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Chinese Nationalism

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Nationalism in china
Introduction
China,officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state located in East Asia; it is the third biggest country in the world.China is obviously not a unified nation-state but one that comprises multiple ethnic groups, some of which can even be seen as nations. China have 56 recognizedethnic groups, and Han is the biggest group, more than 90 percent are Han, and the main minorities are Mongol, zang, dai, zhuang. In the early year of china, minorities and Han have very big conflict in nation-state, at that time Han intolerance every minority groups, because they are weak and small. Now, china has some policy to protect minority groups, and opposed to Han chauvinism, that makes minority groups’ power and life greater and even much better than Han's people. And it makes people confuse, why protect minority groups are so important?And what is the different between Chinese nationalism and minority groups’ nationalism?
Main body
Chinese nationalism
What is nationalism? Nationalism is a combination of national self-identification developed in the process of one group of people interacting and intercommunicating with other peoples, a strong common consciousness, and it is the most powerful political idea of the past two centuries.
Then, what is Chinese nationalism?Chinese nationalism can be dividing into two parts, one is Chinese nationalism, and another is minority nationalism. In china, minority groups always be seen as vulnerable, so Chinese communist party have some policy to protect their interest, it purpose for every ethnic groups in china are equality, harmony and liberty. Chinese nationalism has drawn from extremely diverse ideological sources including traditional Chinese thinking, American progressivism, Marxism, and Russian ethnological thought.In early 1900's, there was a Chinese Revolution led by sun yixianwho went on to establish the Kuomintang and be elected as a provisional president of a democratic government. In sun's opinion if China was to be a strong and cohesive nation, Chinese nationalism had to be Han-centered. Furthermore, if China as a whole was to be strong and cohesive in the world, Chinese nationalism must be based on traditional Chinese culture and civilization. Another Chinese Nationalist leader, named Mao Zedong, who created Chinese communist party.The communist party thinks each minority and ethnic groups are equality of the nationalities of china regardless of whether they are advanced or backward, large or small. And regional autonomy is put into effect in areas there the minorities live together, granting them the right to manage their own local affairs.
Minority nationalism
Minority people only has 10 percent in china, but the population over ten million. Most minority areas are sparsely populated relative to areas inhabited by Han Chinese. They therefore have the potential to absorb immigrants from overcrowded areas. Minority areas comprise well over sixty percent of the PRC’s (People’s Republic of china) total land area.In china there are some minorities refuse to identify themselves as Han, several of these groups also desire autonomy or independence. So china created five provinces as autonomous areas.China believes that a federalized state was to be established and autonomous regions were to be created for china's minority nationalities.
What is the different between Chinese and minorities? The differences between the minorities in china, and between these nationalities and the Han people, are the result of differences in their past histories. Minorities’ people follows very different primary occupations are practices along the frontier. Languages, social customs, and habits are also found to be different among the minority groups. And also there are great differences among the national minorities of China with regard to their respective stages of socioeconomic development.Minority groups also have deep feeling with their own nation-state, so china have autonomy or independence province for minority groups.
Why protect minority groups are so important?
To answer this kind of question, we have to look back to the late of 19th century. At that time of china, there is a kind of "nationalism" called Han chauvinism.
What is Han chauvinism? In Han chauvinism people's idea, state power has to control by Han's people, and reject identity minority people as Chinese. And most of Han chauvinism has the most traditional way of thinking; they are sexism and resist homosexual love. So a lot of Han chauvinism people exclude minority groups, and in their opinion, to solve Han chauvinism kind of question must change minority's nation into Han. That's the main reason for why minority people reject to be identity as Han.
Because of the history and Han chauvinism, we need to protect they are no longer be a Vulnerable groups we need to make some policy to protect their interest and protect them are not discrimination by Han chauvinism. and because china is a multinational state country,
To solve Han chauvinism, in 1962, a person in Chinese communist party named Tuan-Ying had said: It is only in so doing that we can bring about gradual changes to the special characteristics of the various nationalities and a continuous growth of their common characteristics so that at a definite state of communist society in the future the various nationalities will blend into one body- the final extinction of special and different characteristics of the various nationalities.
To protect minority groups’ nation-state and custom, china created five provinces as autonomous areas for minority groups. Making a great investment for protect minority groups’historical and cultural buildings, minority groups also have their own language, Chinese communist party set up some minority language schools for them, and minorities have bonus marks on the entrance of university test.
In my opinion,This kind of policy is "put the cart before the horse", as a Han, I don't think what's the difference between every ethnic groups in china, many ethnic groups are assimilated by Han, they actually can be seen as a Han, and some policy for protect minority are overmuch. In this kind of situation, Han people instead minorities to vulnerable.

Conclusion
Thought china have multiple ethnic groups, and Chinese nationalism also can be divided by two kinds, Chinese nationalism and minority nationalism, and the history about Han chauvinism between minority groups, all ethnic groups are still Chinese, and China just have one nation-state. China's government point out that national unity is the most important thing infixed the relationship between minorities and Han, the fundamental of nation unity is we need to solve the problem of Han chauvinism, prevent Han chauvinism or anyone to discrimination and oppression minorities, to make theequality of nationality. Equality of nationality means whatever the population of that ethnic group, and the extent of their economic development, and their religions customs cultures, Minorities should have the same right with Han, because they are also Chinese. National unity is the inevitable result of national equality, the protection of all ethnic groups to promote genuine equality.
Reference
Yong-Nian Zheng 1962-Cambridge
Wu Xu 1969-Lanham

Elena Barabantsevaebrary, Inc.London June Teufel Dreyer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_nationalism http://www.nbr.org/research/activity.aspx?id=258 http://news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2003-01/20/content_697844.htm http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%A4%A7%E6%B1%89%E6%97%8F%E4%B8%BB%E4%B9%89…...

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