Premium Essay

Cognitive Process Associated with Language

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By ladygwen
Words 775
Pages 4
Cognitive Processes Associated With Language
Gwendolyn Spillman,
University of Phoenix
Cognitive Psychology
PSYCH/640
Gaston Weisz
March 21, 2014 Cognitive Processes Associated With Language
Language is a cognitive function that most humans take for granted. The basic means of communication among individuals is through language. Language allows people to communicate with each other, share his or her thoughts and feelings, share ideas and concepts, fears, and affirmations. Different cultures have different languages as well as vocabulary and grammatically components that each one understands. The goal of this paper is to explain what language is and the many methods behind it, the cognitive process of perception and how it affects language, and the cognitive process of language comprehension.
Cognitive Processes Associated with Comprehension
There are three processes concerning the cognitive processes associated with language comprehension. These processes begin with the perceptual processes that encode spoken or written words (Anderson, 2010). Parsing is the second stage, in which people try to extract as much information from every word in order to put meaning to a sentence. Individuals will use syntactic cues, such as word order to arrive at an interpretation of a sentence (Anderson, 2010). When sentences contain ambiguity, people will use the principle of minimal attachment to help them interpret a sentence. This is a process where a person will choose an interpretation of a sentence with minimal complications within its phrase structure (Anderson, 2010). When interpreting sentences without ambiguity people will tend to commit to an interpretation right away, this is known as immediacy of processing. When a person is unsure of the correct interpretation, and when they are hesitating because of ambiguity it may take a few seconds to determine the…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Cognitive Procceses Involved in the Use of Language

...Jr, Meyer, A. S., & Wurm, L. H. (2003). Language comprehension and production. Comprehensive Handbook of Psychology, Volume 4: Experimental Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Pages 527-548. Copyright John Wiley & Sons. Psycholinguistics: Language comprehension and production Rebecca Treiman Wayne State University Charles Clifton, Jr. University of Massachusetts Antje S. Meyer University of Birmingham Lee H. Wurm Wayne State University Acknowledgments: Preparation of this chapter was supported by NSF Grant SBR-9807736 to R.T. and NIH Grant HD18708 to the University of Massachusetts. To appear in A.F. Healy & R.W. Proctor (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology, Vol. 4: Experimental Psychology. New York: Wiley. Treiman et al., Psycholinguistics, 2 Introduction Language comprehension Spoken word recognition Printed word recognition The mental lexicon Comprehension of sentences and discourse Phenomena common to reading and listening comprehension Phenomena specific to the comprehension of spoken language Phenomena specific to the comprehension of written language Language production Access to single words in spoken language production Generation of sentences in spoken language production Written language production Conclusions INTRODUCTION Psychologists have long been interested in language, but psycholinguistics as a field of......

Words: 4043 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

The Cognitive Process: Recognizing Faces

...the most utilized cognitive process we perform on a daily basis. This process lets us interact with others in our environment effectively. A Model of Face Processing The Bruce and Young model (1986), which is the most widely cited face processing model, suggests that previous experience with a face influences the middle and latter stages of recognition The model is comprised of several modules, each of them representing a functional separate component (Bruce & Young, 1986). When we see a face, firstly, we form different representations of it. The structural encoding builds these representations. According to the authors, view-centered descriptions are used to analyze facial speech (Campbell, 2011) and facial expressions (Straube, Mothes-Lasch, & Miltner, 2011). Roles of concepts and Categories A category refers to a grouping of objects or ideas that have some common underlying feature or set of features (Robinson-Riegler & Robinson-Riegler, 2008). The term concept is typically used to refer to the more abstract notion of what that category represents in one’s mind (Robinson-Riegler & Robinson-Riegler, 2008). A concept is the mental representation of a category as summarized by Solomon, Medin, and Lynch (1999), “Concepts are the building blocks of thought " (Robinson-Riegler & Robinson-Riegler, 2008). The function of concepts provides labels suitable for the grouping of objects. Concept are a very significant part of our everyday thought process. Concepts are......

Words: 1524 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

The Many Cognitive Process of Baseball

...The Many Cognitive Processes of Baseball The Many Cognitive Processes of Baseball Baseball is a sport that is played by two teams of nine players with the motive of scoring the most runs by hitting a baseball that is thrown by a pitcher, using a baseball bat. Both teams take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, who tries to prevent runs by getting hitters out. Baseball is actually a simple and direct sport. Though it may be simple, it takes a lot from our body. It requires good motor-skills, hand-eye coordination and uses many different areas of the brain. The main skill that one needs in order to play baseball, for any sport in that matter, is good motor-skills. Motor cognition is defined as “a mental processing in which the motor system draws on stored information to plan and produce our own actions, as well as to anticipate, predict, and interpret the actions of others”. (Smith, 2007) Without motor cognition one cannot play baseball at all. The most important factors in the game such as being able to make contact with the ball, whether it involves batting or catching the ball, would not be performed. One must plan what to do and react on it, quickly, when in the moment of the game. All these tasks have one thing in common, movement and action. Movement is a “voluntary displacement” of a body part which is needed to perform an action. An action is a series of movements that that are needed to fulfill a task. An example of this in the game of......

Words: 543 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Cognitive Development

...Cognitive Development Richard Clark PSYC1000 Lifespan Development Paper Capella University May 2014 Abstract According to dictionary.com cognitive development. The process of acquiring intelligence and increasingly advanced thought and problem-solving ability from infancy to adulthood. The purpose o f this research paper is to determine if all infants follow the same development process from infant to adulthood. There are many questions about the development stages of a child. I am sure many people would like to know if a child is born with cognitive skills or is that develop over time David F. Bjorklund explains “One issue central to all of psychology is that of nature versus nurture. Traditionally, this has been posed as a dichotomy: Is human thought and behavior genetically/biologically determined or is it shaped by learning/experience/culture? This is dealt with in a more sophisticated way today, in that everyone is an interactionist, with the issue being better expressed as “how do biological/endogenous factors interact with environmental/exogenous factors to produce the adult phenotype?” From this perspective, cognitive development does not simply mature, or bloom, over time, nor is it solely a product of a child’s culture; rather, it emerges over the course of ontogeny as a result of the dynamic and reciprocal transaction between a child’s biological constitution, including genetics, and his or her physical and social...

Words: 883 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Language

...Language lies at the root of that transformation of the environment that we call ‘civilization’. How is language encouraged in the Montessori prepared environment? ​Language is something that I can’t explain. It is absurd for me. What I know is I am able to speak to communicate what is on my mind to other people, but the process how did it happen I barely remember it. Before I learn about Montessori, I used to think that language is something that comes naturally. I thought it was something ridiculous if children learn how to write and how to read in early age because I was thought that eventually children could done it easily. Well, I guess I was wrong all this time and sure I am taking for granted that I was underestimate how we can speak, read, and writing. Human needs practice to be fluently in speaking, to be understood in reading, and to be able to writing a simple note. In fact, human being learns language from he or she was an infant. An infant is first exposed to language through sounds generated by the environment and languages spoken by the adults surrounding him. As I observe my 9 months old son, he starts babble when he was 6 months old now he is more talkative event tough he can only say baba papa mama or dada. But I always replying what he says in order to make him feel respected, to teach him Bahasa and I don’t want to lose his sensitive period. ​Language is goes a long way in establishing a people’s identity, somehow showing people’s artistic,......

Words: 2341 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Cognitive Psychology

...Cognitive Psychology Definition Josephine Yadao Psy/360 Mr. Norris Edwards October 30, 2013 Cognitive Psychology Definition Cognitive psychology is often compared to behaviorism because of the sharp contrast of the perspectives (Willingham, 2007). Although behaviorism fails to address mental processes, cognitive psychology aims to create a coherent description of these processes characteristic of humankind. Cognitive psychologists also seek to explain conscious visual perception, but they are more interested in the unconscious processes that eventually lead to conscious perception. In some ways, visual information in consciousness is the endpoint of vision; we need to explain the many steps that led to this endpoint. But the main goal is to explain how humans transform input into thoughts and actions by the complex and often-mysterious process of cognition (Eysenck, 2004, Willingham, 2007). Cognitive psychology addresses the unobservable nature of the human psyche and uses abstract constructs to produce observable behavior resulting in a more accurate understanding of these processes. This branch of psychology came to life during the fall of behaviorism with the help of new technology, the......

Words: 1203 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Language

...Language PSY 360 June 17, 2015 Melissa Jackson ------------------------------------------------- Language An intense association exists between cognitive abilities and language. Thought processes have the capability of altering communication methods; however, methods of communication can very easily do the same to an individual’s way of thinking. New ideas are communicated in which thought can be generated simply by thinking of the name of a certain stimulus. Language can be defined by several different key components. A reciprocated attempt at a considerate conversation between individuals can be anything from arbitrary to unsubstantial, yet likely to be configured and orderly through numerous manners in which general ideas are configured through the different parts of a language (Papafragou, Li, Choi, & Han 2007). In addition, language can also be dynamic and constantly developing, therefore leading to the conclusion that such an intricate topic, such as language, is challenging to undertake, especially in explaining in more depth how it works in its entirety through the key components toward a better understanding. The main purpose of the key features of language, including arbitrariness, communications, and dynamics, as well as generative and structured divergences, is to facilitate the comprehension and translation of language itself. Associating words to stimuli is unsystematic in its development and is groundless in an unconscious attempt to......

Words: 1352 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Language

...Language John Kendrick PSY/360 September 14, 2015 Professor Jackson Language Through sounds, gestures, and symbols humans have learned to communicate with each other. It is a developed system for communicating in a society. Languages will vary from one culture to the next and will take on different forms. Not only are languages spoken, they are expressed through hand gestures and written symbols. Language is a form of communication that allows humans to express emotion, opinions, thoughts, and beliefs (Galotti, 2014). The lexicon is the vocabulary contained within the language. It is the knowledge of the words contained in the language. It is a compilation of all words known, understood, and expressed by the individual. The language is compiled and understood by others contained in the same culture and supports how the language is expressed (Galotti, 2014). One key feature of language is broadcasting the message and then rapid fading of the message. The message will fade and then not heard. The next feature is interchangeability. This is the ability to both receive and send the message. Total feedback is occurs when the speaker can hear his own speech and can monitor the language performance as they go and specialization involves producing the speech through the specialized body parts adapted for this role (Galotti, 2014). The key features of language are phonology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. An expression of language occurs when an......

Words: 749 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Cognitive Personality

...Cognitive Personality Approach Introduction Psychology definition is the study of the human mind and human behaviors. It is an theoretical discipline and is applied science in which seeks the understanding of individuals and groups by establishing overall principles, along with researching specific form of cases. There are many different approaches to psychology such as humanist, behavioral, and cognitive. One must understand the cognitive approach before truly understand the cognitive personality approach. Cognitive psychology “is the scientific investigation of human cognition, that is, all our mental abilities – perceiving, learning, remembering, thinking, reasoning, and understanding”(Lu & Dosher, 2007, p. 1). As the term ‘cognition’ comes from the Latin word “cognoscere”. Cognitive psychology is the study in which how people obtain and apply knowledge or information to their everyday lives. It is a modern form that includes a set of new technologies in the field of psychological science. The study of human cognitive is traced back to Aristotle De Memoria in Hothersall in 1984. The overall concept of cognitive psychology began with the cognitive approaches to psychological issues in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s with the work of Wundt, Cattell, and William James. It claimed the first half of the approach during the 20th century with the behaviorism approach in cognitive psychology. Within this dissertation it will be covering different aspects of cognitive......

Words: 3109 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Cognitive Information Process vs. Brain

...Cognitive Information Processing versus Brain-Based Learning Germaine Milliner University of Phoenix This paper is a comparative analysis of cognitive information processing and brain-based learning. It will also detail their similarities and differences. Cognitive information processing studies the way an individual learns. According to Gredler (2009), it also includes “a variety of processes whereby individuals perceive, encode, remembers, recall and apply information or knowledge”. My understanding of this is that, learning is an individual awareness to the things going on around him from his prior experiences, memory, recalling the information and how it is applied. Gredler (2009 cites), “The brain is not a passive consumer of information.... The stored memories and information-processing strategies of our cognitive system interact with the sensory information received from the environment, selectively attend to this information, relate it to memory, and actively construct meaning for it. (Wittrock, 1990, p. 348).” The brain is a very active user of information. Our prior knowledge and experiences collaborate with the sensory information or stimuli from the environment, processes it, store it in long term memory, which then is recalled when needed. According to Ozell (2009), this concepts see answers to four questions, such as: “(1) How is the information taken from the outside? (2) How is the new information processed? (3) How is information stored in long......

Words: 744 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Process of Language Change

...Introduction to Language Structure Lecturer: Ms. Hurlock 25 November 2015 The Process of Language Change How complicated and confusing it would be if you were to go to a different country that speaks a different language and you tried to buy something. Would the price of the item be clear to you, perhaps not? May be you would be able to figure it out with gestures, however it would still be challenging. We are able to go to a country that speaks a different language and still get through because of familiarity with the language, using gestures or simply having someone there having knowledge of both languages to interpret and lower the barrier. Language changes overtime and it can be a good thing; as it helps us to exchange business and services with other countries and even within our own. If language did not change through out the ages there would have been a greater language barrier than the present one. The process of language change occurs, so that people may communicate effectively in spite of their different understanding and pronunciation of a language. For example, the free variation associated with ‘tomato’; some pronounce it as [ ] and others voice it as [ ]. Though in different countries the word(tomato) may be spelt the same way, it may also have its own unique pronunciation of the word. For this reason the process of language change is important, in order to understand different languages, adapt to languages,......

Words: 305 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Metaphor as a Cognitive Process

...Metaphor as a Cognitive Process Iordache Delia Master: Limba engleza. Studii teoretice si aplicate Anul II. Sem. I Introduction From the perspectives of construction, poetic and cognitive function and working mechanism, this paper makes a comprehensive analysis of metaphor as a cognitive process, where metaphor is constructed from human perceptual experience and is extended through imaginative processes An important feature of cognitive stylistics has been its interest in the way we transfer mental constructs, and especially in the way we map one mental representation onto another when we read texts. Cognitive linguists have consistently drawn attention to this system of conceptual transfer in both literary and in everyday discourse, and have identified important figures of speech, through which this conceptual transfer is carried out. Conceptual Metaphor, also called Cognitive Metaphor, was developed by researchers within the field of cognitive linguists. It became widely known with the publication of Metaphors We Live By, by Lakoff and Johnson, in 1980. Conceptual metaphor theory has since been developed and elaborated. Definition and Construction of Metaphor As we know, metaphor is a type of figurative language in which one thing is described in terms of some other thing. The word metaphor comes from Greek ‘metapherein’ which means carry over. Another translation is transference, a term more familiar to us from......

Words: 2068 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Cognitive Psychology

...Cognitive Psychology By Kelli Halford PSY/360 April 30, 2012 Bonnie Johnson Introduction Cognitive psychology is commonly compared to behaviorism. This is because of the contrast of the perspectives (Willingham, 2007). Still behaviorism does not address the human mental processes .cognitive psychology tries to make a description of these characteristic of humankind. Another perspective in psychology is the cognitive psychology's status that is based in experiments, and the scientific method (Willingham, 2007). Cognitive psychology’s objective is to find out how humans thoughts can create a reaction (Eysenck, 2004, Willingham, 2007). Defining Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Psychology is a psychological view that addresses mental processes. This includes thinking, remembering, and problem solving. It also involves perceiving, speaking, and believing. This form of psychology seeks to find the purpose of behavior by characteristics that a human cannot see (Cacioppo, 2002). This implicates the human brain function, and structure (Willingham, 2007). Four Key Milestones There are four vital developments in cognitive psychology. These are known as neuroscience, artificial intelligence, the fall of behaviorism, and the information process. These key milestones played a crucial role in cognitive psychology. First is the study of the human mind through abstract concepts to show definite links among brain structure, and function. This is better known as neuroscience......

Words: 772 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Language Essay

...Language Essay Ryan Butler Psychology 360 August 29, 2011 Professor Newlin LANGUAGE Have you ever wondered how we speak? How about why our communication is considered a language and other animal’s communication is not considered language? A wide range of beliefs exist on what defines language. Thus, by exploring the definition of language and lexicon, evaluating language’s key features, the four levels of language structure and processing, and the role of language in Cognitive Psychology, an understanding of what language is becomes clear. Let us begin by defining language and a term named lexicon. LANGUAGE AND LEXICON DEFINITION One big question, when the subject of language comes up, is exactly what language is. What constitutes something as a language? By explaining one definition of a language, and a term associated with language, called a lexicon, a definition of language transpires. Thus, the Willingham (2007) text mentions four certain characteristics communication must possess to, officially, be considered a language.  One of these characteristics is that language must be communicative, and thus be communication between individuals in some form or another.  Secondly, the symbols standing for words must be arbitrary, and thus have no reason for representing a word.  Third, a language must be structured, and not arbitrary.  For example, if I say a dog was walking on a sidewalk I cannot say a sidewalk was walking on a dog. etc.  Fourth, a language must......

Words: 1420 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Cognitive Psychology

...Cognitive psychology is figuring out what makes an individual tick and understanding the internal process of their mind. Cognition literally means “knowing”. In other words, psychologists from his approach study cognition which is ‘the mental act or process by which knowledge is acquired (cognitive psychology). This type of psychology focuses on how we as human process information, and how we react to this information. When studying cognitive psychology it basically means the studying of the mind. Cognitive psychology is one of the most important schools in psychology. This paper is discussing the history and milestones made with cognitive psychology. William Wundt is the individual who gets the credit for founding modern psychology in 1879 even knowing he was the not the first to publish psychological work. The reason it is told he was the first because Wundt was the first to establish a laboratory just for psychology. In the course book written by Willingham, D.T it states how this is not true. Wundt started his lab in 1879 and William James started a lab in 1875. But it does not count because James used his lab for teaching Wundt did what was necessary to get science going. In 1913 John Watson Published a paper titled “Psychology as the behaviorist views it”. Watson made it clear in that paper that he plans to overturn psychology. Wundt had train many students who remained introspectionists. Watson challenged their assumptions with his four basic principles of......

Words: 704 - Pages: 3

Al Cinema | Сборник - Хит-парады Топы Чарты FM-станций: Europa+, DFM, Record, Energy, Love Radio, Русское Радио. Сентябрь (2016) MP3 | Tripod Mount Adapter + Long Thumb Knob Screw Bolt For GoPro Hero7 6 5 4 3+