffee shop in Hattiesburg, Miss. Their new company, Long Distance Discount Service (LDDS), began operating as a long distance reseller in 1984. Early investor Bernard Ebbers was named CEO the following year. Through acquisitions and mergers, LDDS grew quickly over the next 15 years. The company changed its name to WorldCom, achieved a worldwide presence, acquired telecommunications giant MCI, and eventually expanded beyond long distance service to offer the whole range of telecommunications services. WorldCom became the second-largest long-distance telephone company in America, and the firm seemed poised to become one of the largest telecommunications corporations in the world. Instead, it became the largest bankruptcy filing in U.S. history at the time and another name on a long list of those disgraced by the accounting scandals of the early 21st century. ACCOUNTING FRAUD AND ITS CONSEQUENCES Unfortunately for thousands of employees and shareholders, WorldCom used questionable accounting practices and improperly recorded $3.8 billion in capital expenditures, which boosted cash flows and profit over all four quarters in 2001 as well as the first quarter of 2002. This......

Words: 4011 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Demise of Enron Corporation® and Worldcom®

...RUNNING: Demise of Enron Corporation® and WorldCom® Demise of Enron Corporation® and WorldCom® Your Name October 31st, 2012 FIN/486 Instructor Enron Corporation and WorldCom In the last decade, two powerful American companies, Enron Corporation and WorldCom, have become the models of accounting corporate fraud. The Enron Corporation was founded in 1985 by Kenneth Law in Omaha, Nebraska. The company later moved its operation to Houston Texas when InterNorth and Houston Natural Gas merged. This American organization offered paper, pulp, electric, communication, and natural gas manufacturing. Enron employed over 20,000 professionals and reported earnings worth over 100 billion dollars. A few years earlier, on the other side of the country, WorldCom was established by Bernand Ebbers in Hattiesburg, Massachusetts . WorldCom make great growth strokes through mergers, acquisitions, long distance rates, and cutting edge technology in the communications industry. It achieved an unprecedented success that would soon unveil accounting fraud, scandal, and shameful demise. But in 2002 Enron and WorldCom were exposed as corrupt organizations, run by fraudsters that had lined their pockets with tens of millions of dollars and destroyed $240 billion dollars worth of investor's money (BBC News, 2012). Major Factors that Led to the Dissolution Business ethics are the standards of conduct or moral judgment that apply to persons engaged in commerce. Violations of these...

Words: 635 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Enron Case

...Enron Case Study Seven years after the fact, the story of the meteoric rise and subsequent fall of the Enron Corporation continues to capture the imagination of the general public. What really happened with Enron? Outside of those associated with the corporate world, either through business or education, relatively few people seem to have a complete sense of the myriad people, places, and events making up the sixteen years of Enron’s existence as an American energy company. Some argue Enron’s record-breaking bankruptcy and eventual demise was the result of a lack of ethical corporate behavior attributed, more generally, to capitalism’s inability to check the unmitigated growth of corporate greed. Others believe Enron’s collapse can be traced back to questionable accounting practices such as mark-to-market accounting and the utilization of Special Purpose Entities (SPE’s) to hide financial debt. In other instances, people point toward Enron’s mismanagement of risk and overextension of capital resources, coupled with the stark philosophical differences in management that existed between company leaders, as the primary reasons why the company went bankrupt. Yet, despite these various analyses of why things went wrong, the story of Enron’s rise and fall continues to mystify the general public as well as generate continued interest in what actually happened. The broad purpose of this paper is to investigate the Enron scandal from variety perspectives. The paper begins with a......

Words: 5799 - Pages: 24

Free Essay

Tyco Paper

...Tyco International – Epic Failure Dionne Flinn March 25, 2013 LDR/531 Thea Miller Tyco International – Epic Failure A business is successful not only if it has the right “product” that consumers want, but also if it is managed and lead by strong, ethical and invested leaders. In the past two decades unethical, corrupt, greedy and incompetent CEO’s have brought down multi-million corporations and cost thousands of American workers their jobs. One such CEO, Dennis Kozlowski of Tyco International, destroyed his company through his arrogance, greed, lack of ethics, and overall disdain for his company. An effective leader puts his own personal interests aside and works for the greater success of his company for their employees and shareholders. Tyco International experienced a boom in profits in the 1990’s through continuous acquisitions of smaller companies and financial manipulation of accounting records. This resulted in rampant greed and corruption, with managers who shared the same values as Dennis Kozlowski advancing into upper management ranks. The main charges against Kozlowski involve “using company funds to purchase millions of dollars worth of artwork as well as an $18 million apartment in Manhattan. Kozlowski used company “loans” for the purchases, allowing him to avoid paying income tax on the money used” (Kay, 2002). Kozlowski allegedly transported crates of artwork to Tyco’s operating headquarters in New Hampshire to avoid paying sales tax. Instead, the...

Words: 1140 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Enron Case

...Licensed to: iChapters User CASE 1.1 Enron Corporation John and Mary Andersen immigrated to the United States from their native Norway in 1881. The young couple made their way to the small farming community of Plano, Illinois, some 40 miles southwest of downtown Chicago. Over the previous few decades, hundreds of Norwegian families had settled in Plano and surrounding communities. In fact, the aptly named Norway, Illinois, was located just a few miles away from the couple’s new hometown. In 1885, Arthur Edward Andersen was born. From an early age, the Andersens’ son had a fascination with numbers. Little did his parents realize that Arthur’s interest in numbers would become the driving force in his life. Less than one century after he was born, an accounting firm bearing Arthur Andersen’s name would become the world’s largest professional services organization with more than 1,000 partners and operations in dozens of countries scattered across the globe. Think Straight, Talk Straight Discipline, honesty, and a strong work ethic were three key traits that John and Mary Andersen instilled in their son. The Andersens also constantly impressed upon him the importance of obtaining an education. Unfortunately, Arthur’s parents did not survive to help him achieve that goal. Orphaned by the time he was a young teenager, Andersen was forced to take a fulltime job as a mail clerk and attend night classes to work his way through high school. After graduating from high school,...

Words: 11778 - Pages: 48

Premium Essay

Enron Case

...Enron Case 10.8.2014 Melissa Becker Boya Du Sidi (Fiona) Chen Wei (David) Yu In June of 2001 Enron’s new CEO, Jeff Skilling, was heralded as the “No. 1 CEO in the entire country and Enron was saluted as “America’s most innovated company.” Just six months later, in December, Enron filed for bankruptcy. The failure shocked the public and angered investors. How could this have happened? Did no one see this coming? Where were the accountants? Where were the controls? Enron’s public troubles began on October 16th of 2001 when management released a third quarter earnings report with a “mysterious $1.2 billion dollar reduction.” The following month the company restated earnings for the previous five years and erased $600 million in profits. It turned out that the October report began to reveal Enron’s gross abuse of special-purpose entities (SPEs) and the mark-to-market accounting method. The company used SPEs to keep enormous amounts of losses off its books while inflating earnings from supply contracts by booking all profits from a contract in the quarter the deal was made. What also became clear was that Enron did not accomplish their gross manipulations without the help from their accountant’s at Arthur Andersen. Enron shareholders and executives were not the only groups negatively affected by Enron’s aggressive accounting practices. Arthur Andersen was also unraveled because of the role it played in Enron’s materially misstated financial statements. In a letter to...

Words: 6730 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Enron Case

...Perspectives on Accounting Education Volume 3, 2006, 27-48 ENRON AND ARTHUR ANDERSEN: THE CASE OF THE CROOKED E AND THE FALLEN A Gary M. Cunningham Visiting Professor Department of Business Administration Åbo Akademi University Turku, Finland Jean E. Harris Accounting Department Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg Campus School of Business Administration Middletown, Pennsylvania USA ABSTRACT Outside the US, the failures of Enron and Arthur Andersen remain puzzles. How could the accounting and audit failures associated with Enron and Arthur Andersen happen in the US where auditing is sophisticated, accounting principles are strong, and disclosure is emphasized? This is a teaching case for persons outside the US to review the financial reporting and auditing issues related to Enron and to explain the regulation of accounting and auditing in the US. It has broad implications for corporate governance and accounting regulation in other countries as well. n the years after the Enron Corporation declared bankruptcy in 2001 and Arthur Andersen failed in 2002, people are still asking, especially those outside the US, how could this happen? What went wrong? The US has a well-developed set of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) that requires extensive disclosures in audited financial statements, and a well-established federal agency, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) that monitors financial reporting. This case is written for accounting students and......

Words: 9861 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay

Enron, World Com, & Tyco Scandals

...Case Paper 4 Danielle Long Indiana Institute of Technology Enron, World Com, & Tyco Scandals Three of the biggest frauds in American history, were committed by the companies Enron, World Com and Tyco. All three CEO/CFO’ks of these companies’ indulged in malicious intend to create a better financial standing within the company and for themselves. All of them were ethically wrong, regardless of the details. These individuals violated many different ethical principles which lead them all to be charged with criminal offenses and jail time. Enron used an accounting method known as “mark to market.” With this practice, the price or value of a security was recorded on a daily basis to calculate the profits and losses. Using this method allowed Enron to count projected earnings from long-term energy contracts as current income. This was money that might not be collected for many years. It is a thought that this was used to inflate revenue numbers by manipulating projections for future revenue. Sherron Watkins, an Eron VP, wrote an anonymous letter suggesting that the CEO had left the company because of improprieties and other illegal actions. She questioned the accounting methods and specifically citied certain transactions. Once Enron’s stock began to fall below a certain point, the results started to show on the financial statements. Finally in November of 2001 Enron officials admitted to overstating company earnings and filed for bankruptcy. This......

Words: 947 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Enron and Worldcom Scandals

...The Enron and WorldCom Scandals Case: Enron 1. Which segment of its operations got Enron into difficulties? The segment of its operations that got Enron into trouble was Kopper and Dodson creating a series of limited partnerships and limited companies through which to operate their interests, but Kopper had no outside investor at risk. 3. Did Enron’s directors understand how profits were being made in this segment? Why or why not? I do not think Enron’s directors understood how profits were being made in this segment. They were unable to rely on the information they were receiving or on Enron’s company policies being followed. Management was out of control. 5. Ken Lay was the chair of the board and the CEO for much of the time. How did this probably contribute to the lack of proper governance? The CEO should have knowledge of what is going on with his business at all times. They should get a report of the company’s revenue daily, and Ken Lay should have noticed that the revenue was overstated. 6. What aspects of the Enron governance system failed to work properly, and why? The aspect of the Enron governance system that failed to work properly was the accounting firm. Their primary function was to assure that the company was accurately and completely disclosing its financial results and condition. 9. Identify conflicts of interests in: • SPE activities- Enron used several SPE’s to hide debt and overstate equity and earnings • Arthur Andersen’s activities-......

Words: 369 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Worldcom Case

...Justin Gardner ACCT 4456 Auditing WorldCom Case WorldCom Case Cynthia Cooper was the former Vice President of Internal Audit at WorldCom. Cynthia is widely known as the whistleblower that discovered the fraud that was occurring in 2002. The CFO at the time was having the corporate accounting team capitalize billions of dollars of network leases instead of expensing them as they should have. This let the company report a profit of $2.4 billion instead of a loss of $662 million. This all occurred before the Sarbanes-Oxley reforms had been enacted. If this law had been in place when the WorldCom fraud happened, I think it could have been prevented. The sections of this act that I researched were sections dealing with whistleblowers and requiring companies to have a code of ethics for their CFO. I think that if WorldCom had a code of ethics for its CFO at this time it could have prevented him from making questionable decisions about how to account for the network leases. Perhaps he would have been more conservative. The whistleblower portion would have made it easier for Cynthia to report the fraud. She wouldn’t have had to worry about getting so much push back from her superiors and could have exposed it sooner. Perhaps they would have even had a whistleblower hotline so she wouldn’t have needed to even speak with the CFO. A challenge faced by the business and accounting profession that is highlighted by this case is the problem of how to implement an effective corporate......

Words: 468 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Reaction Paper on Enron Case: a Taste of Their Own Medicine

...Background of the Case In 1930, Enron began as Northern Natural Gas Company; founded by the North American Light & Power Company (35%), United Light & Railways Company (35%) and the Lone Star Gas Corporation (30%). After a decade, the company was able to double its system capacity and expand its business through acquisitions. In 1985, a merger acquisition with Houston Natural Gas (HNG) took place. The following year, the company’s name was changed to Enron Corporation. Shuffling the management, Kenneth L. Lay (HNG’s chairman), emerged as chairman. In 1991, Enron began overseas expansion. From being a natural gas pipeline company, the company shifted to brokering energy commodities as energy markets were deregulated. Although targets and projections were not met as promised to investors, Enron continued to spend heavily in advertising and lobbying for deregulation. In 1999, Enron ventured into the e-commerce market with the launching of EnronOnline to make the company more attractive to investors. The company stock prices went up but losses were disguised in elaborate partnerships and joint ventures. Such high stock prices fueled suspicion. In 2001, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission looked into Enron transactions and its partnerships. Andersen (auditing firm of Enron) destroyed Enron documents that could have been used as evidence. The company’s credibility was still questionable, thus, creditors and investors pulled out. In the latter part of the year,......

Words: 888 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Case of Scandals of Enron and Worldcom, Lesson to Rwanda

...the scandals at Enron ................................................................................. 1 3. Summary of facts of the scandals at WorldCom ........................................................................ 2 4. Enron and WorldCom executives prosecution ........................................................................... 5 5. Effects of the scandal, legislative perspective ............................................................................ 5 6. Comment and lesson to Rwandan business sector ...................................................................... 7 6.1. Corporate governance .......................................................................................................... 7 6.2. Committed crimes during the scandals .............................................................................. 10 6.2.1. Insider trading .............................................................................................................. 10 6.2.2. Wire fraud .................................................................................................................... 11 7. Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 12 8. Authorities................................................................................................................................. 13 1 Lessons from Enron and WorldCom cases 1.......

Words: 5102 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Worldcom Paper

...transfers among themselves which were supposedly payments for services. Lawyers familiar with the transactions say that in at least some cases, there were no services rendered at all. (2) Enron and its Associates Used Questionable Accounting Practices Clearly, there have been cases where management knowingly deceived the auditors. Then there seem to be other instances where the accounting treatment envelope was pushed just a bit too far. In the case of Enron, David B. Duncan, the former Andersen partner in charge of the Enron audit who was the government's chief witness in the trial against Arthur Andersen, stood behind the decisions that resulted in the widespread use of off-balance sheet financing in the reporting of certain partnership transactions. (3) Certainly he carried out the breadth of the related accounting pronouncements to the extent allowable. Off-balance sheet financing is a technique generally used by companies entering into a joint venture whereby both invest in a project Monies borrowed to get the venture up and running appear on the newly formed entity's books. This is a strategy sanctioned by accounting pronouncements so long as proper disclosures are made. Mr. Duncan, however, appeared to have been duped by a situation where management went above and beyond what was allowable. He testified that he had been deceived by Enron officials on at least two matters. The first of these was the company's use of what investigators have called a "side......

Words: 4828 - Pages: 20

kg chart pro cs | La Amiga Estupenda HDTV | Animowane