Free Essay

Collaboration

In: Social Issues

Submitted By Kattropics
Words 3112
Pages 13
In 1995, I was commissioned by the Pew Partnership for Civic Change to study how collaboration was being used in the United States to build and strengthen community. While there are many forms of collaboration, my research focused on one type in particular—the kind carried out by individuals, groups and organizations in the public sphere. This form of collaboration can be described as a process of shared decision-making in which all the parties with a stake in a problem constructively explore their differences and develop a joint strategy for action.

This essay appears in 'On Collaboration' — a collection edited by Marie Bak Mortensen and Judith Nesbitt (London: Tate, 2012).

My report on the subject (from which the following essay has been adapted) generated a surprising amount of attention when it appeared. It was widely cited in books and publications and reprinted in several monographs. After concluding the study, I went on to observe and work with collaborative teams across America as well as study community leaders who practice collaboration as part of their community development work.

I found that collaboration can be a powerful alternative to conventional mechanisms for effecting change, such as coalitions, task forces, and commissions. Traditional groups and organizations tend to be structured vertically. Decisions are made at the top and people derive their influence and authority from their positions within the hierarchy. This is especially true in professional organizations where leadership is centralized, the work mission-driven, processes guided by procedures and statutes, and internal communication mostly confined to departments, workgroups, and committees.

Collaborative groups, by contrast, are structured horizontally. Leadership, to the extent that it exists at all, is broadly distributed. Job titles and professional affiliations fade into the background and people derive their influence from having their ears to the ground, from being well-connected in the community, and from being engaged in a multiplicity of projects. Membership usually spans silos and divisions in the community, processes are guided by norms of trust and reciprocity, and communication is more personal, more conversational, more exploratory than in formal settings.

For this reason, collaborative efforts tend to be loosely structured, highly adaptive, and inherently creative. By creating spaces where connections are made, ideas are cross-fertilized, and collective knowledge is developed, collaborative teams generate rich opportunities for innovation. When the right people are brought together in constructive ways and with the appropriate information, they are able to create powerful visions and robust strategies for change.

While collaboration is getting a lot of attention today, especially in the fields of management theory and leadership studies, there is relatively little substantive research on the subject. There is, however, a growing body of literature championing its benefits. In the following pages, I review some of the principal sources in order to better understand: What is collaboration? How does it differ from other models of cooperation? What are the prerequisites and dynamics of effective collaboration? What makes an effective collaborative leader? What are some of the chief dangers and obstacles to successful collaboration? And how do we build more collaborative communities?

WHAT IS COLLABORATION?

As its Latin roots com and laborare suggest, collaboration reduced to its simplest definition means "to work together." The search for a more comprehensive definition leads to a myriad of possibilities each having something to offer and none being entirely satisfactory on its own. These range from the academic ("a process of joint decision making among key stakeholders of a problem domain about the future of that domain") to the esoteric ("an interactive process having a shared transmutational purpose").

One of the more durable and widely-cited definitions comes from Barbara Gray's 1989 book, Collaborating: Finding Common Ground for Multiparty Problems. Gray describes collaboration as "a process through which parties who see different aspects of a problem can constructively explore their differences and search for solutions that go beyond their own limited vision of what is possible."

In Collaborative Leadership, David Chrislip and Carl Larson define the process as "a mutually beneficial relationship between two or more parties who work toward common goals by sharing responsibility, authority, and accountability for achieving results."

Collaboration appeals to people from across the political spectrum, not because it offers everything to everyone—as some of the advocacy literature on the subject seems to suggest—but because it deals with a process, as distinct from a program, agenda, or outcome. Collaboration requires that we look not only at the outcomes of our efforts, whatever they happen to be, but also at the process by which we arrive at those outcomes.

Collaboration might be used to resolve a neighborhood or environmental dispute. It could be a springboard for economic development in a community or region. Or it could be used to promote greater civic participation and involvement. Generally speaking, the process works best when
◾The problems are ill-defined, or people disagree on how the problems are defined
◾Different groups or organizations with a vested interest depend on each other in some way.
◾Those with a stake in a problem have yet to be identified or organized
◾Some stakeholders have more power or resources than others
◾Those with a vested interest have different levels of expertise and access to information about the issue.
◾The problems are often characterized by technical complexity and scientific uncertainty
◾Differing perspectives on the problems lead to conflict or disagreement among the stakeholders
◾Incremental or unilateral efforts to address with the issue have been ineffective
◾Existing processes for addressing the problems have proved unsuccessful

Collaborative endeavors take many forms. Some common varieties include: public-private partnerships (sometimes referred to as social partnerships)—ad hoc alliances between otherwise independent organizations that span both the public and the private sectors; future commissions, also known as search conferences, in which citizens and community leaders analyze trends, develop alternative scenarios of the future, and establish recommendations and goals for the community; interagency collaborations aimed at improving social services to children, families, and other members of a community; online networks designed to link various civic, educational, business, and governmental institutions within a community or region; school-community partnerships designed to foster greater collaboration between secondary schools and key community institutions; networks and coalitions—loosely structured alliances among groups, organizations, and citizens that share a commitment to a particular issue or place; and regional collaboratives where local governments work together to promote economic development and service delivery.

COLLABORATION VS. OTHER MODELS OF COOPERATION

Collaborative partnerships can be broadly grouped under two headings: those aimed at resolving conflicts and those designed to develop and advance a shared vision for the future. In both cases, the process is aimed at carefully defining and, if need be, redefining the issues involved before moving on to solutions.

Collaboration focuses on identifying a common purpose and working toward joint decisions. This distinguishes it from other forms of cooperation that may involve shared interests but are not based on a collectively-articulated goal or vision. "We cannot even begin to agree on how we should act until we have a common definition of the problem," David Mathews writes in Politics for People, "one that reflects an understanding of our own interests, the interests of others, and how the two diverge and converge."

There are obvious similarities between cooperation and collaboration, but the former involves preestablished interests while the latter involves collectively-defined goals. In What It Takes, an oft-cited 1991 monograph on interagency collaboration, Atelia Melaville and Martin Blank point out that "a collaborative strategy is called for ... where the need and intent is to change fundamentally the way services are designed and delivered." Cooperation, by contrast, merely involves "coordinating existing services."

Banding together to work for common goals is not a new idea in politics. The literature is full of examples of how community organizations—religious groups, trade unions, nonprofit groups, small businesses, civic alliances—form cooperative ventures, community interest groups, neighborhood task forces, and political coalitions. But these efforts are rarely collaborative in the strict sense. The goal is to join forces to advance a cause, which is different from collaborating to address a collective problem or develop a joint vision for the future.

THE PREREQUISITES FOR COLLABORATION

For collaboration to be effective, it must be democratic and inclusive. Hierarchies of any kind get in the way of sound decision-making, just as excluding some individuals or groups with a stake in the issue can derail the process. It also requires the involvement of a wide range of community leaders, such as mayors, city council members, nonprofit directors and members of the local school board.

In a series of case studies of successful collaboratives, David Chrislip and Carl Larson point out that each one "involved many participants from several sectors—for example, government, business, and community groups—as opposed to few participants predominantly from one sector." The level of participation required, however, is partly a function of what kind of collaboration is being sought. Clearly, some forms of collaboration—such as interagency partnerships—require only that the relevant stakeholders be included. Chrislip and Larson emphasize that the support of high-level, visible leaders "brought credibility to the effort and was an essential aspect of the success of the endeavor."

According to Barbara Gray, collaboration can only be meaningful if the parties involved are interdependent in some way. "Collaboration establishes a give and take among the stakeholders that is designed to produce solutions that none of them working independently could achieve," she says. In this way, they all depend on each other to produce mutually beneficial solutions.

Some questions to ask before embarking on a collaborative venture include:
◾What are the structural relationships between the parties and the possible power issues inherent in the collaborative arrangement?
◾Is there a clear understanding among all the parties of the respective goals of the other participants?
◾What form of leadership is required to facilitate the process?
◾Does the project have some form of integrating structure, such as a cross-section of steering committees, to facilitate and coordinate decision-making and implementation?
◾Will the project be more effective with a neutral, third-party mediator?
◾Should the media be involved?
◾Does the project have enough time, money, and staff support?

THE DYNAMICS OF COLLABORATION

The process of collaboration is rarely simple and straight-forward. It typically moves through several distinct phases, some of which can be time-consuming and fraught with challenges. Generally speaking, the process begins with an analysis of the situation and a diagnosis of the key issues involved. It moves on to a definition of the fundamental mission or desired outcome. The participants then articulate a common vision and work out a plan and a timetable for meeting their goals. It most cases, the process concludes with an assessment of the outcomes and a review of lessons learned.

Barbara Gray describes it as a three-phase process. The first phase, which she calls the prenegotiation or problem-setting phase, is often the most difficult. Six issues need to be addressed at this stage: 1) the parties must arrive at a shared definition of the problem, including how it relates to the interdependence of the various stakeholders; 2) the parties must make a commitment to collaborate; 3) other stakeholders need to be identified whose involvement may be necessary for the success of the endeavor; 4) the parties have to acknowledge and accept the legitimacy of the other participants; 5) the parties must decide what type of convener or leader can bring the parties together; and 6) the parties must determine what resources are needed for the collaboration to proceed.

During the second phase, the parties identify the interests that brought them to the table, determine how they differ from the interests of others, set directions and establish shared goals. Gray calls this the direction-setting phase. It is characterized by six essential steps: 1) establishing ground rules; 2) setting the agenda; 3) organizing subgroups, especially if the number of issues to be discussed is large or the number of stakeholders exceeds a dozen or so people; 4) undertaking a joint information search to establish and consider the essential facts of the issue involved; 5) exploring the pros and cons of various alternatives; and 6) reaching agreement and settling for a course of action.

The final step of the collaborative process is the implementation phase during which 1) participating groups or organizations deal with their constituencies; 2) parties garner the support of those who will be charged with implementing the agreement; 3) structures for implementation are established; and finally 4) the agreement is monitored and compliance is ensured.

Collaborative ventures obviously vary a great deal and not all of them can or want to follow this general framework. Much will depend on the nature of the endeavor, the number of people or parties involved, the time-frame, and the resources at hand.

COLLABORATIVE LEADERSHIP

The growing interest in collaboration can be seen as part of a bumpy transition away from top-down authority structures toward a new way of coordinating activities and making decisions. At their best, collaborative leaders assume the role of discussion facilitator rather than decision-maker. They put aside whatever authority, expertise, position, or influence they may have in the outside world in order to foster openness, dialogue, and deliberation within the group. The collaborative leader is one whose primary goal is to convene, energize, facilitate and sustain the process over time.

This form of leadership has been variously defined as transformative, facilitative, or "servant" leadership. In his classic 1978 book Leadership, James MacGregor Burns described transforming leadership as a process in which "one or more persons engage with each other in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality." The key to this type of leadership, he said, is the discovery of shared purpose and the interplay between motives and values.

James Svara, in his book Facilitative Leadership in Local Government, expanded on this notion, saying that collaborative leaders "stress empathetic communication, think in 'win-win' terms rather than seeing their interests in conflict with those of others, and use synergism to make the whole greater than the sum of the parts."

A number of theorists stress that one reason collaboration works as well as it does is that it empowers participants and creates a sense of ownership and "buy-in" within the group. When decisions are reached, they are the products group's own efforts. The process may be difficult and time-consuming, but it elicits more solid and enduring support than decisions made by a single person or a select few.

Collaborative leaders understand this intuitively. They move the process along by sharing inspiring visions, focusing on results, strengthening relationships, being open and inclusive, bringing out the best in others, and celebrating achievement. Collaborative leadership is not a specific set of activities. It means playing whatever role is necessary to bring about real change and lasting impact in the community. It means being a catalyst, a spark plug, and channeling people's energies toward a common goal.

THE LIMITATIONS OF COLLABORATION

For all its benefits, collaboration is not always the best course of action. The process is fraught with dangers and inherent limitations. It is notoriously time-consuming and is not suitable for problems that require quick and decisive action, for example. Power inequalities among the parties often thwart the process. The norms of consensus and joint decision-making sometimes require that the common good take precedence over the interests of a few. It can break down in groups that are too large. And the process is meaningless when participants lack the power to implement final decisions.

The literature is full of examples of poorly executed collaborations that failed to yield substantive results, ran out of funding, failed to garner enough interest or support from the leadership of the community, or stalled because of irreconcilable differences between stakeholders. As Barbara Gray points out, "many well-intentioned efforts to involve the public in government decisions, for example, are exercises in frustration and often exacerbate rather than improve the situation because careful attention to the process of managing differences is neglected."

Some of the circumstances under which it is best not to collaborate include: 1) when one party has unchallenged power to influence the final outcome; 2) when the conflict is rooted in deep-seated ideological differences; 3) when power is unevenly distributed; 4) when constitutional issues are involved or legal precedents are sought; and when a legitimate convener cannot be found. But when groups are aware of the limitations of the process and are able to work around them, they can do great things.

THE PROMISE OF COLLABORATION

Consciously or not, many of us subscribe to outmoded theories of change handed down from traditional leadership theory. We believe that influence occurs as a direct result of force exerted from one person to another. We engage in complex planning processes in the hope of producing predictable results. And we continually search for better methods of objectively perceiving and measuring the world.

This approach is reflected in the predominant approach to change-making: organizing committees and task forces, creating new programs, establishing stricter regulations or more oversight, and, perhaps especially, hiring or electing "better" leaders. But the realities of public life today are dynamic and complex and no longer lend themselves to mechanistic solutions. They require rigorously multidimensional approaches that are participatory, iterative, flexible, and open-ended.

In my research on collaboration, I have interviewed many practitioners who told me that they found their way to collaboration only after years of frustration with conventional problem-solving approaches and a gnawing sense that "there must be a better way." They stressed that traditional mechanisms for bringing about change are often exasperating, time-consuming, and ineffective.

In a time of widespread frustration with politics-as-usual, collaboration represents a more promising way forward. "What has moved so many people to take on this hard work of collaboration," write Daniel Kemmis and Matthew McKinney in Collaboration and the Ecology of Democracy, "has been the widespread perception that, in all too many cases, the existing governing framework was proving itself incapable of getting the job done. To put it bluntly, the problems that people expected the government to solve were not getting solved."

Building collaborative communities means finding new and better ways to work together. We need to create spaces where people can find each other, share ideas, and discover common ground. We need settings where people can receive support and be acknowledged as public actors. And we need contexts in which people can begin to imagine and act from a new sense of possibility.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Collaboration

.... What is collaboration? What value might collaboration have in a learning environment? Collaboration is when a group of people work together as one. Taking the time out to hear one another, gathering ideas, and somehow making it all fit together as if one individual did it. Collaboration is the main key in a learning environment; it defines what a learning environment is. Being organized, sharing ideas, listening to each other’s opinions and making sure everyone plays his or her part is the main focus of collaboration. For example, when assigned to a group project and one of the teammates is having a difficult time understanding the assignment the other teammates need to do all they can to help clarify the problem. Trying to understand another person struggle will help the whole team to become stronger and to become as a whole. Collaboration is used in school, work, and even with family. The more an individual collaborate with another person or group of people, the easier it is on everybody. 2. What conflicts might you anticipate while working in a team? How might the team handle potential conflicts among members? There are plenty of conflicts that could occur while working in a team if the team is not careful. One of the major conflicts while working in a team would be one of the teammates not doing their share of assignment. This puts extra work on the other teammates and added stress. Sometimes it’s hard to get organization in a team, with......

Words: 368 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Collaboration

...Collaboration As our organization become more disperses through local or nationwide expansion collaboration between other groups of workers can become problematic. In order for our growing party plates business best utilize the skills and knowledge held within the personnel it is necessary to implement strategies and technologies that allow employees to collaborate and communicate across local, or nationwide boundaries. So for future use we also were looking in implementing collaborative software. The increase of communication technologies such the Internet, e-mail, and video conferencing has led to the expansion of collaborative software that helps the sharing of information and knowledge between other businesses them to work together towards the accomplishment of a single goal. Groupware refers to programs that assist personnel working together as one while located away from each other. These types of programs are what facilitate real time collaboration. Some of the services that collaborative software include are e-mail handling, displaying information to others, shared database access, collective writing, the sharing of calendars, and electronic face-to-face meetings. Lotus Notes and Microsoft Exchange is some product examples of that groupware include, both of which facilitate the replication of files across a distributed system so that all users can view the same information. In conclusion collaborative systems are an accessible way to capture communication......

Words: 302 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Collaboration

...Helen Austin December 7, 2010 General Education 200 Strategy Communication and Collaboration Essay Over the course of the last week I had the privilege to study how to communicate and collaborate using the learning assessments in class. I’m much more informed and I look forward to using the techniques presented in chapter 2. Understanding my intelligence and personality will enable me to retain information effectively, and it will allow me to understand and communicate with my peers in a manner that is beneficial to our educational and career development. The three learning intelligences I will discuss are, verbal-linguistic, visual spatial, and interpersonal. I will also discuss the communication strategies for the following personalities: Organizer, Adventurer, and Giver. My strategy for communicating with a Verbal-Linguistic person would be to provide written information to them and verbally communicate information to him or her. In a team environment I would look to that person to be the communicator of the team or take on the role of teaching information, or assign him or her as the contact person. I would communicate with a visual spatial person through graphs, charts, and images. In a team environment I would look to this person to be the creative visual brain of the team, more on the lines of advertisement/marketing. Last, I would communicate with an Interpersonal person by interacting in social activities and working on teams. In a team environment I......

Words: 554 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Collaboration

...University of Phoenix Material Collaboration Quiz Write a 100- to 150-word response to each of the following questions: What are the advantages of having diversity in a collaborative learning environment? Some advantages of having diversity in a collaborative learning environment are some different perspectives, and the willing opportunity to teach and learn from each other. Having different perspectives on an idea can stem from different ways one's brought up in their life or their backgrounds or working in different school or work fields also different ways of different beliefs. Having all of these differences brings us to different varieties of opinions that are based on the types of an on our experiences. Collaborative learning with these opinions allows us to learn from one another different point of views. All of these ways provide us with lots of open opportunities to keep learning together and I see all of this being a big advantage for all. How might factors such as diversity, attitude, learning, and work styles affect collaboration? Diversity can affect collaboration in both ways negative and positive. The negative way is that anyone could have different posts or different interpretations that could be easily misunderstood or misinterpreted especially on electronically devices such as computers. The positive way is knowing that we have all dealt with similar situations in one way, that can can combined and share our thoughts and experiences so...

Words: 456 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Collaboration

...Communication and Collaboration Strategy Paper GEN200 February 1, 2011 Communication and Collaboration Strategy Paper The correct way of working effectively in a group is having the ability to appreciate and understand all of the team member’s learning style and personality type. This paper relates to communicating and collaboration methods for team members with Logical, Bodily, and Visual learning styles and with Thinker, Organizer, and Adventurer personality types. Systems for communicating and collaborating effectively with a group of people with different learning styles may differ, and here are some examples; Logical learners have the skill of reasoning the information that is learned. They have the ability to absorb information by analyzing and organizing the material. Bodily learning is when someone is hands-on in the communication and collaboration of an activity such as building, sketching, and getting their hands involved. They can provide excellent hands on support and communication skills. Visual learners have the skill to achieve their best results by utilizing visual aids. The communication for a Visual learning style is to prepare a flowchart or graphs that can show each member of the team the work needs to be completed within a week, a month, or a year. Each of these three learning styles have their own way of communicating and bringing their own way of working into a team......

Words: 517 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Collaboration

...Lack of Collaboration and Teamwork Megan Simon October 18, 2014 Lack of Collaboration & Teamwork The concept of collaboration is working with someone to produce or create something. “Collaborative Care in healthcare occurs when multiple health providers from different professions provide comprehensive services by working with people, their families, care providers, and communities to deliver the highest quality of care across settings. Practice includes both clinical and non-clinical health-related work, such as diagnosis, treatment, surveillance, health communications, management, and support services” (Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, n.d.). Collaboration between interdisciplinary personnel is essential to excellence in patient care delivery. Currently there is a growing trend that “the basic education for all clinical professionals should include the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to effectively participate in interdisciplinary teams, and that health care organizations should continue this education in the practice setting” (Ponte, Gross, Milliman-Richard,& Lacey, 2009). Although teamwork and interdisciplinary collaboration are ideal for healthcare, unfortunately these needs cannot or will not always be met by healthcare professionals. Collaboration and teamwork goals may not be met and for various reasons. There may be organizational barriers, barriers at the team level or within individual team members. A few of the most notable......

Words: 623 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Collaboration

...When collaborating with another individual, especially if they are not in the same department, it is important to make sure that both parties are using the same tools and programs. (Collaboration, 2009) For example, if one person uses Microsoft Works and the other uses Microsoft 7 or an individual uses a spreadsheet to report the company’s financials over time and the other uses accounting software reports, It can essentially delay a project and create inconsistencies. Come to an agreement on the programs and tools to be used for the project initially. Many projects are expected to be completed by an assigned date. Follow up after the initial meeting is important. It is important to identify any hurdles early. This follow up meetings’ agenda should include discussions on updates and statuses on the project as well as address any concerns each team member may have. Keep these meetings short and to the point. It is extremely important to set a pre-deadline deadline. Pre-deadlines help determine if the others require help before zero barrier is reached. Thankfully our collaborative relationships with other departments help to expedite information we need in order to finish the project. It’s always a good thing to have friends in the right places. If there are ever any pressing issues that need resolving, the pre-deadline would be time to voice them. A final meeting should convene with both parties presenting their portion of the project at its completion. The final project......

Words: 258 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Collaboration

...What does collaboration mean to you? How might collaboration foster learning? Collaboration means a group of people who are working on a project, come to a mutual agreement on how to work together to complete the project. Working as a team can foster learning because everyone brings certain knowledge, skill set and ideas to the collective, plus no one "knows" everything. How do you think individual diversity and conflict management relate to teamwork? As I have gone through my life, I have been in many differentry cultures, seen different places and met many different people all the while learning how different people react amongst their own culture. This lifestyle I have lead for the past 40+ years have taught me how to be tolerant, sociable, and accepting of different people. This is diversity and because of these experiences, I have learned how to interact with many different people to reach common goals at work, playing and coaching different sports, and making friends. And one could say society is "one big team" and everyone needs to work together. What is your idea of a successful team? How would you build such a team? A successful team is a group of individuals who come together to reach a common goal. I would build this team by learning as much as possible about the individuals, such as strengths and weaknesses. Once I have my team together, I would try to place people in spots where their strengths would outweigh their weaknesses. Hopefully by......

Words: 350 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Collaboration

...analyzes supply chain crisis, the main blockage to effective supply chain collaboration. The research question of this article refers to how the two collaboration concepts (vertical and horizontal) in supply chain can be influenced in practice by potential risk factors. This research proposes five alternatives for a good collaboration: Information sharing collaboration, Decision synchronization collaboration, Incentive alignment collaboration, Resource and skill sharing collaboration, Knowledge Management collaboration. After a thorough research and detailed discussions, the authors identified 16 risk factors most present in literature. The research methodology was combined with the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and peer-review under responsibility ofof SIM 2013/12thInternational Symposium inin Management. Selection and peer-review under responsibility SIM 2013 / 12th International Symposium Management. Keywords: collaborative supply chain; risk factors; vertical and horizontal collaboration; analytic hierarchy process 1. Introduction Growth in world trade and corresponding movements has led companies to capitalize on global sourcing opportunities in supply chain and going global means adding frequently risks. Collaboration in the supply chain is a process change. The result of this change was......

Words: 5093 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Collaboration

... | | | |Complete Appendix D located on the student website for the chosen scenarios. | | | |Week Three: Collaboration | | |Details |Due |Points | |Objectives | | | | | |Describe methods of collaboration. | | | | |Describe various learning styles. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 3 of Your College Experience. | | | |Reading |Read Ch. 4 of Your College Experience. | | | |Reading |Read the “How Collaboration Fosters Critical Thinking” section in Ch. 5 of Your College | | | | |Experience. ...

Words: 2666 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Collaboration

...Associate Level Material Appendix E Collaboration Worksheet Write a 100- to 150-word response to each of the following questions: * What are the advantages of having diversity in a collaborative learning environment? Adversity brings about added perspectives to an issue and also a better understanding of other points of view. Opportunities are also wide and there is interpersonal development and growth due to competence. How might factors such as diversity, attitude, learning, and work styles affect collaboration? Diversity enables students to learn how to work with different types of persons and understand other points of view. A positive or negative attitude will affect ones performance while learning. will improve your ability to get used to working with other individuals. As working in groups and coming to one idea. Diversity is accepting, acknowledging, valuing and celebrating differences among people we , relate to everyday. It directly affects our attitude towards other people and also the ability to relate in a society with diverse cultures and background. A positive attitude in the workplace reduces work related stress, increases output and improves interpersonal relations and collaboration in the work place. How does personal responsibility influence the work and success of a group? Personal responsibility is very essential with in a group if one or two people do not take their responsibility to share work , the other members are......

Words: 258 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Collaboration

...COLLABORATION THE NECESSARY EVIL AT THE WORK PLACE School of Management Leadership and Organizational Behavior Abstract The purpose of this research is to showcase the necessity of collaboration at the work place. The nature of collaboration needed among different components of the work place, leading to high job satisfactions and increased productivity. I will also go into details on the other benefits that can be realized when these work units collaborate among each other. The company I will specifically be dealing with in this research is Boeing and how collaboration has worked into its ultimate success throughout the years. The Organization Organization: Boeing Location: Seattle Washington; headquarters in Chicago with presence in several countries around the world. Economic sector: Aerospace Industry. Services Offered: Manufacturing of commercial jetliners, Design, assemble and support defense systems, Satellites and launch vehicles among other services. Number of employees: over 170,000 employees in the United States alone. Website: http://www.boeing.com Background Boeing is a large company of more than 170,000 fulltime and part-time contingent employees. The company is located in Seattle Washington but its headquarters are in Chicago with other locations in the United States and a plethora of others all over the world. With such a large base of employees, the company’s strategy has to be well planned and coordinated to ensure delivery of......

Words: 2597 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Collaboration

...Opportunities are also wide and there is interpersonal development and growth due to competence. Diversity is a key for almost any situation. When kids and adults can interact with others different from themselves, it makes a vast difference in their consciousness and ability to get along in a positive way with peers. • How might factors such as diversity, attitude, learning, and work styles affect collaboration? Diversity enables students to learn how to work with different types of persons and understand other points of view. A positive or negative attitude will affect one's performance while learning will improve competition while work styles will determine which one is more effective. It is accepting, acknowledging, valuing and celebrating differences among people we relate to everyday. It directly affects our attitude towards other people and also the ability to relate in a society with diverse cultures and backgrounds. A positive attitude in the workplace reduces work related stress, increases output and improves interpersonal relations and collaboration in the work place....

Words: 257 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Collaboration

...How might factors such as diversity, attitude, learning and work styles affect collaboration? Steve Carter XXXXX MARCH 1, 2011 John Doe How might factors such as diversity, attitude, learning, and work styles affect collaboration? Factors such as diversity, attitude, learning and work styles may affect collaborative learning due to the fact that our way of learning, our attitudes about learning and our work styles vary for each individual. As we know, diversity allows us to work with different types of people and understand other points of view. Diversity also allows us to experience different core values. We must understand that as individuals, our way of learning, our attitudes, and work styles are all things that make us who we are. No one person has experienced life exactly the same. Having a negative outlook or opinion about another’s culture, could impact the learning experience for other team members. When dealing with different attitudes and personalities, certain personalities may present challenges within the group, which could have a different effect on each group member. It is because of these different learning experiences and styles, that our collaborations can be affected in a positive way. Work styles can greatly affect collaboration, because conflicts in daily schedules may arise, where assignments and deadlines are missed, which in turn, cause stress and frustration among team members. Work styles also refer to how individuals......

Words: 434 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Collaboration

...Partnerships have the potential to increase resource efficiency, making better use of existing resources by reducing duplication and sharing overheads. They can add value by bringing together complementary services and fostering innovation and synergy (Mackintosh 1992). The impact of the global recession also means that partnership working and collaborative governance is paramount, as the public sector needs to re-think the shape, scope and scale of the services it provides and the way in which they are delivered. More recently greater emphasis has been placed on partnership working through the publication of the Gershon review in England and ‘Making the Connections’ in Wales. ‘Making the Connections’ stresses the need for voluntary collaboration and joint working between public bodies. It establishes a vision for a ‘Welsh Public Service’ sharing common goals and working together in a more integrated way (Welsh Assembly Government, 2006). The Government has also placed a statutory duty on local authorities to form partnerships, including Local Service Boards and Health, Social Care and Well-being Partnerships. All local authorities in Wales have established Local Service Boards, the aim of which is to strengthen collaborative leadership at the local level. Through these Boards, public bodies are pooling expertise, sharing best practice and will increasingly plan and deliver joint services with other public bodies, the third sector, and in some instances the......

Words: 3261 - Pages: 14

Teresa Palmer | Tom Hopper | Violetta