Free Essay

Case Study Green Computing

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By ankitafetr
Words 1881
Pages 8
Google’s Green Computing: Efficiency at Scale

Introduction
Introduction Powering an Email System
Provisioning Email Servers Redundancy and Reliability Computer Housing and Cooling

Cloud Advantages Carbon Costs Conclusions

It’s common to hear about new data centers being built, and it may seem as if the energy used by “the cloud” is a growing problem. However, services provided by the cloud can be remarkably efficient. In many cases, data centers hosting cloud services are more efficient than the in-house office servers they replace. These efficiency gains come from maximizing server utilization, using high-efficiency facilities and making power usage efficiency a priority for hardware and software developers. This case study compares the energy savings and carbon footprint of using Gmail via Google Apps—Google’s cloud-based messaging and collaboration suite, versus housing local servers to manage the same email. Google’s cloud services are all carbon neutral—dating back to 2007. However, for the purposes of this case study, we will be modeling Google’s per-user carbon footprint before offsets are applied.

Powering an Email System
When a user checks their email, energy is consumed in three places: 1. The client: The PC, laptop, phone or other device directly accessing email is called the client. It’s using electricity as it fetches and displays email. 2. The network: Wireless routers, network switches and all the intervening networking equipment between the client and the email server use electricity. In a small office, a wireless router may be the only network device involved. In a larger enterprise, networking equipment could involve dozens of devices spanning continents. 3. The server: The computer or group of computers receiving, sending and storing email is called the email server. This machine or group of machines is constantly on and consuming electricity. Although switching from a locally hosted email system to a cloud-based email system can affect the energy usage of all three, it primarily affects the server level energy usage.1 This paper examines server energy only. Servers in locally hosted email systems are often underutilized and installed in facilities that aren’t optimized for energy efficiency. Servers in cloud-based email systems are located in large, efficient data centers which can provision more servers as needed. A cloud-based email system saves considerable amounts of per-user energy costs once provisioning email servers, providing redundancy, and cooling costs are taken into account.

Provisioning Email Servers An email server is a computer that sends outgoing messages to the external network and stores incoming messages until a user downloads or deletes them. Servers can be very large, powerful machines for handling many simultaneous users or smaller machines for handling only a few. Consider three typical businesses that choose to host their mail locally and their hypothetical server requirements2:
Business Size Small Medium Email Users 50 500 Server Requirements A single, mid-range multi-core server with local disk that can serve 3003 users and draws 2004 Watts. A single, large, many core server with combinations of local and network storage, which can host 1,000 users and which draws 450 Watts. 5 Several, large, many-core servers with combinations of local and network storage which can host 1,000 users and draws 450 Watts.

Large

10,000

The small organization is at a distinct disadvantage, having to purchase a server that can host 300 users when it only needs capacity for 50. An organization can’t purchase and power half a server if that’s all they need. Moreover, the energy consumption of a fully-utilized server is not much higher than a partly-utilized one. Redundancy and Reliability A modern day business relies on email servers 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year and endeavors to make them as reliable as possible. Depending on the size and type of the organization, this could mean: • Additional backup email servers • Redundant email storage, like networked hard drives or other storage technology • Backup networking links • Co-locating email servers in multiple separate physical locations “N” shorthand is sometimes used to describe the number of redundant servers needed for an organization’s email. If “N” number of servers are need to handle an organization’s users, “N+1” redundancy means there is one spare server on hand. If a company requires two servers to host all of their email, then they have a third on hand in case one fails. “2N” redundancy would mean having one spare for every required server. Redundancy means more reliability and more energy use. Modeling modest redundancy requirements for a small, medium and large business provides an estimated number of servers each business will need for their email system.
Business type Minimum servers required without redundancy 1 1 10 Redundancy plan Total servers required 2 2 12

Small Medium Large

N+1 N+1 N+0.2N

2

From the number of servers, the annual energy usage can be roughly calculated as such:
Business type Individual server power 200 W 450 W 450 W Total server power 400 W 900 W 5400 W Server power per user 8W 1.8 W 0.54 W Annual server energy required per user 70 kWh 16 kWh 4.7 kWh

Small Medium Large

The disadvantages faced by small and medium businesses are magnified once redundancy requirements are added. The larger the organization, the more efficiently servers can be provisioned. When comparing server power per user, the large organization uses 1/15th as much energy per user as the small organization. Computer Housing and Cooling The energy email servers consume directly is only one component of the energy used to store and deliver email. Additional energy is required to house and cool the servers. A server located under a desk or in an office networking closet makes use of the same air conditioning system as people in the office. This can be very inefficient, since the room temperature and ventilation are set up for personal comfort, not for server efficiency. It is not uncommon for such a system to use an additional 1.5 W of extra energy overhead for every 1 W of computer load. The data center industry uses the measurement “PUE,” or power usage effectiveness, to calculate the energy costs of housing and cooling servers. PUE measures how much overhead energy is required to house and cool the computers inside a building relative to the amount the computers consume themselves6. For the example above, the email server in the networking closet has a PUE of 2.5. That’s 2.5 watts of power total for each watt of computing power. Medium and large data centers are typically a bit better—and can be much better. This is because they are designed with powering and cooling IT equipment in mind rather than keeping humans comfortable. The average PUE of a typical data center today is about 1.87, but for a larger organization with time to make significant measurements and improvements, it can be lower. For our example, we estimated 1.6.
Business Type Small Medium Large IT power per user 8W 1.8 W 0.54 W PUE 2.5 1.8 1.6 Total power per user 20 W 3.2 W 0.9 W Annual energy per user 175 kWh 28.4 kWh 7.6 kWh

Once again, small setups underperform, with both larger per-user energy costs and carbon footprints. When cooling and housing costs are taken into account, the total power per user for a large organization can be 1/20th that of a small business.

3

Cloud Advantages
So far, our model shows that large organizations hold an advantage over smaller organizations: they can provision resources more efficiently and they can operate those computers in more efficient facilities. Cloud providers take advantage of this efficiency in scale by providing servers for millions of users—maximizing the utilization of machines while cutting down on the total number of servers required. The result is fewer machines and less energy over all.
Locally Hosted Email: Inefficient use of servers by individual businesses.

BUSINESS A

BUSINESS B

BUSINESS C

BUSINESS D

BUSINESS E

BUSINESS F

Cloud-Based Email: Efficient use of servers by collective use in the cloud.

BUSINESS A

BUSINESS B

BUSINESS C

BUSINESS D

BUSINESS E

BUSINESS F

For example, Google has developed Gmail for Google Apps, a cloud-based email service used by over 4 million organizations, small and large. Gmail is constantly improving as we integrate new efficiency improvements, develop ways of streamlining our operations, and, of course, increase capabilities. Software developers, hardware designers and data center technicians have a unified goal of optimizing Google services to use as few resources as possible. This is quite distinct from the usual software and server model, where software developers from one company have to develop an email server that will work on wide range of hardware developed by other companies. At Google, we can optimize across boundaries that are not accessible in a traditional software or hardware development environment.

4

Our size, focus, and ability to optimize across barriers translates into a series of distinct advantages for our servers hosting cloud-based email, including: • Custom, high-efficiency servers: Our servers are specifically designed to host cloud-based services with only the components that are necessary for them to perform—nothing more or less. • Custom, high-efficiency power supplies: Many servers today use power supplies that have efficiencies in the mid-80% range. That means for every 100 Watts the computer needs, almost 20 Watts are converted directly to heat. Google’s are more than 90% efficient, wasting less energy. • Custom-built software: From top to bottom, Google infrastructure is designed to deliver our innovative web services. Our software is designed to perform with maximum efficiency on the servers we develop without bloated additional features. Optimizing the entire process of storing, hosting and serving email means that Gmail requires less than 250 mW per user8. Over the course of a year, that’s just a bit more than 2 kWh of energy, or about $0.22 per user per year,9 representing significant savings over the locally hosted alternatives modeled in the previous example.
Business Type Small Medium Large Gmail IT power per user 8W 1.8 W 0.54 W < 0.22 W PUE 2.5 1.8 1.6 1.16 Total power per user 20 W 3.2 W 0.9 W < 0.25 W Annual energy per user 175 kWh 28.4 kWh 7.6 kWh < 2.2 kWh

Carbon Costs
Since 2007, Google has been a carbon neutral company, utilizing energy efficient improvements, green power and carbon offsets to bring our footprint down to zero. Users of Gmail also enjoy this benefit of zero carbon emission email. However, to form an accurate comparison of cloud-based versus locally hosted services, we calculated our per-user carbon emissions before offsets. Using the EPA US average emissions intensity for locally hosted email servers10, and using Google’s own calculated emissions intensity for its operations, the annual carbon footprint of a Gmail user is about 1/80th that of a small business with locally hosted email servers.

5

Locally Hosted Server vs. Gmail: A comparison of annual CO2 per user

Annual CO2 per user (kg)
125

103 kg
100

75

50

25

16.7 kg 4.1 kg…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Green Computing

...Project Title: Realization of Green Cloud Computing ~ Green EDI collaborating with Financial EDI ~ Project Leader Name: Youichiro Kojima Organization/Company: Kojima Press Industry Co.,Ltd., Japan Nominated by: Japan Association for Simplification of International Trade Procedures (JASTPRO) Abstract: This Green Cloud Computing project has achieved the significant reduction of Cost and CO2 through the cloud computing while realizing EDI for SMEs, REACH and Financial settlement. Executive Summary: Our approach toward Green IT started with internal activities under the slogan of “CO2 reduction through Green IT” in 2005. Our group companies achieved significant results by integrating hardware and using common software. To produce further effects, these activities need to be practiced in society as a whole. For that purpose, we have developed “Green Cloud Computing,” a social action program focused on the automotive parts industry and small and medium-sized businesses outside the framework of a single company. With the spread of the Internet, web-based EDI (electronic data interchange) systems have been increasingly used as a means to exchange information between individual companies. In the automotive parts industry in among SMEs, where no industry-standard EDI system has been established, many different terminals and screens must be used, due to the lack of system integration between companies. In addition, not many small and medium-sized businesses have introduced computer...

Words: 6041 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Green Computing

...better outcomes Green Computing Environmentally Sustainable Infrastructure Design Green Maturity Model for Virtualization Application Patterns for Green IT Architecture Journal Profile: Udi Dahan Profiling Energy Usage for Efficient Consumption Project Genome: Wireless Sensor Network for Data Center Cooling Green IT in Practice: SQL Server Consolidation in Microsoft IT Contents Foreword by Diego Dagum 1 18 Environmentally Sustainable Infrastructure Design by Lewis Curtis A comprehensive understanding of environmental sustainability needs for IT infrastructure system design. 2 Green Maturity Model for Virtualization by Kevin Francis and Peter Richardson The authors present a study on the maturity of virtualization practices and offer a sustainability roadmap for organizations planning a green agenda. 9 Application Patterns for Green IT by Dan Rogers and Ulrich Homann A complete analysis on power-efficient applications design, considering tools that help the architect achieve scalability without deriving in energy waste. 16 Architecture Journal Profile: Udi Dahan For this issue’s interview, we catch up with Udi Dahan, noted expert on SOA and .NET development, and four-time Microsoft MVP. 22 Profiling Energy Usage for Efficient Consumption by Rajesh Chheda, Dan Shookowsky, Steve Stefanovich, and Joe Toscano This article suggests that tracking energy consumption at every level will become the factor of success for green......

Words: 29810 - Pages: 120

Premium Essay

Case Study 1: Green Computing Research Project – Part 1

...Case Study 1: Green Computing Research Project – Part 1 CIS 517 - IT Project Management Student: Robert Lawson Instructor: Dr. Stephen Huber Project Title: Green Computing Research Project Date of Authorization: October 1 Project Start Date: October 1 Projected End Date: April 1 Project Manager: Ito, 999-9999, ito@wearebig.com ------------------------------------------------- Budget Summary: The firm has allocated $500,000 for this project. It will be used in efforts to assist in achieving the goals that have been set forth in the project objectives. This includes purchasing systems and software to support recommended changes, development life cycle of software, and funding changes related to power optimization within the datacenter (i.e., managed PDUs, etc.). Furthermore, funds will also be used to assist and support telecommuting team members to access resources involved in the project. ------------------------------------------------- Project Objectives: The project objectives are as follows: * Assist in following the company goal of helping improve the environment while increasing revenues and reducing costs. * Research possible applications of green computing. * Provide an extensive report, including financial analysis and recommendations on what green computing technologies to implement. * Discover ways to save power and compute resources. * Minimize the company’s overall carbon footprint, while cleaning, maintaining, and...

Words: 434 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Case Study: Cloud Computing

...Case Study: Cloud Computing | | Cloud computing is becoming a popular and efficient service for many companies. With the speed that technology is changing, it can be difficult for a company to stay ahead with the current systems and services available in the market. Cloud computing is one option companies have to address this issue. “With cloud computing, organizations can consume shared computing and storage resources rather than building, operating and improving infrastructure on their own,” (Varia and Mathew, 2012). Ericsson is a world leader in providing technology and services for telecommunication and they also utilize Amazon Web Services, a public cloud services provider. There are many benefits that Ericsson has seen while using AWS. One is cost reduction. With AWS, Ericsson only has to pay for the services that they need rather than being required to purchase an entire suite of software that they may not use. AWS also provides some other cost benefits, “AWS requires no up-front investment, long-term commitment, or minimum spend,” (Varia et al, 2012). Another benefit concerns automation and automated software updates. With automation in AWS, Ericsson is able to spend more time focusing on their products than on updating their software. It reduces the amount of time that Ericsson would have to spend on the maintenance of their software or other commodities they use to create their products. AWS takes the responsibility of managing and scaling......

Words: 1290 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Green Computing

...Running head: CASE STUDY 1: GREEN COMPUTING RESEARCH PROJECT IT PROJECT MANAGEMENT Strayer University Green Computing Research Project Charter |Project Title: Green Computing Research Project | |Date of Authorization: July 20, 2012 | |Project Start Date: September 1, 2012 Projected Finish Date: August 30, 2013 | |Budget Information: The company has a projected budget of $500,000 and a goal to provide an extensive report, including detailed financial | |analysis and recommendations on what green computing technologies to implement. There will be five dedicated full-time people to work on this | |project for a six-month period and others on an as-needed basis to call upon (Schwalbe, 2011). | |Project Manager: TBD | |Project Objectives: The Environmental Technologies Program was started to improve the environment as well to increase revenues and reduce | |costs at We Are Big, Inc., an international firm with over 100,000 employees located in several countries....

Words: 854 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Case Study 1: Green Computing Research Project – Part 1

...Jan Doe Case Study 1: Green Computing Research Project – Part 1 CIS 517 Professor John Doe April 28, 2013 Project Charter Project Title: Green Computing Research Project Project Date of Authorization: April 28, 2013 Project Start Date: April 28, 2013 Projected Finish Date: October 28, 2013 Budget Information: The firm has allocated US $500,000 for this project. Project Manager: Jan Doe | 555.555.5555 | JDoe@wearebig.com Project Objectives: The objective is to research possible applications of green computing for the following are: * Data center overall energy efficiency * Disposal of electronic waste and recycling * Telecommunicating * Virtualization of server resources * Thin client solutions * Use of open source software * Development of new software to address green computing for internal use and potential sale to other organizations Main Project Success Criteria: Provide an extensive report, including detailed financial analysis and recommendations on what green computing technologies to implement in six-months with US $500,000 budget. Approach: * Select five resources including the Project Manager to work the project full-time for six-months as quickly as possible. Additional resources from other areas will be utilized as-needed to support project as well. * Priority will be given to internal resources and external resources will be considered as long as they can start working quickly. * Allow......

Words: 481 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Green Computing

...Case Study 2: Green Computing Research Project- Part 2 Case Study 2: Green Computing Research Project- Part 2 Requirements Traceability Matrix Project Name: Green Computing Research Project Project Manager: Requirement No. | Name | Category | Source | Status | 1 | Data Center | Building | | | 2 | PC computers and laptops | Hardware | | | 3 | Recycling | Building | | | 4 | Virtualization and Cloud Computing | Hardware | | | 5 | Solar Computing | Energy Source | | | 6 | Electricity output | Energy Source | | | 7 | Office material and resources | Operation | | | 8 | Power management | Energy Source | | | 9 | Work from home | Operation | | | 10 | Days and hours of work | Operation | | | 11 | Environmentally friendly market | Operation | | | 12 | Government benefits | Operation | | | 13 | Open Source Software | Software | | | 14 | User support and training | Operation | | | Questions to the Sponsor(s) About the Scope What would the sponsor(s) like to come out of this research project? What are the desired timeframes for the project? What resources are going to be available or brought in to assist with the project? What green technologies and areas are the sponsor(s) looking to implement and change? How has the organization handled changes and upgrades in the past? How much support and training will there be for the users for new hardware and software? What will be the estimated budget and end date? Scope Statement The scope statement is an......

Words: 282 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Green Mountain Case Study

... Courtney J. Owens Ashford University Green Mountain Case Study BUS661: Leading Organizational Change (MFV1350A) Instructor: Dr. Thuong Nguyen December 17, 2013 1. Which of the six change images discussed in this chapter can be identified in the assumptions about managing turnover that were held by -Gunter? In this particular case study Gunter can be identified as the coach. Gunter began to look at his turnover problem from a different perspective and he was able to build on this notion. He became a mentor within the resort because he focused on the reputation that the resort had built for putting out some of the most skilled and qualified workers. Gunter embraced his gift for putting out quality employees and accepted the fact that his workers were qualified enough to attract the likeness of others. -The Hospitality Literature? The hospitality literature is seen as the navigator in the change image. The literature specifically explains what the problem is within the resort was. It was pointed out that turnover was a chronic problem that will always be there, but it has to be endured. The literature also suggested ways to solve to problem such as: streamline training, simplify jobs, don't become dependent on individuals, make HR processes more efficient (Palmer, Dunford and Akin, 2006). -The consultant? The consultant is seen as the interpreter in this case. The consultant took the problems that were explained to him by Gunter and offered him a different......

Words: 824 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Green Mountain Case Study

...1. Which of the 6 change images discussed in this chapter can be identified in the assumptions about managing turnover. Gunter – Change Manager as Caretaker Gunter knew what the issue he was faced with and knew it needed to change but didn't know how to do it Even when the consultant asked him what he felt the problem was he said “Reduce Turnover” No real plan on the how just that it had to be done. Gunter was in control yet he couldn't control the turnover rate because of internal and external issues. He couldn't control the poor economic situation that surrounded Green Mountain. He couldn't control the lack of advancement within the company. As the textbook says Gunter was “sheepherding the organization along the best that he can” The Hospitality Literature – Change Manager as Caretaker I think I have changed my mind a few times on this, but I think actually the literature was a lot like Gunter. It didn’t see the turnover as something you could actually change just something you had to deal with. If you can’t fix the problem then at least lessen the impact. The only difference and the reason why I debated this is Gunter wanted to change where the literature made it seem like there was no possible solution. The Consultant – Change Manager as a Coach The consultant had an “outside the box” way of looking at this, since you can’t change the turnover; make the turnover work for you in almost a marketing sort of way. Therefore he just had to......

Words: 281 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Green Computing

...Chapter 11: Green Computing Prof. Yuh-Shyan Chen Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Taipei University Prof. Chih-Shun Hsu Department of Information Management Shih Hsin University Outline 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  Abstract Green computing architecture Regulations and industry initiatives Approaches to green computing Conclusion Reference 2 1. Abstract 1. Abstract •  In 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency launched Energy Star, a voluntary labeling program which is designed to promote and recognize energy efficiency in monitors, climate control equipment, and other technologies. •  “Green computing" was probably coined shortly after the Energy Star program began. •  Energy management has always been an important topic for laptop manufacturers, who have been working on this for years as they struggled to manage weight versus battery life issues. 3 1. Abstract Definition of Green Computing •  Green computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. •  The primary objective of such a program is to account for the triple bottom line (or "People, Planet, Profit"). •  Modern IT systems rely upon a complicated mix of people, networks and hardware; as such, a green computing initiative must be systemic in nature, and address increasingly sophisticated problems. 4 1. Abstract Green Computing Regula-ons  and  industry  ini-a-ves     Government   Industry Green  Compu-ng ......

Words: 4836 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Green Mountain Case Study

... | | | | |JOB APPLIED FOR |ADMINISTRATION, PROJECT & PROGRAM MANAGEMENT, LOGISTIC, TRANSPORT AND OPERATIONAL RELATED ROLES | |POSITION | | |PREFERRED JOB | | |STUDIES APPLIED FOR | | |WORK EXPERIENCE |[pic] | |September 2015 - Present |Field Operations Logistician | | |United Nations Office for Project Services -UNOPS | | |58 Aberdeen Road, Freetown, Sierra Leone. ...

Words: 2277 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Thomas Green Case Study

...Thomas Green: Power, Office Policies, and a Career in Crisis What are the work styles and personalities of Thomas Green and Frank Davis? It is clear from the text that Thomas Green has some characteristics of a Machiavellian personality. For example, he has little regard for authority and structure, and prefers face-to-face interactions. Most importantly, once the ends cease to justify the means he loses motivation. This reaction is made evident when Thomas’s performance declined as a result of what he considered to be an unattainable goal. In his mind, failing to reach the goal regardless of how much he tried did not justify putting in the effort. Meanwhile, Frank Davis portrayed elements of a Proactive personality. He was constantly vying for improvement in Thomas’ behavior, pushing for better strategies to meet his ambitious projections for the next year. Instead of shying away from the challenge, Frank strived for positive change within his team in order to achieve the goals he set. How do the actions of Thomas Green differ from the expectations of Frank Davis? Green’s actions are not in line with Davis’s expectations. Davis laid out his expectations of Green from the very beginning and reinforced them during their first performance meeting and email to McDonald such as spending time to prepare for client meetings and develop supporting details for his proposals. In addition, Green openly challenged Davis’s sales projections, which Davis considers key in......

Words: 1128 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Thomas Green Case Study

...one is very that is/ her work is something in align with the organization’s vision and your superiors are against it, then ignore them. I was working on a presentation and my boss was very convinced that we never do such kind thing and I should concentrate on something useful. I was very confident of my work and was convinced that this will give senior leadership a new perceptive to look at the market. I wrote an email to the SVP of our business line explaining what was my idea behind this and how this can benefit the organization. He found it innovative, presented it to board members and invited me to the headquarters to present my research in more details to the team of senior leadership and board of directors. Thomas green Case Study:- 1) Thomas Green was a high performing individual and could have been a very good leader, if he would have exhibited all the qualities of a true leader. Here is an analysis of Thomas’s leadership style based on Ancona leadership model. a. Inventing:- Thomas was very good on this quality of leadership. Soon after his promotion, when he met Davis, his boss, he was able to come with many new ideas and client responded very positively to these ideas. i. Another example of Thomas being inventive:-one of the market specialists who accompanied Thomas to several meeting during the special software project said that Thomas is very creative and can quickly think of new ideas on his feet. b. Visioning:- One of the very important example of......

Words: 1915 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Case Study 2: Green Computing Research Project- Part 2

...Case Study 2: Green Computing Research Project- Part 2 Requirements Traceability Matrix Project Name: Green Computing Research Project Project Manager: Requirement No. | Name | Category | Source | Status | 1 | Data Center | Building | | | 2 | PC computers and laptops | Hardware | | | 3 | Recycling | Building | | | 4 | Virtualization and Cloud Computing | Hardware | | | 5 | Solar Computing | Energy Source | | | 6 | Electricity output | Energy Source | | | 7 | Office material and resources | Operation | | | 8 | Power management | Energy Source | | | 9 | Work from home | Operation | | | 10 | Days and hours of work | Operation | | | 11 | Environmentally friendly market | Operation | | | 12 | Government benefits | Operation | | | 13 | Open Source Software | Software | | | 14 | User support and training | Operation | | | Questions to the Sponsor(s) About the Scope What would the sponsor(s) like to come out of this research project? What are the desired timeframes for the project? What resources are going to be available or brought in to assist with the project? What green technologies and areas are the sponsor(s) looking to implement and change? How has the organization handled changes and upgrades in the past? How much support and training will there be for the users for new hardware and software? What will be the estimated budget and end date? Scope Statement The scope statement is an agreement......

Words: 509 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Green Computing Research Project – Case Study 1

...Running head: PROJECT CHARTER Project Charter Name University Professor April 22, 2012 Project Title: Green Computing Research Project – Part 1: Project Integration Management Date of Authorization: April 23, 2012 Project Start Date: April 23, 2012 Project Finish Date: October 22, 2012 Project Manager: Name, (XXX) xxx-xxxx, email Summary Schedule: * Research possible applications of green computing to be delivered as follows: * Data center and overall energy efficiency (deliver on 1st month) * The disposal of electronic waste and recycling (deliver on 2nd month) * Telecommuting (deliver on 3rd month) * Virtualization of server resources (deliver on 4th month) * Thin client solutions (deliver on 5th month) * Use of open sources (deliver on 5th month) * Development of new software to address green computing for internal use and potential sale to other organizations (deliver on 6th month) Project Budget Summary: The firm has been given $500,000 for this project. More funds are available to pay expert consultants for advice, and purchase books and related articles as needed. Project Objectives: The project plan developed as a result of this charter will provide an extensive report, including detailed financial analysis and recommendations on what green computing technologies to implement. Official project request forms for recommended solutions would also be created as part of the......

Words: 553 - Pages: 3

download Rocket League PC torrent | Công nghiệp - xây dựng | Top Chef S15E01 HDTV x264-aAF [eztv]