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Caso Nº 3 - Airborne Express

In: Business and Management

Submitted By elguagua77
Words 1160
Pages 5
1. Descripción General
El caso en estudio describe la industria de correo Urgente (Express) de Estados Unidos y la posición en el mercado de Airborne Express (A); planteando 5 preguntas:
• ¿La posición de la compañía en el sector era tan segura como la dirección deseaba?
• ¿Hasta qué punto eran peligrosos y estaban nerviosos sus dos agresivos rivales?
• ¿Era valido su enfoque actual respecto a los mercados internacionales?
• ¿Hasta qué punto era importante la colaboración con RPS para su futuro?
• ¿Debía seguir la medida aplicada por UPS y Federa Express y pasar a precios en función de la distancia?
El análisis se abordada a través de las 5 fuerzas competitivas de Porter.
2. Fuerzas de Competitivas
2.1. Potenciales Entrantes
Barreras de entrada:
• Economías de escala, para la disminución de costos es necesario acceder a un importante volumen del mercado, 3 compañías (UPS, FEDEX y Airborne Express) concentran el 85% del mercado.
• Experiencia y curvas de aprendizaje, la experiencia y conocimientos del negocio por los empleados en general de la compañía son fundamentales para la optimización eficiencia operacional. Conocimientos rutas de distribución, codificación y manejo de encomiendas, requerimientos específicos de los clientes, son algunos ejemplos.
• Diferenciación de producto, la industria está concentrada en 3 grandes compañías (UPS, FEDEX y Airborne Express) que las dos primeras con gran posicionamiento de marca.
• Requerimientos de Capital, la actividad requiere de gran inversión y capital para la adquisición y/o arriendo de oficinas, centro de distribución, costo asociados uso de aeropuertos, aviones, camiones, camionetas, centros de distribución etc.
• Acceso a canales de distribución, los nuevos entrantes deben considerar la ubicación de nuevos sus centro de distribución en aeropuerto (propios y existente) y oficinas principalmente cercanos a los principales centros urbanos (grandes ciudades)
• Políticas Gubernamentales, la aprobación de líneas aéreas es de bastante exigente en Estados Unidos, condición de relevancia a evaluar para nuevos competidores.
La amenaza de nuevos entrantes es baja siendo los mayores restricciones el requerimiento de capital y economías a escala (volúmenes) necesario para la actividad. Un nuevo entrante (o sustituto dependiendo si ingresa o no al correspondencia express) es el correo convencional un eventual competidos que posee infraestructura necesaria para ingresar e incluso dependiendo de gestiones gubernamentales podría ingresada a diferencia precios.
Nuevos entrantes – (Barreas de entrada +)

2.2. Rivalidad entre Compañías Existentes
• Pocos competidores y dispares en tamaño y poder, la industria presenta un alta concentración con un total de 9 compañías, donde 3 compañías (UPS, FEDEX y Airborne Express) concentran el 85% del mercado.
• Moderado y descendente crecimiento de la industria, el volumen de envíos presento un aumento del 10% a 15%, con una proyección el 10%.
• Altos costos fijos asociados a redes de distribución (infraestructura, aviones, camionetas, personal de operación, etc.).
• Servicio carece de diferenciación o costo de cambio; el servicio de correo express es de gran homogeneidad y bajo (o inexistente) costo de cambio, los servicios son rápidamente imitados por competidores.
• Competidores son diversos; los 3 grandes competidores tiene distintos tamaños, estrategias diferentes, políticas internas, etc. o UPS, 25% del mercado Express, pero la mayor empresa de correspondencia en el mundo. o FEDEX 45% del mercado Express, líder del mercado Express o Airborne, 16% del mercado Express,
• Altas Barreras de Salida; las compañías de la industria de correo express presentas varias barreas de salida como: o Activos especializados, la característica de la industria y valor de inversiones hace de difícil liquidación. o Costos Fijos de Salidas, la industria tiene elevados costos asociados a liquidación de activos y de finiquito de personal.
Existe una gran rivalidad entre las compañías existentes, principalmente dada por la concentración de mercado, altos costos fijos y poca diferenciación.
Rivalidad +

2.3. Presión de los Productos Sustitutos
Los sustitutitos solo aplicables a documentación fueron el FAX y correo electrónico, ambos con atractivo Tradeoff Precio – Desempeño y bajo costo de cambio. Otro sustituto para parte del sector es el corroo convencional.
Si bien se detectan algunos sustitutos estos no son de gran influencia.
Sustitutos –
2.4. Poder de Negociación de los Compradores
• Clientes poco concentrados, para la industria de correos express implica a toda empresa y particular de Estados Unidos, no obstante se identifican empresas de con volúmenes importantes que negocian en forma individual y especifica.
• Productos no diferenciados, como se indico anteriormente el servicio carece de diferenciación y costo de cambio.
La poca diferencia del servicio (homogeneidad) y sensibilidad del al precio dan a los compradores una capacidad de negociación a considerar.
Compradores +
2.5. Poder de Negociación de los Proveedores
• Pocos Proveedores, el limitado número de aeropuertos, aviones (nuevos y usados), no se puede deducir un poder de negociación de importancia.
• Grado de Organización, el grado de sindicalización de sector si representa un alto poder de negociación.
La capacidad de organización de los trabajadores (sindicalización) del sector es uno de los factores de mayor relevancia
Proveedores + 3. Respuestas
¿La posición de la compañía en el sector era tan segura como la dirección deseaba?
Utilizando las conclusiones de las 5 fuerzas Porter: altas barrea de entradas, alta rivalidad, bajos sustitutos, alto poder de los compradores y alto poder de los proveedores (trabajadores), se concluye que la industria no es atractiva. No obstante para las empresas ya involucradas la industria tiene considerables retornos sobre el capital (anexos 2, 5 y 6), y una solida posición. No obstante debe controlar las acciones de sus competidores incluyendo el correo tradicional y en forma interna la relación con empleados.

¿Hasta qué punto eran peligrosos y estaban nerviosos sus dos agresivos rivales?
Si bien Airborne desarrollo una segmentación mas especifica que sus grandes competidores, la gran rivalidad de la industria y sobre todo las nuevas estrategias de sus gigantes competidores hacen necesario en constante monitoreo de actividades y desarrollo.

¿Era valido su enfoque actual respecto a los mercados internacionales?
Debido a la características de la industrias (altas barreas de entrada, gran rivalidad de los competidores, etc.) hace poco atractivo la inversión o potencia en forma mayor las operaciones internacionales, además la cultura organización del Airborne (conservadora) justifica la baja inversión internacional.

¿Hasta qué punto era importante la colaboración con RPS para su futuro?
La colaboración con RPS es de vital importancia en el desarrollo de Airborner debido a que representa un eslabón fundamental en su estrategia de bajos precios. Siendo RPS dueña de un posicionamiento en la industria, la especialización de Airborne en el servicio de reparto aéreo y RPS en la especialización de reparto terrestre (ambas con bajos costos) la colaboración mutua hace posible una mayor participación en el mercado

¿Debía seguir la medida aplicada por UPS y Federa Express y pasar a precios en función de la distancia?
Una de las ventajas de Airborne es su liderazgo en bajos precios la estructura actual, que hace una diferencia y personalización del servicio con clientes más importantes (Nike, Xerox, IBM y Technniolor), no siendo recomendable adoptar la modalidad de fijación de precios de sus rivales. Al menos en forma inmediata de no surgir perdidas en sectores o tramos específicos.…...

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