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Center for Diseases Control

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SCHISTOSOMIASIS a) What is Schistosomiasis?
Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by parasitic worms. It is also known as bilharzia and the causal parasite lives in the freshwater snail (CDC). b) What is the etiologic agent of Schistosomiasis? Is it a bacterium, virus, fungus, protozoan, or helminth? How is it transmitted?
The etiologic agent for Schistosomiasis is helminth which is caused by blood trematodes. The mode of transmission is from infected water by the freshwater snail which is used for bathing or swimming. c) What are the signs and symptoms of Schistosomiasis?
The first symptom is itchy and or dry skin. And if not treated, many more symptoms may arise which includes fever, chills, cough, and muscle aches. d) In what areas of the world does Schistosomiasis occur? How common is it?
The most affected areas for this disease is the places with unhealthy sanitation. It is widely affecting most parts of the world. Africa is the most affected area where poor sanitation occurs mostly, and also south American. e) How is Schistosomiasis diagnosed?
Schistosomiasis could be diagnosed by examining a stool sample electronically in order to find the parasite eggs. Having said that, blood test might the most proficient way of finding the eggs as the small eggs might not be detected. f) How can you prevent Schistosomiasis?
As there is no vaccine available in preventing this disease, what we can do is to avoid swimming or wading in freshwater when not in countries in which Schistosomiasis occurs. Also, drinking safe water may prevent us from been infected with Schistosomiasis.
TRICHOMONIASIS
a. What is Trichomoniasis? Where is the etiologic agent?
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease which occurs after been infected with a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. b. What is the mode of transmission for Trichomoniasis?
Having sex with an infected person is the only way of transmitting Trichomoniasis. c. What are the signs and symptoms of Trichomoniasis?
The symptoms of Trichomoniasis range from irritation to acute inflammation. In men, symptoms like burning after urination or ejaculation may occur. While in women, a thin discharge with an unusual smell and in yellowish or greenish color may be noticed. d. What are the complications of Trichomoniasis?
The complications include the increase risk of spreading or getting other sexually transmitted diseases. It can also serves as a loophole for getting infected to human immunodeficiency virus. e. How common is Trichomoniasis?
It is considered as the most common curable sexually transmitted diseases. Women are most commonly affected with this disease than men. Also, younger women are not at much risk than the older women. f. How is it treated?
Trichomoniasis can be treated with the use of antibiotics medication – metronidazole or tinidazole.
BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS A. What is bacterial Vaginosis?
Bacterial Vaginosis is a state where there is a replacement of some certain bacteria in the vagina after the normal balance of the bacteria has been disrupted. B. How is bacterial vaginosis transmitted?
As it cause is not entirely understood, therefore associated with the imbalance in the bacteria found in the vagina. Having multiple sex partners or a new sex partner can displease the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina. C. Describe the signs and symptoms of the disease.
Women with this type of disease may witness abnormal vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor. Burning during urination or itching around the vagina may occur too. D. Are there any complications? Are there any complications in pregnant women?
Bacterial vaginosis has some complications which includes; susceptibility to HIV infection, increase in the development of an infection following surgical procedures such as a hysterectomy or an abortion. In pregnant women, the complication includes giving birth to premature babies or low weight at birth. E. How is the disease prevented? How is it treated?
Bacterial vaginosis could be treated with the use of antibiotics – metronidazole or clindamycin. As the cause of this disease is associated with having multiple sex partners, the only way of preventing is controlling the amount of sex partners or be abstinent from sex.
LEPTOSPIROSIS
What is the etiologic agent for leptospirosis? Is it a bacterium, virus, fungus, or protozoan? How is it transmitted?
The etiologic agent for leptospirosis is protozoan. It is transmitted by exposing to the urine or body fluid of the infected animals. What is the reservoir for the infectious agent?
Animals are the main reservoir for this infection. Animals include rodents, cattle, swine, dogs, horses, sheep, and goats. What are the symptoms of the disease?
The symptoms include fever, headache, vomiting, muscle aches, jaundice, abdominal pain, and skin rashes. How is it treated? How can it be prevented?
It can be treated with the use of antibiotics. It can be prevented by avoiding coming in contact with the urine or body fluid of an infected animal.
SYPHILLIS
What is the etiologic agent that causes syphilis? Is it bacterium, virus, fungus, or protozoan? How is it transmitted?
The agent for syphilis is bacteria named Treponema pallidum. It is transmitted when someone come in contact with the person that has syphilis sore. What is the reservoir for the etiologic agent?
Human beings are the reservoir for this disease. It is a sexually transmitted disease. How common is syphilis?
It is a very common disease as there is an increase in the ages of those having this infection. What are the different stages of syphilis? What are the symptoms during each stage?
The stages include primary, secondary, late and latent stage. At primary stage, the symptom is the appearance of a single sore called the chancre. At the secondary stage, it is skin rash and mucous membrane lesions. At the latent stage, it is when the primary and the secondary symptoms disappear. The late stage symptoms include difficulty coordinating muscle movements, paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness, and dementia. What is the treatment for syphilis? How can syphilis be prevented?
It can be treated with a single injection of antibiotic, penicillin; at the early stage will cure this disease. It can be prevented by abstaining from sexual contact with someone that has been diagnosed with this disease.
GONORRHEA
What is the etiologic agent that causes gonorrhea? Is it a bacterium, virus, fungus, or protozoan? How is it transmitted?
The agent for this disease is bacteria named Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It is transmitted when someone come in contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus. It can also be spread to a baby through the mother. What is the reservoir for the etiologic agent?
Human beings are the reservoir for this bacteria cause disease. What are the symptoms for gonorrhea? What are the complications of gonorrhea?
In men, a burning sensation is noticed when urinating or white, yellow, or green discharge from the penis. In women, there is a notice of increased in vaginal discharge. The complication includes epididymitis, a painful condition of the ducts attached to the testicles that may lead to infertility if left untreated. How common is gonorrhea in the United States?
It is a common disease in which CDC has estimated more than 700,000 people in the US get new gonorrhea infection each year. What is the treatment for gonorrhea?
The use of antibiotics can successfully cure this disease. Also, the use of dual therapy which means using two drugs can also be used. How can gonorrhea be prevented?
It can be prevented by abstaining from having sexual intercourse with an infected person.
VIRAL HEPATITIS
How many different types of viral hepatitis exist?
There are five different types of viral hepatitis which includes hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. What is hepatitis? What are the symptoms of hepatitis?
Hepatitis simply means the inflammation of the liver when infected with virus. Which of the hepatitis viruses are transmitted via fecal-oral route? Which are transmitted via the parental route?
Hepatitis A and E is the virus that can be transmitted through fecal-oral route, while hepatitis B can be transmitted through the parental route. Which of the hepatitis viruses can cause chronic liver disease?
Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are the one that can cause chronic liver disease. What is the connection between hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus?
The connection between these two viruses is that hepatitis D relies on hepatitis B to replicate. What are the treatments for viral hepatitis?
The use of antiviral vaccination is used in treating these viral infections. Why is hepatitis C described as a silent epidemic?

GENITAL HPV INFECTION
What do the letters HPV stand for?
The letter stands for Human Papillomavirus infection. How is the etiologic agent of HPV infection transmitted to human?
It is transmitted through genital contact, most often during vaginal and anal sex. How common is HPV in the United States?
It is a common infection that at least 50% of sexually active men and women get it at some point in their lives. Just about 20 million Americans are currently infected with HPV. Another 6 million people become newly infected each year. What are the symptoms of genital HPV infection?
The symptom of genital HPV is the appearance of small bump or group of bumps in the genital area. What is the treatment for HPV? How can people reduce their risk for HPV?
As virus has no treatment yet, the associated diseases are the ones that could be treated. There are vaccines that can be used to prevent people getting this infection. The use of Gardasil vaccination can be used to protect against most genital warts in male and female. What is the connection between HPV infection and cervical cancer?
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer.
CHLAMYDIA INFECTION What is the etiologic agent of chlamydia? Is it a bacterium, virus, fungus, or protozoan?
It is caused by bacterium named Chlamydia trachomatis which can damage woman’s reproductive organs. How is it transmitted?
It could be transmitted when having vaginal, oral, or anal sex. Also, this infection could be passed through mother to a baby during vaginal childbirth. What are the symptoms of the disease and what are the complications?
In women, the symptom includes abnormal vaginal discharge or a burning sensation when urinating. While in men, the symptom includes burning and itching around the opening of the penis. The complication of this infection if left untreated can spread into the uterus or fallopian tubes and cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). How is it treated? How is it prevented?
It can be easily treated with the use of antibiotics called azithromycin. It can be prevented by abstaining from someone that is diagnosed for this infection.
TOXOPLASMOSIS
What is toxoplasmosis? What is the etiologic agent?
Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a single-celled parasite called Toxoplasma gondii. The etiologic agent for this disease is animals. How do people get Toxoplasmosis?
People do get this disease when coming in contact with an infected animal like cat or cat feces. Also, people can be easily infected if eaten raw or under cooked meat. What are the signs and symptoms of Toxoplasmosis?
The symptoms include tender lymph nodes, and muscle aches. Who is at risk for developing severe Toxoplasmosis?
The people that are at risk are the ones with compromised immune systems, and ocular disease. Also, the unborn baby from an infected mother is at risk. How can I prevent Toxoplasmosis?
Food should be cooked to a safe temperature. Sampling of an uncooked meat should be avoided. If I am at risk, can I keep my cat?
I will not keep the cat as soon as I know that I am at risk of getting Toxoplasmosis.

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