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Page No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Academic calendar Digital Communications Microprocessors and microcontrollers Digital Signal Processing Object Oriented Programming Through Java Managerial Economics And Financial Analysis Digital Signal Processing Lab Microprocessor & Microcontroller Lab Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Object Orient Programming Through Java Lab 2 3 48 85 129 186 217 219 222 224

ACADEMIC CALENDAR
VIGNAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT ACADEMIC CALENDAR
B. Tech Academic Year 2013 - 2014 - II - Semester
S.No Event Date th 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Submission of abstracts of main project by IV years Faculty orientation program Commencement of Class work Spell for UNIT – I Instructions Fresher’s day Spell for UNIT – II Instructions Alumni meet VIGNAN TARANG Spell for Unit-III Instructions st nd Assignment -1/ Unit test-1 on I & II Units Submission of results & week students list to Dept Spell for Unit-IV Instructions University I-Mid-Exam- II & IV Year rd University I-Mid-Exam- III Year Spell for UNIT – V Instructions for II &IV years rd Spell for UNIT – V Instructions for III year LAB INTERNAL-1 Commencement of Special classes for Slow learners Spell for UNIT – VI Instructions for II &IV years rd Spell for UNIT – VI Instructions for III year Submission of Mini project title along with guide for III year Spell for Unit – VII Instructions for II &IV years Spell for UNIT – VII Instructions for III year Assignment-II / Unit test on Vth & VIth Units rd 16-12-13 28-11-13 to 05-12-13 09-12-13 09-12-13 to 21-12-13 14-12-13 23-12-13 to 04-01-14 29-12-13 02-01-14 to 04-01-14 06-01-14 to 25-01-14 06-01-14 to 10-01-14 20-01-14 27-01-14 to 07-02-14 10-02-14 to 12-02-14 13-02-14 to 15-02-14 13-02-14 to 25-02-14 17-02-14 to 27-02-14 17-02-14 to 22-02-14 24-02-14 26-02-14 to 10-03-14 01-03-14 to 12-03-14 04-03-13 11-03-14 to 24-03-14 13-03-14 to 27-03-14 17-03-14 to 21-03-14 19-03-14 to 22-03-14 25-03-14 to 05-04-14 28-03-14 to 09-04-14 01-04-14 03-04-14 24-03-14 to 29-03-14 07-4-14 to 09-4-14 10-4-14 to 12-4-14 10-04-14to 14-04-14 28-03-14 15-04-14 to 17-04-14 15-04-14 21-04-14 to 03-05-14 16-06-14

21. 22. 23. 24.

25. Submission of results & week students list to Dept 26. Spell for Unit- VIII Instructions for II & IV year 27. Spell for Unit- VIII Instructions for III year 28. Thanks giving party 29. Farewell to final years from staff and pre final years and student memoir distribution 30. LAB INTERNAL-2 31. University II-Mid-Exam- II & IV Year 32. University II-Mid-Exam- III Year 33. Practical Examinations for II Year 34. Final Project demo and draft copy submission 35. Practical Examinations for III Year 36. EXTERNAL PROJECT VIVA (IV years) 37. End Semester Examination 38. Commencement of next semester

Note: class review meeting for II and III year students and faculty on every Thursday at 1:00 pm onwards Cc: principal All staff members HOD,ECE

DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONs
Mr. J.v.rao

AssOC. Professor
& MRs. Bindu tushara

AssT. Professor

COURSEFILE
Department of

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

VIGNAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE
VIGNAN HILLS, DESHMUKHI VILLAGE, POCHAMPALLY (MANDAL) NALGONDA (DISTRICT) - 508284

Sponsored by Lavu Educational Society
(Approved by AICTE and Affiliated to JNT University, Hyderabad)

COURSE OBJECTIVE

Digital Communication

Course Objective

COURSE OBJECTIVE
Communication is the basic process of exchanging information. It is what people do to covey their thoughts, ideas and feelings to one another. The course provides a comprehensive understanding of Digital Communication system, it is necessary to understand the basic building blocks of digital communication system, the concept of noise, sampling. Pulse modulation methods such as Pulse code modulation, Delta modulation, adaptive delta modulation and Differential PCM and there applications. Chapter 3 explains the digital modulation techniques. It also explains coherent and non-coherent detection techniques.It also explains various digital modulation techniques like ASK,FSK,PSK,DPSK,QPSK. The primary requirement of any communication system is receiver that t should have the ability to select the desired signal from among thousands of others present and to amplify sufficient amplification to recover the modulating signal and the probability of error for various filters. This course also deals with various information and message coding techniques such as Huffman coding, Shannon-Fano coding, variable length coding their advantages and disadvantages. The various codes are also discussed, how to encode and decode such as linear block codes, convolutional codes encoding and decoding techniques. The error detecting and correcting methods are also discussed. The last chapter deals with spread spectrum modulation and demodulation techniques. Indepth study on coding techniques helps the students in making projects on security systems.The simulation results will help the students to understand the behavior of digital communication system and their coding capabilities for various applications.

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

II Year B.Tech. 1st Semester Page 5

Syllabus

Digital Communication

Syllabus

SYLLABUS
UNIT I ELEMENTS OF DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: Model of digital communication systems,digital representation of analog signal, certain issues in digital transmission, advantages of digital communication systems, bandwidth S/N tradeoff, Hartley shanon law, sampling theorem. UNIT II PULSE CODE MODULATION : PCM generation and reconstruction, quantization noise, nonuniform quantization and companding, DPCM,Adaptive DPCM, DM and Adaptive DM, Noise in PCM and DM. UNIT III DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES : Introduction, ASK, ASK modulator coherent ASK detector,Non-coherent ASK detector,FSK, Bandwidth and Frequency spectrum of FSK,non-doherent FSK detector,Coherent FSK detector,FSK detection using PLL,BPSK,Coherent PSK Detection,QPSK,Differential PSK. UNIT IV BASEBAND TRANSMISSION AND OPTIMAL RECEPTION OF DIGITAL SIGNAL: Pulse shaping for optimum transmission, a baseband signal receiver, probability of Error, optimum receiver, optimal of coherent receptiom, signal space representation and probability of Error, eye diagrams, cross talk. UNIT V INFORMATION THEORY : Information and entropy, conditional entropy and redundancy, Shannon Fano coding,Mutual information, Information loss due to noise, source codings-Huffman code, Variable length coding, source coding to increase average information per bit, lossy source coding. UNIT VI LINEAR BLOCK CODES : Introduction, Matrix description of Linear Block codes, Error detection and error correction capabilities of Linear block codes, Cyclic codes: Algebraic structure, encoding, syndrome calculation decoding. UNIT VII CONVOLUTION CODES : Encoding, Decoding using state, tree and trellis diagrams, decoding using Viterbi algorithm, comparison of error rates in coded and uncoded transmission. UNIT VIII SPREAD SPECTRUM MODULATION: Use of spread spectrum,Direct sequence Spread Spectrum(DSSS),Code division multiple access, ringing using DSSS, Frequency hopping spread spectrum, PN-sequences: Generation and characteristics, synchronization in spread spectrum systems. TEXT BOOKS : Vignan Institute of Technology & Science II Year B.Tech. 1st Semester Page 7

Digital Communication

Syllabus

1. Principles of Communication Systems – H. Taub and D. Schilling, Goutam saha, 3rd Edition, McGraw-hill 2008.TMH, 2003. 2. Digital and Analog Communication Systems - Sam Shanmugam, John Wiley, 2005.

REFERENCES : 1. Digital Communications – John Proakis,Masoud Salehi 5th Edition, McGraw-hill, 2008. 2. Communication Systems –Simon Haykin, john wiley, 2005

3. Digital communications-Ian a Glover,Peter M.Grant,2nd Edition Pearson Edu.,2008. 4. Communication systems – B.P.Lathi, BS Publications,2006

WEBSITES 1. www.moorelegaltechnology.co.uk 2. www.mhhe.com/engcs/electrical/proakis/ 3. www.internetevangelismday.com › Communication

JOURNALS 1. IET Communications Journal form Digital Library 2. International Journal of Digital and Analog Communication Systems ISSN: 1047-9627. 3. IEEE Communications Society Journal 4. Simulation of Wireless Digital Communication Systems ISSN 1210-2512 5. International Journal of Communication ISSN 1796-2021 6. Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

II Year B.Tech. 1st Semester Page 8

STUDENT'S SEMINAR TOPICS

Digital Communication

Seminar Topics

STUDENTS SEMINAR TOPICS
1. Pulse Code Modulation And Demodulation 2. Delta Modulation 3. Adaptive Delta Modulation 4. Differential Pulse Code Modulation 5. Matched Filtering 6. Modulation Techniques 7. Huffman Coding 8. Shannon Fano Coding 9. Viterbi Algorithm 10. Spread Spectrum Modulation 11. Discrete Memoryless Channel 12. Error Detection And Error Correction 13. Syndrome Calculation 14. Sampling Theorem 15. Eye Diagram

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

II Year B.Tech. 1st Semester Page 10

LECTURE PLAN

Digital Communication

Lecture Plan

LECTURE PLAN
No of Periods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 and 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.
18. 19. 20. 21.

NAME OF THE TOPIC Introduction Introduction to DC Model of digital communication systems Model of digital communication systems digital representation of analog signal certain issues in digital transmission advantages of digital communication systems bandwidth S/N tradeoff Hartley shanon law sampling theorem sampling theorem Problems Simulation Results Unit-I Test Introduction to II unit:PCM generation reconstruction PCM generation and reconstruction quantization noise quantization noise non-uniform quantization and companding DPCM Adaptive DPCM

Method of Teaching

Text books referred ----Communication Systems –Simon Haykin, john wiley Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin --Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin II B.Tech 1st Semester Page 12

Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk MATLAB -Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk
Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

Digital Communication

Lecture Plan

22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47.

DM and Adaptive DM DM and Adaptive DM Noise in PCM and DM.
Problems Simulation results

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk MATLAB -Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk MATLAB Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk

Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin --Digital Communications – John Proakis Digital Communications – John Proakis Digital Communications – John Proakis Digital Communications – John Proakis Digital Communications – John Proakis Digital Communications – John Proakis Digital Communications – John Proakis Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin II B.Tech 1st Semester Page 13

Unit-II Test Introduction to III unit ASK, ASK modulator coherent ASK detector,Non-coherent ASK detector FSK, Bandwidth and Frequency spectrum of FSK non-doherent FSK detector Coherent FSK detector FSK detection using PLL BPSK,Coherent PSK Detection BPSK,Coherent PSK Detection QPSK,Differential PSK QPSK,Differential PSK
Problems Simulation results

Unit-III Test Introduction to unit IV:Pulse shaping for optimum transmission a baseband signal receiver probability of Error optimum receiver optimal of coherent reception signal space representation and probability of Error

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

Digital Communication

Lecture Plan

48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71.

eye diagrams, cross talk.
Problems Simulation Results

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk MATLAB Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk -Black board and Chalk

Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Digital Communications – John Proakis Digital Communications – John Proakis Digital Communications – John Proakis Digital Communications – John Proakis Digital Communications – John Proakis Digital Communications – John Proakis Digital Communications – John Proakis Digital Communications – John Proakis Digital Communications – John Proakis Digital Communications – John Proakis -Digital Communications – John Proakis Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin II B.Tech 1st Semester Page 14

Introduction to V Unit:Information and entropy Information and entropy conditional entropy and redundancy Shannon Fano coding Mutual information, Information loss due to noise source codings-Huffman code, Variable length coding source codings-Huffman code, Variable length coding source coding to increase average information per bit lossy source coding
Problems Unit V Test

Introduction to VI unit Matrix description of Linear Block codes Error detection and error correction capabilities of Linear block codes Error detection and error correction capabilities of Linear block codes Cyclic codes: Algebraic structure, encoding Cyclic codes: Algebraic structure, encoding syndrome calculation decoding
Problems Unit VI Test

Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board, Chalk Black board and Chalk

Introduction to VII unit:Encoding, Decoding using

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

Digital Communication

Lecture Plan

72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86.

state Encoding, Decoding using state tree and trellis diagrams, decoding using Viterbi algorithm tree and trellis diagrams, decoding using Viterbi algorithm comparison of error rates in coded and uncoded transmission Problems Introduction to VIII unit :Use of spread spectrum Direct sequence Spread Spectrum(DSSS) Code division multiple access, ringing using DSSS Frequency hopping spread spectrum PN-sequences: Generation and characteristics synchronization in spread spectrum systems.
Revision on I and II Units Revision on III and IV Units Revision on V and VI Units Revision on VII and VIII Units

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk

Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin Communication Systems –Simon Haykin
Notes Notes Notes Notes

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

II B.Tech 1st Semester Page 15

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Digital Communication

Learning Objective

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
UNIT I : ELEMENTS OF DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS At the conclusion of this unit student should be able to : 1. About Digital Communication systems. 2. How to convert analog signal to discrete sequence. 3. Difference between analog and digital communication system. 4. Hartely shanon theorem. 5. Different blocks of digital communication system 6. Advantages of digital over analog system. 7. Sampling theorem. 8. Effect of Sampling and quantization

UNIT II : PULSE CODE MODULATION At the conclusion of this unit student should be able to : 1. Explain what is modulation and demodulation 2. Need for modulation 3. Different modulations 4.Explain quantization noise and how to avoid it 5. Comparison of different modulation methods 6. Know how to do modulation and demodulation 7.Pulse Modulation 8.Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) 9.Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) 10.Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)

UNIT III :DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES At the conclusion of this unit student should be able to: 1. Explain the purpose of digital modulation techniques 2. Difference between analog and digital modulation techniques 3. Digital modulation techniques such as amplitude, frequency and phase 4. Detection techniques. 5. Binary and differential phase shift keying. 6. Quadrature phase shift keying. 7. Applications of modulation techniques. UNIT IV : BASEBAND TRANSMISSION AND OPTIMAL RECEPTION OF DIGITAL SIGNAL Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 17

Digital Communication

Learning Objective

At the conclusion of this unit student should be able to : 1. Explain what is baseband . 2. Signal receiver and their probability of error. 3. Eye diagrams. 4.What is cross talk and how to avoid it. 5.What is optimum receiver 6. Passband Transmission Model 7. White Gaussian Noise 8. Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization Procedure 9. Geometric Representation of Signals 10.The Maximum Likelihood (ML) Receiver 11.Matched Filter Receiver 12.Signal Constellations 13.Probability of Error UNIT V :INFORMATION THEORY At the conclusion of this unit student should be able to : 1 Information and entropy of source signal 2. Coding of source message using Shannon fano-coding 3. Coding of source message using Huffman-coding 4. Advantages of source coding 5. Various terms related to Source message such as information, entropy, mutual information, conditional entropy. UNIT VI : LINEAR BLOCK CODES

At the conclusion of this unit student should be able to : 1. Explain what are linear block codes. 2. How to detect and correct errors 3. What are cyclic codes 4. Error detection and correction using syndrome decoding. 5. Advantages of linear and cyclic codes 6. Applications of block codes.

UNIT VII : CONVOLUTION CODES At the conclusion of this unit student should be able to : 1 Explain convolutional codes 2. Encoding of convolutional codes using state,tree and trellis diagrams 3. Decoding using viterbi algorithm 4. Comparison of various codes

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 18

Digital Communication

Learning Objective

5. Application of convolutional codes UNIT VIII :SPREAD SPECTRUM MODULATION At the conclusion of this unit student should be able to : 1 Explain about Spread spectrum modulation using DSSS 2. Explain about fidelity criterion 3. Explain about CDMA 4. Characteristics of Spread Spectrum System 5. Application of Spread Spectrum system. 6. Frequency hopping spread spectrum

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 19

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

Digital Communication

Objective Questions

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

UNIT I: ELEMENTS OF DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 1. If the Nyquist's rate of a signal x(t) is fo, the Nyquists rate of its integral is [ ] a. fo b. fo/2 c. 2fo d. fo/4 2. Band Width efficiency of a Digital Modulation Method is [ ] a. (Minimum Band width )/ (Transmission Bit Rate) b. (Power required)/( Minimum Band width) c. (Transmission Bit rate)/(Minimum Band width) d. (Power Saved during transmission)/(Minimum Band width) 3. The minimum band width required to multiplex 12 different message signals each of band width 10KHz is a. 60KHz b. 120KHz c. 180KHz d. 160KHz [ ] 4. Which of the following is the feature of a Digital communication System? [ ] a. Less Band width requirement than Analog Communication system b. More affected by channel Noise c. Inaccurate than the Analog Communication system d. Less transmitted power 5. The Auto-correlation function of White Noise is [ ] a. Impulse function b. Constant c. Sampling function d. Step function 6. A Band pass signal has a spectral range extending from 20KHz to 82KHz.Which of the following sampling rates will allow the recovery of the above signal from its sampled version? a. 82KHz b. 90KHz c. 165KHz d. 160KHz [ ] 7. The signal f(t)=0.5.Cos104t is instantaneously sampled and is recovered from its Samples using a rectangular LPF. The minimum filter band width required for reconstruction is [ ] a. 10Hz b. 5Hz c. 20Hz d. 2.5Hz 8. Three Base band signals band limited to 5KHz, 6KHz, and 7KHz are being time division multiplexed. At the de -multiplexing end, cross talk occurs if the channel band width is[ ] a. greater than 18KHz b. less than 18KHz c. less than 14KHz d. greater than 14 KHz 9. A 1KHz sinusoidal signal is ideally sampled at 1500 samples/sec and the sampled signal is passed through an ideal LPF with cut off frequency of 800Hz.Which of the following will be output of the LPF? a. 700KHz b. 500KHz c. 800KHz d. 600KHz [ ] 10. Companding results in [ ] a. More S/N ratio at higher amplitudes of the base band signal b. More S/N ratio at lower amplitudes of the base band signal c. Uniform S/N ratio throughout the base band signal d. Better S/N ratio at lower frequencies 11. A uniform quantizer is having a step size of .05 volts. This quantizer suffers from a maximum quantization error of [ ] a. 0.1V b. 0.025 V c. 0.2 V d. 0.05 V Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 21

Digital Communication

Objective Questions

12. A signal is sampled at 8KHz and is quantized using 8-bit uniform quantizer. Assuming Tone Modulation, which of the following is correct for a PCM signal? [ ] a. Bit rate = 32Kbps b. Bit rate = 64Kbps c. Bit rate = 16Kbps d. Bit rate = 8Kbps 13. A signal X(t)=5.Cos(1504t-60) is sampled at 200Hz.The fundamental period of the sampled sequence is a. 1/200 b. 2/200 c. 4 d. 8 [ ] 14. Three Base band signals, band limited to 6KHz, 7KHz and 8KHz are time division multiplexed using a channel of Band width of 3KHz.Then, at the demultiplexing [ ] a. Signals cannot be reconstructed b. Cross talk will be there c. Signals should be over sampled d. Cross talk will not be there 15. A communication system is transmitting information in the form of either +V volts rectangular pulse or -V volts rectangular pulse,each of duration 1msec.The minimum sampling rate required to reconstruct above signals from their sampled versions is [ ] a. 1KHz b. 2KHz c. 3KHz d. 4KHz 16. The Nyquist's rate for the signal x(t)= 1+Cos(20004t) + Sin(40004t) is [ ] a. 4KHz b. 2KHz c. 6KHz d. 8KHz 17. A binary communication system is transmitting data at a rate of 10Kbps using RZ Signaling. The minimum channel Band width required for the above system is [ ] a. 10KHz b. 5KHz c. 20KHz d. 15KHz 18. If X(t) is a signal with Nyquist's rate F0, then the Nyquists rate for the derivative of X(t) is a. 2F0 b. F0 c. F0/2 d. F0/4 [ ] 19.If X(t) is a band limited signal with Nyquist`s rate of F0, then X(t).CosW0t is [ ] a. Band pass signal b. Band limited signal c. of Nyquist's rate 2F0 d. of band width Fo/2. 20. The minimum sampling rate required for the signal x(t)= Cos54t + 10.Cos104t is [ ] a. 10 Hz b. 5Hz c. 20Hz d. 30Hz 21. In a PCM system, under Tone Modulation, if the code word length is increased from 12 to 13 bits, the corresponding S/N improves by a factor of [ ] a. 6 b. 4 c. 8 d. 10 ANSWERS 1 (a) 12 (b) 2 (c) 13 (d) 3 (b) 14 (d) 4 (c) 15 (b) 5 (a) 16 (a) 6 (c) 17 (c) 7 (b) 18 (b) 8 (b) 19 (a) 9 (b) 20 (b) 10 (c) 21 (b) 11 (b)

UNIT-II :PULSE CODE MODULATION 1. Under equal band width requirement a. sampling rate in Delta Modulation is more than that of PCM b. sampling rate in Delta Modulation is less than that of PCM c. sampling rate in Delta Modulation is same as that of PCM d. Data rate in PCM is more than that of Delta Modulation [ ]

2. A Delta Modulation system operates with a sample rate 'fs' and a fixed step size S. If the input for the Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 22

Digital Communication

Objective Questions

system is the base band signal m(t) = Dt , for t>0, then to avoid slope over loading, step size should be [ ] a. greater than 8.fs b. less than 8/fs c. greater than D/fs d. less than 8.fs 3. In the output of a Delta Modulation speech encoder, the consecutive pulses are of opposite polarity during the time interval t=2 sec to t= 4 sec .This indicates that, during this interval [ ] a. i/p to the modulator is essentially a constant b. Modulator is going through slope over loading c. Speech signal is being sampled at NyquistJs rate d. quantization error is more 4. A Binary communication system transmits equally likely 1's and 0's.A received '1' produces a voltage of 1V in the presence of Zero mean Gaussian noise with unit y variance. A received '0' produces zero volts in the presence of same above noise. If the received signal is above the threshold, the decision is in favour of 1.The probability with which a transmitted 1 is received as 0 is [ ] a. Q(-0.5) b. Q(1) c. Q(-1) d. Q(0.5) 5. The base band signal m(t)=6.Sin24t is transmitted using Delta Modulation whose Sampling rate is 3 times the Nyquist rate for the input signal. The step size used is 10mV.If B is the bandwidth required for the modulated signal,then it is proportional to [ ] a. 6bps b. 12bps c. 18bps d. 3bps 6. The equiavalent number of q-levels in Delta Modulation system are [ ] a. 4 b. 2 c. 8 d. 16 7. The minimum step size required avoiding slope overloading in a Delta Modulation system transmitting a sinusoidal signal of amplitude 20V and frequency 500Hz using a sampling rate of 25,000 samples/sec is [ ] a. 2.5V b. 5V c. 7.5V d. 8V 8. The output of a Delta Modulation system is [ ] a. difference between m(t) and its approximated version b. digitized difference between m(t) and its approximated version c. digitized polarity of difference between m(t) and its approximated version d. digitized version of m(t). 9. Delta Modulation system is [ ] a. having more data word length than PCM system b. referred to as 1 bit PCM c. having more sampling rate than PCM system, under equal band width requirement d. same as DPCM. 10.The advantage of DPCM over Delta Modulation [ ] a. Prediction is used b. less data word length c. quantization noise power is less d. Tapped delay line filter is used 11. To sample a given signal, band limited to 10 Hz, the maximum permitted sample width so as to enable the recovery of the base band signal is [ ] a. 0.05sec b. 0.1sec c. 0.01 sec d. 0 05sec 12. Granular Noise in Delta Modulation system can be reduced by [ ] a. increasing the step size b. increasing the slope of the base band signal c. reducing the step size d. reducing the slope of the base band signal 13. The similarity between analog and digital modulation methods is [ ] a. base band signal format is same b. carrier is same c. modulated carriers are energy signal d. modulated carriers are power signals 14. If the product of Step size and sampling frequency of a Delta Modulation System is 25120, which of Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 23

Digital Communication

Objective Questions

the following rates of rise of the base band signal Will result in slope over loading? [ ] a. 15079.6 b. 37699.11 c. 18849.55 d. 16945.22 15. The Band width efficiency of 8-PSK system is [ ] a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5 16. In a PCM system, under Tone Modulation, if the code word length is increased from 12 to 13 bits, the corresponding S/Nq improves by a factor of [ ] a. 6 b. 4 c. 8 d. 10 17. If Eb, the energy per bit of a Binary signal is 106 and the White noise PSD eta /2=105, then, the maximum output S/N in dB is a. 13 b. 1 c. 20 d. 10 [ ] 18. If the maximum permissible error in the sampling amplitude of the signal 5.Cos2004 t is 0.5 % of its peak, then the lowest possible data word length required to encode the signal is [ ] a. 5 b. 6 c. 7 d. 8 19.Under equal band width requirement, sampling rate in Delta Modulation is more than that of PCM [ ] 20.In the output of a Delta Modulation speech encoder, the consecutive pulses are of i/p to the modulator is essentially a constant [ ] ANSWERS 1 (a) 11 (b) 2 (c) 12 (c) 3 (a) 13 (d) 4 (d) 14 (b) 5 (a) 15 (b) 6 (b) 7 (a) 16 (b) 17 (d) 8 (c) 9 (c) 18 (d) 19 (more than) 10 (c) 20 (constant)

UNIT III:DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES 1. In 8-PSK system, adjacent phasors differ by an angle given by (in degrees) [ ] a. n/4 b. n/8 c. n/2 d. n/ 6 2. In DPSK, the two possible signal sets are [ ] a. out of phase by 1800 b. orthogonal over 0 c. orthogonal over d. are of different energy 3. Which of the following is correct? [ ] a. Non-coherent reception of PSK results in more probability of error than coherent reception. b. Coherent reception of PSK results in more probability of error than Non-coherent reception c. Orthogonal FSK is of less probability of error than Non-Orthogonal FSK d. QPSK system is of less probability of error than BPSK system 4. BPSK and QPSK systems are [ ] a. of Same band width b. using same carrier recovery circuit for demodulation c. of same bit error probability d. of same symbol duration 5. Among the digital Modulation systems QPSK,8-PSK, BFSK,DPSK, the system with lowest bit error probability is [ ] a. 8-PSK b. BFSK c. DPSK d. QPSK 6. The phase angles of the possible outcomes of an 8-PSK system are obtained as [ ] a. (2m+1)4/8 where 'm' is an integer b. 2m_/8 where 'm' is an integer c. (m+1)_/8 where 'm' is an integer d. (m+2)_/8 where 'm' is an integer Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 24

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Objective Questions

7. Which of the following statements is correct? [ ] a. A Band Pass signal requires less minimum sampling rate than a low pass signal b. Digital transmission of a signal is more accurate than Analog transmission c. A Band pass signal is also a Band limited signal d. QPSK system is advantageous because of its less bit error probability than BPSK 8. If is the band width efficiency and 'D' is the carrier synchronization, then for a BPSK system a. =0.5 and 8 is required. b. =1 and D is required [ ] c. =0.5 and 8 is not required d. =1 and 8 is not required 9. An FSK system transmitting the data at a rate of Fb is having its highest and lowest transmission frequencies as FH=10.Fb and FL=6Fb. This FSK system is [ ] a. Non-Orthogonal BFSK b. orthogonal 4-FSK c. Orthogonal BFSK d. Non-orthogonal 4FSK 10. The advantage of Offset QPSK is [ ] a. amplitude variations are less pronounced b. band width occupied is less c. less transmitted power d. probability of error is less 11. Non-coherent detection of FSK signal results in [ ] a. more band width occupancy b. more probability of error c. energy efficiency than BPSK d. less probability of error 12. If the bit energy of a binary signal is 106 and PSD of white noise is U/2 = 105, then So/No for Matched filter is [ ] a. 26dB b. 10dB c. 20dB d. 15dB 13. The minimum data rate of a TDM system multiplexing three analog signals having band widths 1200Hz, 600Hz, 600Hz and using 12 bits to encode each sample is [ ] a. 28.8Kbps b. 57.6Kbps c. 14.4Kbps d. 7.2Kbps 14. The possible signal sets in which of the following systems are orthogonal? [ ] a. PSK over (0,Tb) b. FSK over (0,2Tb) c. DPSK over (0,2Tb) d. QPSK over (0,Tb) 15. Band width efficiency is 3 in [ ] a. 8-PSK and 8-QAM b. QPSK and 8-PSK c. BQAM and 16PSK d. 8-QAM and 4-PSK 16. A BPSK system is transmitting data at a rate of 1Mbps.The minimum B.W and the Baud rate of the above system is [ ] a. 1MHz,1Mbps b. 0.5MHz, 1Mbps c.0.5MHz,0.5Mbps d.1MHz,0.5Mbps 17. The advantage of NRZ signaling is [ ] a. zero DC PSD b. less band width requirement c. more energy d. less bit duration 18. The area enclosed by the density function of Gaussian Noise with mean=2 and variance of 5 is a. 2.5 b. 1 c. 3 d. 2 [ ] 19. Orthogonal PSK means [ ] a. DPSK system b. Offset-QPSK system c. Non-Offset QPSK system d. 8-PSK system 20. Adjacent phasors in M-ary PSK system differ in Phase by [ ] a. n/M b. 2n/M c. Mn d. 2Mn ANSWERS 1 (a) 11 (b) 2 (c) 12 (b) 3 (a) 13 (b) 4 (c) 14 (c) 5 (d) 15 (a) 6 (a) 16 (a) 7 (a) 17 (b) 8 (b) 9 (c) 18 (b) 19 (a) 10 (a) 20 (b)

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UNIT IV: BASEBAND TRANSMISSION AND OPTIMAL RECEPTION OF DIGITAL SIGNAL 1. The minimum band width required for a BPSK signal is equal to [ ] a. bit rate b. twice the bit rate c. half of the bit rate d. one fourth of bit rate 2. BPSK and QPSK systems are [ ] a. of Same band width b. using same carrier recovery circuit for demodulation c. of same bit error probability d. of same symbol duration 3. The advantage of Manchester encoding is [ ] a. less band width requirement b. less bit energy required for transmission c. less probability of error d. less bit duration 4. If the transmission probabilities of a '1' and '0' are and respectively and if the transition probability is 1/8 in a binary communication system, the average probability of error is a. 1/8 b. 1/4 c. 1/3 d.1/2 [ ] 5. Which of the following signaling schemes is a differential coding scheme? [ ] a. Unipolar b. NRZ-L c. NRZ-I d. RZ 6. The impulse response of the filter matched to the input signal x(t)=u(t)-u(t-T) is [ ] a. x(t) b. x(-t) c. x(2t) d. 2.x(t) 7. For same bit error probability, the signal energy in BPSK and Non-Orthogonal FSK signals differ by a. 4dB b. 2dB c. 5dB d. 1dB [ ] 8. If the maximum permissible error in the sampling amplitude of the signal 5.Cos2004 t is 0.5 % of its peak, then the lowest possible data word length required to encode the signal is a. 5 b. 6 c. 7 d. 8 [ ] 9. For a signal s(t) = U(t) - U(t-2), the maximum output S/N for the corresponding Matched filter is a. 4/n b. 2/K c. 1/K d. 2K [ ] 10. In which of the following signaling formats, the synchronization problem due to continuous sequence of zeros is eliminated? [ ] a. Uni polar b. NRZ-L c. NRZ-I d. AMI 11. A Matched filter [ ] a. minimizes the output S/N b. reduces the transmission energy requirement c. minimizes the probability of error d. is unique for all signaling representations 12. For the digital data 1,0 represented as +V volts and - V volts respectively, which of the following can act as a Matched filter? [ ] a. Differentiator b. Integrator c. Sampling Circuit d. Bit synchronizer 13. The maximum output S/N ratio of the filter matched to the signal 2[U(t) - U(t- 2)] is a. 16/n b. 8/K c. 4/K d. 2/K [ ] 14. RZ signaling and Manchester encoding schemes are having [ ] a. level transitions at t =Tb/2 b. same bit error probability c. synchronization problem due to continuous sequence of 0's only d. synchronization problem due to continuous sequence of 1's only 15. Baud rate for a BFSK system is [ ] a. half of the bit rate b. twice the bit rate c. same as the bit rate d. one fourth the bit rate Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 26

Digital Communication

Objective Questions

16. Minimum band width required for unipolar signaling format of digital data is [ ] a. half of the bit rate b. equal to the bit rate c. twice the bit rate d. Four times the bit rate 17. The impulse response of a filter matched to the signal X(t)= U(t)+U(t-1) - 2.U(t- 2) is a. U(t)+U(t-1) 2.U(t-2) b. 2.U(t) U(t-1) U(t-2) [ ] c. U(t)+2.U(t-1) 2.U(t-2) d. U(t) 2U(t-1) 2.U(t-2) 18. If the received signal at the input of a detector in a digital communication system can take any value between - 1v to +1v with equal probability, its Mean square value is [ ] a. zero b. 2/3 c. 1/3 d. 1 19. Digital data '1' is expressed using S1(t) =U(t) - U(t-T) and '0' is represented using S2(t) = - [ U(t)-U(t-T)].Which of the following can act a Matched filter for the above signals? [ ] a. RC LPF with very small time constant b. RC HPF with very large time constant c. RC LPF with very large time constant d. RC HPF with very small time constant 20. If erfc(x)= 0.02, then erf(x) is equal to [ ] a. - 0.02 b. 0.98 c. 0.02 d. 1 ANSWERS 1 (a) 2 (c) 3 (c) 4 (a) 5 (c) 11 (c) 12 (b) 13 (a) 14 (a) 15 (c) UNIT-V INFORMATION THEORY 6 (a) 7 (b) 16 (b) 17 (b) 8 (d) 18 (c) 9 (a) 19 (c) 10 (c) 20 (b)

1. Two binary random variables X and Y are distributed according to the joint Distribution given as P(X=Y=0) = P(X=Y=1)= P(X=Y=1) = 1/3.Then, [ ] a. H(X) = H(Y) b. H(X) = 2.H(Y) c. H(Y) = 2.H(X) d. H(X) + H(Y) = 1. 2. An independent discrete source transmits letters from an alphabet consisting of A and B with respective probabilities 0.6 and 0.4.If the consecutive letters are statistically independent , and two symbol words are transmitted, then the probability of the words with different symbols is [ ] a. 0.52 b. 0.36 c. 0.48 d. 0.24 3. A memoryless source emits 2000 binary symbols/sec and each symbol has a probability of 0.25 to be equal to 1 and 0.75 to be equal to 0.The minimum number of bits/sec required for error free transmission of this source in bits/symbol is [ ] a. 0.75 b. 0.81 c. 0.65 d. 0.55 4. A source X with entropy 2 bits/message is connected to the receiver Y through a Noise free channel. The conditional probability of the source, given the receiver is H(X/Y) and the joint entropy of the source and the receiver H(X,Y) .Then [ ] a. H(X,Y) = 2 bits/message b. H(X/Y) = 2 bits/message c. H(X,Y) = 0 bits/message d. H(X/Y) = 1 bit/message 5. A channel with independent input and output acts as [ ] a. lossless network b. resistive network c. channel with maximum capacity d. Gaussian channel 6. Automatic Repeat Request is a [ ] a. Source coding scheme b. error correction scheme c. error control scheme d. data conversion scheme 7. Channel coding [ ]

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a. avoids redundancy b. reduces transmission efficiency c. increases signal power level relative to channel noise d. results in reduced transmission band width requirement 8. The information content available with a source is referred to as a. Mutual information b. Trans information c. capacity d. entropy [ ]

9. Information rate of a source is [ ] a. the entropy of the source measured in bits/message b. the entropy of the source measured in bits/sec. c. a measure of the uncertainity of the communication system d. maximum when the source is continuous 10. If the output of a continuous source is limited to an average power of σ 2, then the Maximum entropy of the source is [ ] a. b. c. d. 11. The minimum number of bits per message required to encode the output of source transmitting four different messages with probabilities 0.5,0.25,0.125 and 0.125 is [ ] a. 2 b. 1 c. 1.5 d. 1.75 12. The output of a source is band limited to 6KHz.It is sampled at a rate of 2KHz above the nyquist`s rate. If the entropy of the source is 2bits/sample, then the entropy of the source in bits/sec is [ ] a. 24Kbps b. 28Kbps c. 12Kbps d. 32Kbps 13. When two fair dice are thrown simultaneously, the information content of the message ` the sum of the faces is 12` in bits is [ ] a. 1 b. 5.17 c. 4.17 d. 3.58 14. Enropy of a source is [ ] a. Average amount of information conveyed by the communication system b. Average amount of information transferred by the channel c. Average amount of information available with the source d. Average amount of information conveyed by the source to the receiver 15. A Communication channel is represented by the channel Matrix given as [ ]

In the above matrix, rows correspond to the Transmitter X and the columns correspond to the Receiver Y. Then, the Conditional entropy H(Y/X) in bits/message is [ ] a. zero b. log 5 c. log 3 d. 3 16. A source emits messages A and B with probability 0.8 and 0.2 respectively. The redundancy provided by the optimum source coding scheme for the above Source is [ ] a. 72 % b. 27 % c. 45 % d. 55 % 17. Information content of a message [ ] a. increases with its certainty of occurrence b. independent of the certainty of occurrence

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c. increases with its uncertainty of occurrence d. is the logarithm of its certainty of occurrence 18. When a pair of dice is thrown, the average amount of information contained in the message " The sum of the faces is 7"in bits is [ ] a. 0.75 b. 0.86 c. 0.96 d. 0.68 18. Source1 is transmitting two messages with probabilities 0.2 and 0.8 and Source 2 is transmitting two messages with probabilities 0.5 and 0.5.Then [ ] a. Maximum uncertainty is associated with Source 1 b. Maximum uncertainty is associated with Source 2 c. Both the sources 1 and 2 are having maximum amount of uncertainty associated d. There is no uncertainty associated with either of the two sources . 19. A source X and the receiver Y are connected by a noise free channel. Its capacity is [ ] a. Max H(X) b. Max H(X/Y) c. Max H(Y/X) d. Max H(X,Y) 20. The entropy measure of a continuous source is a [ ] a. Relative measure b. Absolute measure c. Linear Measure d. Non-Linear Measure

ANSWERS 1 (a) 11 (d) 2 (d) 12 (b) 3 (b) 13 (b) 4 (a) 14 (c) 5 (b) 15 (a) 6 (c) 7 (b) 16 (b) 17 (c) 8 (d) 9 (b) 18 (b) 19 (a) 10 (d) 20 (a)

UNIT-VI :LINEAR BLOCK CODES 1. Which of the following channel matrices respresent a symmetric channel? [ ]

a.

b.

c.

d. [ ]

2. The capacity of the channel with the channel Matrix

where xi`s are transmitted messages and yj`s are received messages is a. log3 bits b. log5 bits c. log4 bits d. 1bit 3. The Channel Matrix of a Noiseless channel a. consists of a single nonzero number in each column b. consists of a single nonzero number in each row c. is an Identity Matrix d. is a square Matrix 4. Relative to Hard decision decoding, soft decision decoding results in Vignan Institute of Technology & Science [ ]

[

]

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a. better bit error probability b. better coding gain c. less circuit complexity d. lesser coding gain 5. Which of the following is the essential requirement of a source coding scheme? [ ] a. Comma free nature of the code words b. A Minimum Hamming distance of 3 c. Error detection and correction capability d. The received code word should compatible with a Matched filter. 6. The transition probabilities for a BSC will be represented using a. Joint Probability Matrix b. State diagram c. Conditional Probability Matrix diagram [ ] d. Trellis

7. A communication channel is represented by its channel matrix with rows representing the messages associated

with thesource and the columns representing the messages associated with the receiver given as Its capacity in bits is [ ] a. log 4 b. log 3 c. log 12 d. log 7 8. A Binary Erasure channel has P(0/0) = P(1/1) = p; P(k/0) = P(k/1) = q. Its Capacity in bits/symbol is a. p b. q c. pq d. p/q [ ] 9. Variable length source coding provides better coding efficiency, if all the messages of the source are a. Equiprobable b. with different transmission probability [ ] c. discretely transmitted d. continuously transmitted 10. Shanon's Limit deals with [ ] a. maximum information content of a message b. maximum entropy associated with a source c. maximum capacity of a channel d. maximum bit rate of a source 11. The noise characteristic of a communication channel is given as [ ]

Rows represent the source and columns represent the columns. The Channel is a a. Noise free channel b. Asymmetric channel c. Symmetric channel d. Deterministic channel 12. The source coding efficiency can be increased by [ a. using source extension b. increasing the entropy of the source c. decreasing the entropy of the source d. using binary coding ]

13. The capacity of a channel with infinite band width is [ ] a. infinite because of infinite band width b. finite because of increase in noise power c. infinite because of infinite noise power d. finite because of finite message word length 14. The Hamming Weight of the (6,3) Linear Block coded word 101011 [ ] a. 3 b. 4 c. 5 d. 2 Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 30

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15. The cascade of two Binary Symmetric Channels is a [ ] a. symmetric Binary channel b. asymmetric quaternary channel c. symmetric quaternary channel d. asymmetric Binary channel 16. In a Binary Symmetric channel, a transmitted 0 is received as 0 with a probability of 1/8.Then, the transition probability of the transmitted 0 is [ ] a. 1/8 b. 7/8 c. 6/8 d. 5/8 17. The channel capacity of a BSC with transition probability 1/2 is [ ] a. 0 bits b. 1bit c. 2 bits d. infinity 18. White noise of PSD w/Hz is applied to an ideal LPF with one sided band width of 1Hz .The two sided output noise power of the channel is [ ] a. four times the input PSD b. thrice the input PSD c. twice the input PSD d. same as the input PSD 19. If C is the channel capacity and S is the signal input of the channel and is the Input noise PSD, then which of the following is the Shannon`s limit? [ ] a. b. c. d. 20. A communication channel is fed with an input signal x(t) and the noise in the channel is negative. The Power received at the receiver input is [ ] a. Signal power - Noise power b. Signal power/ Noise power c. Signal power + Noise Power d. Signal Power x Noise Power ANSWERS 1 (d) 11 (c) 2 (a) 12 (a) 3 (c) 13 (b) 4 (b) 14 (b) 5 (a) 15 (a) 6 (c) 7 (b) 16 (b) 17 (a) 8 (a) 18 (c) 9 (b) 19 (a) 10 (c) 20 (c)

UNIT-VII: CONVOLUTION CODES 1. Which of the following is correct? [ ] a. The syndrome of a received Block coded word depends on the transmitted code word. b. The syndrome of a received Block coded word depends on the received code word c. The syndrome of a received Block coded word depends on the error pattern d. The syndrome for a received Block coded 2. The Parity Check Matrix of a (6,3) Systematic Linear Block code is If the Syndrome vector computed for the received code word is [ 1 1 0] , then for error correction, which of

the bits ofthe received code word is to be complemented? [ ] a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5 3.Under error free reception, the syndrome vector computed for the received cyclic code word consists of a. all ones b. alternate 1`s and 0`s starting with a 1 c. alternate 0`s and 1`s starting with a 0 d. all zeros [ ] 4. The Parity Check Matrix of a (6,3) Systematic Linear Block code is [ ] Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 31

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If the Syndrome vector computed for the received code word is [ 0 1 1] , then for error correction, which of the bits of the received code word is to be complemented? a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5 5. A (7,4) Cyclic code has a generator polynomial given as 1+x+x3.If the error pattern 0001000, the corresponding syndrome vector is [ ] a. 001 b. 010 c. 100 d. 110 6. The code words of a systematic (6,3) Linear Block code are 001110,010011,011101, 100101,101011,110110,111000.Which of the following is also a code word of the c Code? [ ] a. 000111 b. 000101 c. 000000 d. 101101 7. The syndrome S(x) of a cyclic code is given by Reminder of the division , where V(x) is the transmitted code polynomial, E(x) is the error polynomial and g(x) is the generator polynomial. The S(x) is also equal to a. Reminder of V(x) /g(x) b. Reminder of E(x)/g(x) [ ] c. Reminder of [V(x) . E(x)]/g(x) d. Remainder of g(x)/V(x) 8. Which of the following is correct? [ ] a. FEC is used for error control after receiver makes a decision about the received bit b. ARQ is used for error control after receiver makes a decision about the received bit c. FEC is used for error control when the receiver is unable to make a decision about the received bit d. FEC and ARQ are not used for error correction 9. Error free communication may be possible by [ ] a. reducing redundancy during transmission b. increasing transmission power to the required level c. providing redundancy during transmission d. increasing the channel band width 10. For the data word 1010 in a (7,4) non-systematic cyclic code with the generator polynomial 1+x+x3, the code polynomial is [ ] a. 1+x+x3+x5 b. 1+x+x3+x4 c. 1+x2+x3+x4 d. 1+x+x2+x5 11. In a (6,3) systematic Linear Block code, the number of `6` bit code words that are not useful is a. 56 b. 64 c. 8 d. 45 [ ] 12. The Parity check Matrix H of a (6,3) Linear systematic Block code is Then [ ]

a. C.HT = [1], where C is the code word of the code. b. if the syndrome vector S computed for the received code word is [1 1 0], the third bit of the received code word is in error. c. The syndrome vector S of the received code word is same as C.HT d. The syndrome vector is S= [1 1 1] under error free reception 13. There are four binary words given as 0000,0001,0011,0111. Which of these can not be a member of the parity check matrix of a (15,11) linear Block code? [ ] a. 0000,0001 b. 0000 c. 0011 d. 0111 14. Which of the following is correct? [ ] a. Source coding introduces redundancy b. Channel coding is an efficient way of representing the output of a source Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 32

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c. ARQ scheme of error control is applied after the receiver makes a decision about the received bit d. ARQ scheme of error control is applied when the receiver is unable to make a decision about the received bit. 15. Which of the following is an FEC scheme? [ ] a. Shanon-Fano encoding b. Huffman encoding c. Non-systematic cyclic codes d. Duo-binary encoding 16. If the received code word of a (6,3) linear Block code is 100111 with an error in the bit, the corresponding error pattern will be [ ] a. 100000 b. 000001 c. 001000 d. 000010 17. For the data word 1110 in a (7,4) non-systematic cyclic code with the generator polynomial 1+x+x3, the code polynomial is [ ] a. 1+x+x3+x5 b. 1+x2+x3+x5 c. 1+x2+x3+x4 d. 1+x4+x5 18. The encoder of a (7,4) systematic cyclic encoder with generating polynomial g(x) = 1+x2+x3 is basically a a. 4 stage shift register b. 3 stage shift register c. 11 stage shift register d. 22 stage shift register[ ] 19. A received code word of a (7,4) systematic received cyclic code word 1000011 is corrected as 1000111.The corresponding error pattern is [ ] a. 0000100 b. 0001000 c. 0000010 d. 0010001 20. The product of 5 and 6 in Modulo-7 multiplication is [ ] a. 30 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3 ANSWERS 1 (a) 11 (a) 2 (b) 12 (b) 3 (d) 13 (b) 4 (a) 14 (d) 5 (d) 15 (c) 6 (c) 7 (b) 16 (d) 17 (d) 8 (a) 9 (c) 18 (b) 19 (a) 10 (d) 20 (c)

UNIT-VIII: SPREAD SPECTRUM MODULATION 1. A convolutional encoder is having a constraint length of 4 and for each input bit, a two bit word is the output of the encoder. If the input message is of length 5, the exact code rate of the encoder is [ ] a. 50 % b. 31.25 % c. 45.3 % d. 23.3 % 2. The Memory length of a convolutional encoder is 3.If a 5 bit message sequence is applied as the input for the encoder,then for the last message bit to come out of the encoder, the number of extra zeros to be applied to the encoder is [ ] a. 4 b. 3 c. 5 d. 6 3. A Convolutional encoder of code rate 1/2 consists of two stage shift register.The Generator sequence of top adder is(1,1,1) and that of the bottom adder is (1,0,1). The constraint length of the encoder is a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5 [ ] 4. Binary Erasure channel is the mathematical modeling of [ ] a. the effect of channel noise resulting in the incorrect decision of the message bit transmitted b. the inability of the receiver to make a decision about of the received message bit in the back ground of noise c. the error correction mechanism at the receiving side Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 33

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d. error detection mechanism at the receiving side 5. In which of the following matrices, the sum of each row is one ? [ ] a. Joint probability Matrix b. Channel Matrix c. Conditional probability of the source, given the receiver d. Generator Matrix 6. If T is the code vector and H is the Parity check Matrix of a Linear Block code, then the code is defined by the set of all code vectors for which [ ] a. T.HT = 0. b. HT.T = 0 c. H.T = 0 d. = 0. 7. Which of the following is correct? [ ] a. The entropy measure of a continuous source is not an absolute measure b. A Binary symmetric channel is a noise free channel c. The channel capacity of a Symmetric channel is always 1 bit/symbol d. Self information and mutual information are one and the same. 8. A BSC has a transition probability of P. The cascade of two such channels is [ ] a. an asymmetric channel with transition probability 2P b. a symmetric channel with transition probability P2. c. an asymmetric channel with transition probability P(1 - P) d. a symmetric channel with transition probability 2P(1 - P) 9. A source is transmitting four messages with probabilities of 0.5, 0.25, 0.125and 0.125.By using Huffman coding, the percentage reduction in the average source code word length is [ ] a. 10 % b. 20 % c. 12.5 % d. 25 % 10. The parity polynomial in the generation of a systematic (7,4) cyclic code for the data word 1 1 0 0 is 1+x2.The corresponding code word is [ ] a. 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 b. 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 c. 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 d. 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 11. Which of the following are prefix free codes? [ ] a. 0,01,011,0001 b. 1,01,001,0001 c. 0,1,00,11 d. 00,01,00,11 12. Which of the following is a single error correcting perfect code? [ ] a. (6,3) systematic cyclic code b. (7,4) systematic Linear Block code c. (15,11) Hamming code d. Convolutional code of code rate 1/2 13. If X is the transmitted message and Y is the received message, then the average information content of the pair (X,Y) is equal to the average information of Y plus [ ] a. average information of X b. the average information of Y after X is known c. the average information of X after Y is known d. mutual information of (X,Y). 14. The entropy H( ) is [ ] a. information X2 to some one who knows X1. b. information X2 with out knowing X1. c. Mutual information of X1 and X2 d. effect of noise in receiving X1 as X2. 15. If X and Y are the transmitter and the receiver, in a BSC, P(X = i/Y=j) measures [ ] a. uncertainty about the received bit based on the transmitted b. certainty about the received bit based on the transmitted c. certainty about the transmitted bit based on the received d. uncertainty about the transmitted bit based on the received 16. If X and Y are related in one-to-one manner, then, H(X/Y) in bits is [ ] a. 1 b. log m, m being the number of messages with source c. 0 d. 0.5 17. If the output of the channel is independent of the input, then [ ] a. maximum information is conveyed over the channel b. no information is transmitted over the channel Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 34

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c. no errors will occur during transmission

d. information loss is zero

18. The Parity check matrix of a linear block code is .Its Hamming distance is

[

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a. 4 b. 3 c. 6 d. 5 19. A source with equally likely outputs is connected to a communication channel with channel matrix The columns of the matrix represent the probability that a transmitted bit is identified as 0, a transmitted bit unidentified, and a transmitted bit is identified as 1 respectively. Then, the probability that the bit is not identified is [ ] a. 0.4 b. 0.6 c. 0.3 d. 0.2 20. The Hamming distance of the code vectors Ci and Cj is [ ] a. weight of b. minimum of the weights of Ci and Cj c. weight of d. sum of the weights of Ci and Cj ANSWERS 1 (b) 11 (b) 2 (a) 12 (c) 3 (c) 13 (c) 4 (b) 14 (c) 5 (b) 15 (a) 6 (b) 7 (a) 16 (d) 17 (c) 8 (d) 9 (c) 18 (b) 19 (b) 10 (a) 20 (c)

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ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS

Digital Communication

ESSAY Questions

ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS

UNIT-I: ELEMENTS OF DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 1. (a) Explain the different types of Sampling. (b) Obtain the Nyquist rate and Nyquist interval for the signal 10 Cos (2000πt) Cos ( 4000πt) based on i. low pass sampling theory, and ii. band pass sampling theory. 2. (a) Distinguish between natural sampling and flat top sampling with neat schematics, listing out their merits and demerits. (b) A signal m(t) = 4 Cos (60 πt) + 2 Cos (160 πt) + Cos (280 πt) is sampled at i. 150 Hz, ii. 75 Hz, iii. 300 Hz. Find the frequency components of the signal that appear at the output of an ideal LPF with cut off at 290 Hz., in each case. What is the Nyquist rate of sampling and Nyquist interval for m(t)? 3. (a) With neat diagrams, explain the principle of working a sample and hold circuit. List out its applications. (b) Define the sampling theorem as applicable to voice signals on telephone lines. 4. (a) Draw the block diagram of PCM Generator and explain each block. (b) Determine the Transmission Bandwidth in PCM. 5. (a) What is meant by Synchronization in the base band PAM. What are the different methods to obtain Synchronization? (b) The T1 carrier system used in digital telephony multiplexes 24 voice channels based on 8bit PCM. Each voice signal is usually put through a lowpass filter with cutoff frequency of about 3.4 KHz. The filtered voice signal is sampled at 8KHz. In addition, a single bit is added at the end of the frame for the purpose of synchronization. Calculate i. the duration of each bit ii. the resultant transmission rate and iii. the minimum required transmission bandwidth. 6. a) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of digital communication system. b) State and prove sampling theorem in time domain. 7. a) What is natural sampling? Explain it with sketches. b) Specify the Nyquist rate and Nyquist intervals for each of the following signals
2 2

8.

i) x(t) = Sinc200t ii) x(t) = Sinc 200t iii) x(t) = Sinc200t+ Sinc 200t. a) State and discuss the Hartley-Shannon law. b) The terminal of a computer used to enter alpha numeric data is connected to the computer through a voice grade telephone line having a usable bandwidth of 3 KHz and a output SNR of 10 dB. Determine: i) The capacity of the channel

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Digital Communication

ESSAY Questions

9. 10.

ii) The maximum rate at which data can be transmitted from the terminal to the computer without error. Assume that the terminal has 128 characters and that the data sent from the terminal consists of independent sequences of characters with equal probability. a) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of digital communication system. b) State and prove sampling theorem in time domain. a) What is natural sampling? Explain it with sketches. b) Specify the Nyquist rate and Nyquist intervals for each of the following signals
2 2

i) x(t) = Sinc200t ii) x(t) = Sinc 200t iii) x(t) = Sinc200t+ Sinc 200t. UNIT-II: PULSE CODE MODULATION 1. Derive the expression for signal to noise ratio of Delta Modulation System. 2. (a) Explain with neat block diagram Adaptive Delta Modulator Transmitter and Receiver. (b) Explain the advantages of Adaptive Delta Modulation over Delta Modulation and how is it achieved. 3. (a) Explain the working of delta modulation system with neat block diagram. (b) Clearly bring out the difference between granular noise and slope over load error. 4. (a) The ramp signal m(t) = at is applied to a DM which operates with a sampling period Ts and step size δ. i. Show that the slope over load distortion occurs in δ k bits with an example. 6. a) Briefly describe the Viterbi algorithm for maximum-likelihood decoding of convolutional codes. b) For the convolutional encoder shown in figure7, draw the state diagram and the trellis diagram. Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 41

Digital Communication

ESSAY Questions

7. a) What is a convolutional code? How is it different from a block code? b) Find the generator matrix G(D) for the (2, 1, 2) convolutional encoder of figure shown

UNIT-VIII: SPREAD SPECTRUM MODULATION 1. Explain the spread spectrum modulation and demodulation. 2. Explan the frequency hopping spread spectrum modulation. 3. Explain spread spectrum modulation using DSSS. 4. Explain the spread spectrum modulation. 5. Explain the frequency hopping spread spectrum modulation. 6. a) Explain how PN sequences are generated. What are maximal-length sequences? What are their properties and why are they preferred? b) With the help of a neat block diagram, explain the working of a DS spread spectrum based CDMA system. 7. a) What are the advantages of spread spectrum technique. b) Compare direct sequence spread spectrum and frequency hopped spread spectrum techniques and draw the important features of each. 8. a) What are the PN sequences? Discuss their characteristics. b) What are the two basic types of spread-spectrums systems? Explain the basic principle of each of them.

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ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS

Digital Communication

Assignment Questions

ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS
UNIT-I: ELEMENTS OF DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 1. A signal band limited to 1MHz is sampled at a rate of 50% higher than Nyquist rate and quantized into 256 levels using a μ-law quantizer with μ=255. (a) Determine the signal to quantization noise ratio. (b) The SNR found in was unsatisfactory. It must be increased at least by 10dB.Would you be able to obtain the desired SNR without increasing the transmission bandwidth, if it was found that a sampling rate 20% above the Nquist rate is adequate. If so, explain how. What is the maximum SNR that can be realized in this way. 2. (a) A Television signal with a band width of 4.2 MHz is transmitted using binary PCM. The number of quantization levels are 512. Calculate i. Code word length ii. Transmission band width iii. Final bit rate iv. Out put signal to quantization noise ratio (b) Explain the need for non uniform quantization in PCM system. 3. (a) Prove that the mean value of the quantization error is inversely proportional to the square of the number of quantization levels. (b) What is the function of a predictor in a DPCM system. 4. (a) Explain why quantizating noise could affect small amplitude signals in a PCM system more than large signals. With the aid of sketches show how tapered quantizing level could be used to counteract this effect? (b) What are the applications of PCM. Give in detail any two applications. 5. For a PCM signal, determine L if the compression parameter μ=100 and the minimum SNR req uired is 45dB.Determine the output SNR with this value of L. Remember that L must be a power of 2,for binary PCM. Derive the formulae used. UNIT-II: PULSE CODE MODULATION 1. What is Delta modulation and compare with PCM? 2. Discuss different types of noise effects in delta modulation. 3. In a single-integration DM system, the voice signal is sampled at a rate of 64kHz.The maximum signal amplitude is Amax=1. (a) Determine the minimum value of the step size _ to avoid slope over load error. (b) Determine the granular noise power if the voice signals bandwidth is 3.5 kHz. (c) Assuming that the voice signal is sinusoidal, determine output signal power and SNR 4.Derive an expression for quantization noise in Delta modulation. 5. Consider a speech signal with maximum frequency of 3.4 kHz and maximum amplitude of 1v. Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 44

Digital Communication

Assignment Questions

This speech signal is applied to a DM whose bit rate is set at 20kbps. Discuss the choice of appropriate step size for the modulator. UNIT-III: DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES 1. (a) In the on-off keying version of an ASK system, symbol 1 is represented by Transmitting a sinusoidal carier of amplitude p2Eb / Tb, where Eb is the signal energy per bit and Tb is the bit duration. Symbol ‘0’ is represented by switching off the carrier. Assume that 1 and 0 occur with equal probability.For an AWGN channel determine the average probability of error for this ASK system, assuming i. Coherent reception ii. Noncoherent reception, operating with a large value of a bit energy-to-noise density ratio. Note: For large value of x I0(x) _ exp (x) / (p2 _x) 2. A high frequency transmitter used in a binary communication system is peak Power limited to 1 kw. The power loss in the channel is 60 dB and the noise power at the receiver input (ηrb) is 10−4 Watts. Assuming maximumsignaling rate and equiprobable message bits, find Pe for non coherent ASK and coherent PSK signaling schemes. 3. What are power spectra? Explain power spectra of binary PSK and FSK signals along with graphs. 4. Give the comparison of M-ary digital modulation techniques. 5. (a) Explain in detail a correlation receiver and integrate and dump correlationreceiver. (b) A band pass data Transmission scheme uses a PSK signaling scheme with s2(t) = A cosωct , 0 0 ) System.out.println (args.length ) ; } } (a) The program compiles and runs and prints 0 (b) The program compiles and runs but does not print any thing . (c) Does not compile (d) The program compiles and runs and prints 1 5 . What would happen when the following is compiled and executed. Select the one correct answer class example{int x;int y;String name; public static void main(String srgs[]){ example pnt=new example(); System.out.println (”p nt i s ” + pnt . name + ” ” + pnt.x + ” ” + pnt .y ) ; } } (a) The program does not compile because x , y and name are not initialized . (b) The program throws a runtime exception as x , y, and name are used before initialization . The program prints pnt is null 0 0 . (d ) The program prints pnt is 00. 6. Which of the following statements are correct. Select the one correct answer [ ] [ ] [ ]

a) If a java file has both import and package statement, the import statement must come before package statement b) Each Java file must have exactly one package statement to specify where the class is stored. c) If a Java file has a package statement, it must be the first statement(except comments) d) A Java file has atleast one class defined 7. What is a constructor [ ]

(a) constructor is a special kind of method that determines how an object is initialized when destroyed . (b) A constructor is a special kind of method that determines how an object is initialized. (c) A constructor is a special kind of method that determines how an object is initialized when created . (d) A constructor is a special kind of method that determines how an object is initialized when called . 8 . Which of the following statements can be used to describe a public method [ ]

(a) The only way to gain access to this method is by calling one of the class methods (b) It represents the public interface of its class (c) It is accessible only to subclasses of its parent class (d) The only way to gain access to this method is by calling one of the public class methods Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 148

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Objectives Questions

9 . What are access modifiers ( a) abstract (b) static (c) default (d) final 10. Which class does begin Java class hierarchy ( a) AWT (b) String (c) Lang (d) Object 11. The default package imported by all java programs is (a) java.swing (b) java. applet (c) java.lang (d) java.awt 12. Which methods can be legally applied to a string object (a) round ( ) (b) trim () (c) equal (String) (d) equl(Object) 13. Which of the following is illegal : (a) Float f =45. 0; (b) float f = 45.0 ; (c) double d = 45.0; (d) int i= 32;

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14. what is the correct way for a method to indicate that it does not handle that exception [ a) throw Exception b) new Exception c) Don’t need to specify anything d) throws Exception 15.What class must an inner class extend [

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a) Any class or interface b) The top level class c) It must extend an interface d) The Object class 16. What is the result of compiling and executing the following Java class public class ThreadTest extends Thread { public void run(){System.out.println(“In run”);suspend();resume(); System.out.println(“Leaving run”);} Public static void main (String args[]){(new ThreadTest().start();}} (a) A warning will be generated for method run. method run . (c) The string ”In run ” will be printed to standard out . method main . 17. Consider the following code , public class Test { public static void main (String args [ ] ) { StringBuffer a = new StringBuffer( ” On e ”) ; StringBuffer b = new StringBuffer ( ”T wo ” ); Test.swap (a , b ) ; System.out.println (” a i s ”+ a + ” \ nb i s ” + b ); } static void swap (StringBuffer a, StringBuffer b ) { a .append (” m o r e ”) ; b = a; } } What will be the output? (a) a is One more b is One more (b) a is One b is Two (c) a i One more b is Two (d) a is One b is One 18. Which correctly create an array of five empty Strings (a) String a [ ] = new String [ 5 ] ; for ( int i = 0 ; i < 5 ; a [ i ++ ] = ” ”) ; (b) String a [ 5] ; (c) String[ ] a = new String [ 5 ] ; for(int i = 0 ; i < 5 ; a [ i ++ ] = null ) ; Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 149 [ ] [ ] (d) Compilation will fail in the (b) Compilation will fail in the [ ]

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Objectives Questions

(d) String [5] a ; 19. Which clas s does begin Java class hierarchy (a) String ( b ) L an g ( c ) AW T ( d ) O b j e c t 20. Given the following declarations String s1= new String (”H e l l o ”) String s2= new String ( ”t h e r e ” ); St r i ng s 3= n e w S tr i n g ( ); W h i ch o f t h e f o l l ow i n g a re l e g al op e r at i on s ? ( a) s 3 =s 1 && s 2 ( b ) s 3 =s 1- s 2; ( c ) s 3 =s 1 & s 2 ( d ) s 3 =s 1 + s 2; [ ] [ ]

ANSWERS 1 (d) 11 (c) 2 (b) 12 (b) 3 (a) 13 (c) 4 (a) 14 (b) 5 (c) 15 (a) 6 (b) 16 (d) 7 (b) 17 (b) 8 (c) 18 (c) 9 (b) 19 (d) 10 (a) 20 (b)

UNIT III: INHERITANCE 1. Because finalize() belongs to the java.lang.Object class , it is present in all (a) classes b) variables c) objects d) methods 2. Which of the following statements correctly describes an interface [ ] a) It’s a type of abstract class b) It’s final class c) It’s a super class d) It’s a concrete class 3. How do you achieve multiple inheritance in Java a) Using static b) Using interfaces c) Using packages d) Using final 4. Which methods in the Object class are declared as final a) getClass() b) notifyMe() c) getMethod() d) get() 5. Which of the following statements is correct for a method which is overriding the following method: [ a) ] public void add (int a ) { . . . . . . . } [ ] [ ] [ ]

b) the overriding method can return whatever it likes c) the overriding method must return void d) the overriding method must return int 6. What are abstract classes a) Abstract classes are those which can’t be implemented b) Abstract classes are those for which instances can’t be created . c) Abstract classes are those for which instances can be created d) Abstract classes are those which can’t be inherited 7. Which is the default access modifier for an interface method Vignan Institute of Technology & Science [ ] [ ]

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Objectives Questions

a) protected b) default c) private d) public 8. What are the possible access modifiers when implementing interface methods a) public b) final c) private d) static 9. Where in a constructor, can you place a call to a constructor defined in the super class [ a) The last statement in the constructor c) The first statement in the constructor b) You can’t call super in a constructor d) Anywhere 10. Given the following class definition : class A { protected int i ; A ( int i ) { this.i = i ; }} Which of the following would be a valid inner class for this clas s ? a) class B extends A b) class A{} c) class B{} d) class B{class A{}} 11. Which is the advantage of encapsulation a) No exceptions need to be thrown from any method b) It changes the implementation without changing the interface and causes no consequential changes to other code c) Only public methods are needed d) Making the class final causes no consequential changes to other code 12. Which of the following will output - 4.0 (a) System.out.println(Math.floor(- 4.7) ) ; (b) System.out.println(Math.round(-4.7)); [ ] [ ] [ ] ] [ ]

c) System.out.println(Math.min(-4.7)); d) System.out.println(Math.ceil(-4.7));

13. Object-oriented programming allows you to derive new classes from existing classes. This is called ____ A. encapsulation B. inheritance C. abstraction D. generalization 14. Which of the following statements are true A. A subclass is a subset of a superclass. B. A subclass is usually extended to contain more functions and more detailed information than its superclass. C. "class A extends B" means A is a subclass of B. D. "class A extends B" means B is a subclass of A. 15. Which of the statements regarding the super keyword is incorrect A. You can use super to invoke a super class constructor. B. You can use super to invoke a super class method. Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 151 [ ] [ [ ] ]

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Objectives Questions

C. You can use super.super.p to invoke a method in superclass?s parent class. D. You cannot invoke a method in superclass?s parent class. 16. Analyze the following code: Cylinder cy = new Cylinder(1, 1); Circle c = cy; A. The code has a syntax error. 17. Analyze the following code: Circle c = new Circle (5); Cylinder c = cy; A. The code has a syntax error. B. The code has a runtime error. C. The code is fine. [ ] B. The code has a runtime error. C. The code is fine. [ ] [ ]

18. Which of the following class definitions defines a legal abstract class A. class A { abstract void unfinished() { } } B. class A { abstract void unfinished(); } C. abstract class A { abstract void unfinished(); } D. public class abstract A { abstract void unfinished(); } 19. Which of the following declares an abstract method in an abstract Java class A. public abstract method(); B. public abstract void method();

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C. public void abstract Method(); D. public void method() {} E. public abstract void method() {} 20. Suppose A is an abstract class, B is a concrete subclass of A, and both A and B have a default constructor. Which of the following is correct A. A a = new A(); B. A a = new B(); C. B b = new A(); [ D. B b = new B(); ]

ANSWERS 1 (c) 11(a) 2 (a) 12(d) 3 (a) 13(b) 4 (a) 14(a) 5 (b) 15 (c) 6 (b) 16 (b) 7 (d) 17 (a) 8 (a) 18 (b) 9 (a) 19 (d) 10 (d) 20 (a)

UNIT IV: PACKAGES AND INTERFACES 1. A top level calss may have only the following access modifier. Select the one correct answer[ ] a) private (b) package (c) friendly (d) public 2. An interface contains methods. (a) Non-abstract (b) Implemented (c) final (d) unimplemented 3. All standard classes of Java are included with in a package called. (a) java.lang (b) java.io (c) java.string (d) java.aw t 4. The default package imported by all java programs is Vignan Institute of Technology & Science [ ] [ ] [ ]

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Objectives Questions

(a) java.swing (b) java.lang (c) java.applet (d) java.aw t 5. What are the possible access modifiers when implementing interface methods (a) public (b) Final (c) Private (d) Static 6. All the classes in a package can be simultaneously imported using (a) comma (b) dot (c) star (d) semicolon 7. A method declared as protected is not visible in a) same package non-subclasses b) different package subclasses b) same package subclasses d) different package non-subclasses 8. The package that contains all the classes for implementing graphics related functions a) java.lang b) java.io c) java.awt d) java.util 9. The package that support basic classes required to write java program is a) java.lang b) java.util c) java.io d) java.net 10. Which of the following is a correct interface A. interface A { void print() { }; } B. abstract interface A { print(); } C. abstract interface A { abstract void print() { };} D. interface A { void print();} 11. Which of the following statements are correct A. new java.math.BigInteger("343"); C. new java.math.BigInteger(343); B. new java.math.BigDecimal("343.445"); D. new java.math.BigDecimal(343.445); [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

12. Show the output of running the class Test in the following code lines: interface A { } class C { } class B extends D implements A { } public class Test extends Thread { public static void main(String[] args) { B b = new B(); if (b instanceof A) System.out.println("b is an instance of A"); if (b instanceof C) System.out.println("b is an instance of C"); } } class D extends C {

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Objectives Questions

} A. Nothing. B. b is an instance of A. C. b is an instance of C.

D. b is an instance of A followed by b is an instance of C. 13. Suppose A is an interface, B is a concrete class with a default constructor that implements A. Which of the following is correct A. A a = new A(); B. A a = new B(); C. B b = new A(); D. B b = new B(); [ ] [ ]

14. How do you achieve multiple inheritance in Java a. Using interfaces. B. using extends c. using new d.None of the above 15. By default, all program import the java.lang package. a. True b. False

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16. Which code declares class A to belong to the mypackage.financial package a. package mypackage; package financial; b.import mypackage.*; c. package mypackage.financial.A; d. import mypackage.financial.*; e. package mypackage.financial; 17. Consider the following program: import myLibrary.*; public class ShowSomeClass { // code for the class... } What is the name of the java file containing this program A. myLibrary.java B. ShowSomeClass.java

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C. ShowSomeClass D. ShowSomeClass.class

E. Any file name with the java suffix will do 18. What happens when you attempt to compile and run these two files in the same directory[ //File P1.java package MyPackage; class P1{ void afancymethod(){ System.out.println("What a fancy method"); } } //File P2.java Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 154 ]

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Objectives Questions

public class P2 extends P1{ public static void main(String argv[]){ P2 p2 = new P2(); p2.afancymethod(); } } 1) Both compile and P2 outputs "What a fancy method" when run 2) Neither will compile 3) Both compile but P2 has an error at run time 4) P1 compiles cleanly but P2 has an error at compile time 19. Show the output of running the class Test in the following code lines: interface A { } class C { } class B extends D implements A { } public class Test extends Thread { public static void main(String[] args) { B b = new B(); if (b instanceof A) System.out.println("b is an instance of A"); if (b instanceof C) System.out.println("b is an instance of C"); } } class D extends C { } A. Nothing. B. b is an instance of A. C. b is an instance of C. D. b is an instance of A followed by b is an instance of C. 20. Read the following code below. public interface AQuestion{ public abstract void someMethod() throws Exception; } A Class implementing this interface should 1. Necessarily be an abstract class. 2. Should have the method public abstract void someMethod(); 3. Should have the method public void someMethod() which has to throw an exception which is a Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 155 [ ] [ ]

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Objectives Questions

subclass of java.lang.Exception. 4. Should have the method public void someMethod() which need not throw an Exception.

ANSWERS 1 (a) 11 (b) 2 (b) 12 (d) 3 (a) 13(b) 4 (b) 14 (b) 5 (d) 15 (a) 6 (c) 16 (b) 7 (a) 17 (c) 8 (b) 18 (c) 9 (b) 19 (a) 10 (b) 20 (d)

UNIT V: EXCEPTION HANDLING 1. An instance of _ _ _ _ describes the errors caused by your program and external circumstances. These errors can be caught and handled by your program. a. Runtime Exception b. Exception c. Error d. Throwable [ ]

2. An instance of _ _ _ _ _describes system errors. If this type of errors occurs,there is little you can do beyond notifying the user and trying to terminate the program gracefully. a. Runtime Exception b. Exception c. Error d. Throwable [ ] [ ]

3. Which of the following methods can be used to return a permit to a Semaphores a. return() b. release() c. send() d. add()

4. A Java exception is an instance of _ _ _ _ . a. Runtime Exception b. Exception c. Error d. Throwable

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5. An instance of _ _ _ _ _describes programming errors, such as bad casting,accessing an out-ofbounds array, and numeric errors. [ ] d. Throwable [ ]

a. Runtime Exception b. Exception c. Error

6. An instance of _ _ _ _ _ are unchecked exceptions. a. Runtime Exception b. Exception c. throwable d. Error

7. What exception type does the following program throw public class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.println(1 / 0); } } a. ArithmeticException c. StringIndexOutOfBoundsException

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b. ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException d. ClassCastException [ ]

8. What exception type does the following program throw public class Test { Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

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Objectives Questions

public static void main(String[] args) { Object o = new Object(); String d = (String)o; } } a. Arithmetic Exception c. StringIndex Out Of Bounds Exception b. ArrayIndex Out Of Bounds Exception d. Class Cast Exception [ ]

9. What exception type does the following program throw public class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { Object o = null; System.out.println(o); } } a. Arithmetic Exception c. StringIndex Out Of Bounds Exception 10. Analyze the following code: class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { try { String s = "5.6''; Integer.parseInt(s); // Cause a NumberFormat Exception int i = 0; int y = 2 / i; } catch (Exception ex) { System.out.println("Number Format Exception''); } catch (RuntimeException ex) { System.out.println("Runtime Exception''); } } } a. The program displays NumberFormatException. b. The program displays RuntimeException. Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

b. ArrayIndex Out Of BoundsException d. No exception [ ]

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Objectives Questions

c. The program displays NumberFormatException followed by RuntimeException. d. The program has a compilation error. 11. What is displayed on the console when running the following program class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { try { method(); System.out.println("After the method call"); } catch (NumberFormatException ex) { System.out.println("NumberFormatException"); } catch (RuntimeException ex) { System.out.println("RuntimeException"); } } static void method() { String s = "5.6''; Integer.parseInt(s); // Cause a NumberFormat Exception int i = 0; int y = 2 / i; System.out.println("Welcome to Java''); } } a. The program displays NumberFormatException. b. The program displays NumberFormatException followed by After the method call. c. The program displays NumberFormatException followed by RuntimeException. d. The program has a compilation error. 12. What exception type does the following program throw public class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { int[] list = new int[5]; System.out.println(list[5]); } } Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 158 [ ] [ ]

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Objectives Questions

a. Arithmetic Exception c. StringIndex Out Of Bounds Exception 13. Which of the following statement is false

b. ArrayIndex Out Of Bounds Exception d. Class Cast Exception [ ]

a. You use the keyword throws to declare exceptions in the method heading. b. A method may declare to throw multiple exceptions. c. To throw an exception, use the key word throw. d. If a checked exception occurs in a method, it need not to be either caught or declared to be thrown from the method. 14. What exception type does the following program throw public class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { String s = "abc''; System.out.println(s.charAt(3)); } } a. Arithmetic Exception c. StringIndex Out Of Bounds Exception b. ArrayIndex Out Of Bounds Exception d. Class Cast Exception [ ] [ ]

15. What exception type does the following program throw public class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { Object o = null; System.out.println(o.toString()); } } a. Arithmetic Exception c. StringIndex Out Of Bounds Exception 16. A method must declare to throw _ _ _ _ _ _ a. unchecked exceptions c. Error 17. Analyze the following code: class Test { public static void main(String[] args) throws MyException { System.out.println("Welcome to Java"); } Vignan Institute of Technology & Science b. checked exceptions d. Runtime Exception

b. ArrayIndex Out Of Bounds Exception d. Class Cast Exception [ ]

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Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Objectives Questions

} class MyException extends Error { } a. You should not declare a class that extends Error, because Error raises a fatal error that terminates the program. b. You cannot declare an exception in the main method. c. You declared an exception in the main method, but you did not throw it. d. The program has a compilation error. 18. Analyze the following program. class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { try { String s = "5.6"; Integer.parseInt(s); // Cause a NumberFormat Exception int i = 0; int y = 2 / i; System.out.println("Welcome to Java"); } catch (Exception ex) { System.out.println(ex); } } } a. An exception is raised due to Integer.parseInt(s); b. An exception is raised due to 2 / i; c. The program has a compilation error. exceptions. 19. What is displayed on the console when running the following program class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { try { System.out.println("Welcome to Java''); int i = 0; int y = 2/i; System.out.println("Welcome to Java''); } Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 160 [ ] d. The program compiles and runs without [ ]

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Objectives Questions

catch (RuntimeException ex) { System.out.println("Welcome to Java''); } finally { System.out.println("End of the block''); } System.out.println("End of the block''); } } a. The program displays Welcome to Java three times followed by End of the block. b. The program displays Welcome to Java two times followed by End of the block. c. The program displays Welcome to Java two times followed by End of the block two times. d. You cannot catch RuntimeException error ANSWERS 1(b) 11(a) 2(c) 12(b) 3(c) 13(d) 4(d) 14(c) 5(a) 15(c) 6(a) 16(b) 7(a) 17(a) 8(d) 18(a) 9(d) 19(c) 10(d)

UNIT VI: MULTITHREADING 1. Why does the following class have a syntax error import java.applet.*; public class Test extends Applet implements Runnable { public void init() throws InterruptedException { Thread t = new Thread(this); t.sleep(1000); } public synchronized void run() { } } a. The sleep() method is not invoked correctly; it should be invoked as Thread.sleep(1000). b. You cannot put the keyword synchronized in the run() method. c. The init() method is defined in the Applet class, and it is overridden incorrectly because it cannot claim exceptions in the subclass. d. The sleep() method should be put in the try-catch block. This is the only reason for the compilation failure. Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 161 [ ]

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Objectives Questions

2. Analyze the following code: public class Test implements Runnable { public static void main(String[] args) { Test t = new Test(); } public Test() { Thread t = new Thread(this); t.start(); } public void run() { System.out.println("test"); } }

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a. The program has a compilation error because it is defined in both the main() method and the constructor Test(). b. The program compiles fine, but it does not run because you cannot use the keyword this in the constructor. c. The program compiles and runs and displays nothing. d. The program compiles and runs and displays test. 3. Analyze the following code: public class Test implements Runnable { public static void main(String args) { Thread t = new Thread(this); t.start(); } public void run() { System.out.println("test''); } } a. The program does not compile because this cannot be referenced in a static method. b. The program compiles fine, but it does not print anything because t does not invoke the run() method. c. The program compiles and runs fine and displays test on the console. d. Runtime Error 4. Analyze the following code: Vignan Institute of Technology & Science [ ] [ ]

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Objectives Questions

public class Test implements Runnable { public static void main(String[ ] args) { Test t = new Test(); t.start(); } public void run() { } } a. The program does not compile because the start() method is not defined in the Test class. b. The program compiles, but it does not run because the start() method is not defined. c. The program compiles, but it does not run because the run() method is not implemented. d. The program compiles and runs fine. 5. You can use the _ _ _ _ _ _ method to force one thread to wait for another thread to finish. a. sleep(long milliseconds) b. yield() c. stop() d. join() [ [ ] ]

6. Analyze the following code: public abstract class Test implements Runnable { public v }; } a. The program will not compile because it does not implement the run() method. b. The program will not compile because it does not contain abstract methods. c. The program compiles fine. d. Runti me Error. oid do Something() {

7. Which of the following expressions must be true if you create a thread using Thread =new Thread(object) a. object instanceof Thread c. object instanceof Applet b. object instanceof Frame d. object instanceof Runnable [ ] [ ]

8. The following method in the Thread class is not deprecated: a. yield() b. stop(); c. resume(); d. suspend();

9. You can use the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ method to temporarily to release time for other threads.[ a. sleep(int milliseconds) b. yield() c. stop() d. suspend() [

]

10. Which of the following statement is not defined in the Object class a. sleep(long milliseconds) b. wait() c. notify() d. notifyAll()

]

11. When you run the following program, what will happen public class Test extends Thread { Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

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public static void main(String[] args) { Test t = new Test(); t.start(); t.start(); } public void run() { System.out.println("test"); } } a. Nothing is displayed. c. The program displays test once. d. An illegal java.lang. Illegal Thread State Exception may be thrown because you just started thread and thread might have not yet finished before you start it again. 12. Given the following code, which set of code can be used to replace the comment so that the program displays time to the console every second import java.applet.*; import java.util.*; public class Test extends Applet implements Runnable { public void init() { Thread t = new Thread(this); t.start(); } public void run() { for(; ;) { //display time every second System.out.println(new Date().toString()); } } } a. try { sleep(1000); } catch(InterruptedException e) { } b. try { t.sleep(1000); } catch(InterruptedException e) { } c. try { Thread.sleep(1000); } catch(RuntimeException e) { } d. try { Thread.sleep(1000); } catch(InterruptedException e) { } 13. How do you create a cashed thread pool a. ExecutorService executor = Executors.newCachedThreadPool(); Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 164 [ ] [ ] b. The program displays test twice.

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Objectives Questions

b. ExecutorService executor = Executors.newCachedThreadPool(1); c. ExecutorService executor = Executors.newCachedThreadPool(2); d. ExecutorService executor = Executors.newCachedThreadPool(3); 14. The keyword to synchronize methods in Java is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a. synchronize b. synchronizing 15. Which of the following statement is false a. You cannot use a timer or a thread to control animation. b. A timer is a source component that fires an ActionEvent at a "fixed rate.'' c. The timer and event-handling run on the same event dispatcher thread. If it takes a long time to handle the event, the actual delay time between two events will be longer than the requested delay time. d. In general, threads are more reliable and responsive than timers. 16. An instance of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ are unchecked exceptions. a. Runtime Exception b. Exception c. throwable 17. Which of the following statement is false d. Error [ ] [ ] c. synchronized [ d. Synchronized [ ] ]

a. A synchronized instance method doesn't acquire a lock on the object for which the method was invoked. b. A synchronized instance method acquires a lock on the class of the object for which the method was invoked. c. A synchronized statement can be used to acquire a lock on any object, not just this object, when executing a block of the code in a method. d. A synchronized statement is placed inside a synchronized block. 18. Which of the following method is a static in java.lang.Thread a. run() b. sleep(long) c. start() d. join() [ ] [ ]

19. Which of the following methods in Thread throws Interrupted Exception a. run() b. sleep(long) c. start() d. yield()

20. Suppose there are three Runnable tasks, task1, task2, task3. How do you run them in a thread pool with 2 fixed threads a. new Thread(task1).start(); new Thread(task2).start(); new Thread(task3).start(); b. ExecutorService executor = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(3); executor.execute(task1); executor.execute(task2); executor.execute(task3); c. ExecutorService executor = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(2); executor.execute(task1); executor.execute(task2); executor.execute(task3); d. ExecutorService executor = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(1); executor.execute(task1); Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 165 [ ]

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Objectives Questions

executor.execute(task2); executor.execute(task3); ANSWERS 1 (a) 11(C) 2(c) 12(a) 3(b) 13(b) 4(d) 14(c) 5(a) 15(b) 6(b) 16(a) 7(b) 17(a) 8(c) 18(d) 9(a) 19(c) 10(d) 20(c)

UNIT- VII: Event Handling

1. Pressing a button generates a(n) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ event. a. ItemEvent b. MouseEvent c. MouseMotionEvent d. ActionEvent

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2. Which of the following statement is false a. Each event class has a corresponding listener interface.

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b. The listener object s class need not implement the corresponding event-listener interface. c. A source may have multiple listeners. d. The listener object must be registered by the source object. 3. The interface _ _ _ _ _ should be implemented to listen for a button action event. a. MouseListener b. ActionListener c. FocusListener [ ]

d. WindowListener [ ]

4. Analyze the following code. import java.awt.*; import java.awt.event.*; import javax.swing.*; public class Test extends JFrame implements ActionListener { public Test() { JButton jbtOK = new JButton("OK''); getContentPane().add(jbtOK); } public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { System.out.println("The OK button is clicked''); } public static void main(String[] args) { JFrame frame = new Test(); frame.setSize(300, 300); Frame.setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame. ); frame.setVisible(true); } Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

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} a. The program has a syntax error because no listeners are registered with jbtOK. b. The program has a runtime error because no listeners are registered with jbtOK. c. The message ``The OK button is clicked'' is displayed when you click the OK button. d. The actionPerformed method is not executed when you click the OK button, because no instance of Test is registered with jbtOK. 5. To be a listener for ActionEvent, an object must be an instance of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .a. ActionEvent b. ActionListener [ ]

c. EventObject d. WindowListener [ d. getWhen() ] ]

6. Every event object has the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ method. a. getSource() b. getActionCommand() c. getTimeStamp()

7. To get the x coordinate of the mouse pointer for the MouseEvent evt, you use _ _ _ _ __ _ [ a. evt.getX() b. Event.getPoint().x c. evt.getXY( )d. Event.getPoint(x,y) 8. To detect whether the right button of the mouse is pressed, you use the method _ _ __ in the MouseEvent object evt. a. evt.isAltDown() b. evt.isControlDown() [

]

c. evt.isMetaDown() d. evt.isShiftDown()

9. The method in the ActionEvent _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ returns the action command of the button.[ ] a. getActionCommand() b. getModifiers() c. paramString() d. getID() [ ]

10. The handler (e.g., actionPerformed) is a method in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . a. a source object b. a listener object class

c. both source and listener object d. the Object

11. To listen to mouse movement events, the listener must implement the _ _ _ _ __ interface.[ a. MouseListener() b. MouseMotionListener()

]

c. WindowListener() d. ComponentListener() [ ]

12. Which of the following statement is false a. You need not always specify a listener when creating a Timer object. b. You can add multiple listeners for a Timer object. c. To stop a timer, invoke timer.stop(). d. To start a timer, invoke timer.start(). 13. Which of the following properties are in Japplet a. contentPane b. iconImage c. resizable d. title

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14. To check whether a DELETE key is pressed or released, which handler should be used[ a. keyActive(KeyEvent e) d. keyInactive(KeyEvent e) 15. To be a listener for ActionEvent, an object must be an instance of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a. ActionEventb. ActionListener c. EventObject d. WindowListener [ b. keyReleased(KeyEvent e) c. keyTyped(KeyEvent e)

]

]

16. The listener's method _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is invoked when a mouse button is released. [ Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

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Objectives Questions

a. public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e) b. public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent e) c. public void mouseEntered(MouseEvent e) d. public void mouseExited(MouseEvent e) 17. To listen to keyboard actions, the listener must implement the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ interface.[ a. MouseListener b. KeyListener c. WindowListener d. ComponentListener [ ] ]

18. Which of the following statement is false a. The keyPressed handler is invoked when a key is pressed. b. The keyReleased handler is invoked when a key is released. c. The keyTyped handler is invoked when a key is entered. d. The keyTyped handler is invoked when a Unicode character is entered. 19. The getKeyCode() method of the KeyEvent returns _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a. a character c. the Unicode code of the character b. the ASCII code of the character d. the EBSDIC code of the character

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20. To add a component c to a JPanel p, use _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . a. p.add(c) b. p.getContentPane(c) c. p.insert(c) d. p.append(c)

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ANSWERS 1 (a) 11(C ) 2(c) 12(a) 3(b) 13(b) 4(d) 14(c) 5(a) 15(b) 6(b) 16(a) 7(b) 17(a) 8(c) 18(d) 9(a) 19(c) 10(d) 20(c)

UNIT-VIII: APPLETS AND SWINGS

1. What is the value of evt.getKeyCode() or evt.getChar() for the keyTyped() events

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a. A character b. The ASCII code of the character c. The Unicode code of the character 2. Which of the following statement is false a. You can add a listener in the Timer constructor; b. You can use the addActionListener method in the Timer class to add a listner. c. You cannot specify a delay in the Timer constructor; d. You can specify a delay using the setDelay method; 3. Which of the following are top-level containers (i.e. cannot e embeded in another container)[ ] a. JoptinPane b. Japplet c. Jpanel d. JDialog [ ] [ ]

4. Which of the following properties in java.awt.Component may affect layout a. preferredSize b. foreground c. background d. font

5. Which of the following properties are in FlowLayout a. hgap b. layout c. visible d. height

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6. Which of the following properties are in GridLayout Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

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Objectives Questions

a. hgap

b. alignment

c. layout

d. visible [ ]

7. Which of the following properties are in CardLayout a. vgap b. alignment c. layout d. visible

8. To use no layout manager in a container c, use _ _ _ _ _ a. c.setLayout() b. c.setLayout(new NullLayout()) c. c.setLayout(null) d.

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c.setLayout(NullLayout) 9. The preferredSize property is ignored in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a. FlowLayout b. GridLayout c. BorderLayout d. For any layout [ ] [ ]

10. Which of the following properties are in BorderLayout a. vgap b. alignment c. layout d. visible

11. Suppose that a container c uses a CardLayout manager p. Which of the following method is not valid a. c.p.first() b. p.last(c) c. p.next(c) d. p.previous(c) [ [ ] ]

12. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ cannot be shared by a GUI component a. A GUI component b. A Color object c. A Font object

d. A layout object [ ]

13. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ put a flexible spring around a component. a. BorderLayout b. GridLayout c. BoxLayout d. SpringLayout

14. Which of the following are the invalid methods in JTabbedPane a. getTabbedCount( ) b. getTabPlacement( ) c. getTitleAt(index) 15. You can construct a JSplitPane using _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a. new JSplitPane() c. new JSplitPane(Component [ ]) b. new JSplitPane(Component) d. new JSplitPane(Component, Component)

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d. getToolTipTextAt(index) [ ]

16. A border object is an instance of _ _ _ _ _ _ a. Border b. BevelBorder c. TitledBorder d. LineBorder

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17. The Box class uses _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . a. FlowLayout b. BorderLayout c. GridLayout d. BoxLayout [ ]

18. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a Swing layout manager that arranges components on top of each other. a. OverlayLayout b. BorderLayout c. GridLayout d. BoxLayout [ [ ] ]

19. Every layout manager is an instance of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a. the LayoutManager interface c. the Layout interface b. the LayoutManager class d. the Layout class

20. You can construct a JTabbedPane using _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . a. New JTabbedPane( ) c. New JTabbedPane(Component [ ])

[ b. New JTabbedPane(Component)

]

d. New JTabbedPane(Component, Component)

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Objectives Questions

ANSWERS 1 (a) 11 2(c) 12(a) 3(b) 13(b) 4(d) 14(c) 5(a) 15(b) 6(b) 16(a) 7(b) 17(a) 8(c) 18(d) 9(a) 19(c) 10(d) 20(c)

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ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Assignment Questions

ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS
UNIT I: OBJECT ORIENTED THINKING 1. Explain the difference between structured programming and object oriented programming 2. Explain in detail about oops concepts. 3. Explain in detail about oop paradigm. 4. Explain in detail about abstraction mechanisms

5. Explain the difference between overloading and overriding 6. Explain in detail about different concepts used in Object Oriented Programming. 7. With the help of an example explain the concept of abstraction mechanism. 8. With an example explain the concept of agents, responsibilities methods and Messages

UNIT II: JAVA BASICS 1. (a) What is a class ? How does it accomplish data hiding? (b) Explain the difference between an object and a class. (c) What is a constructor? What are its special properties? 2. (a) What is meant by overloading methods? What are the advantages of overloading concept? (b) Write a method to find Area that can find the area of the circle/square/rectangle using overloading concept. 3. a) Can constructors in Java be overloaded? If so, illustrate with an example. b) Discuss the JDK and its components in brief. 4. a) Distinguish between over loading and over riding. b) When do we declare a method as final? c) Explain the difference between new BankAccount[2000]; And BankAccount b; d) Implement a class Student. A Student has a name and a total quiz score. Supply an appropriate constructor and methods getName( ), addQuiz(int score) , getTotalScore( ) and getAverageScore( ). To Compute the latter, you also need to store the number of quizzes that the student took. 5. a) Give a Java code to construct the following objects.   a square with center (100.100) and side length 25. A bank account with a balance of $5000. III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 172

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Object Oriented Programming Through Java  b) A console reader that reads from System.in.

Assignment Questions

If b1 and b2 store objects of class BankAccount , consider the following instructions .b1.deposit(b2.getbalance( ) ); .b2.deposit(b1.getbalance( ) ); Are the balances of b1 and b2 now identical? Explain.

c)

Implement a class Circle that has methods getArea( ) and getCircumference( ). In the constructor, supply the radius of the circle.

6. (a) What is the difference between equality of objects and equality of objects and equality of references that refer to them? (b) What is the difference between a public member and a private member of a class? (c) Write an application that computes the value of ex by using the formula: ex = 1 + x/1! + x2/2! + x3/3! + .......... 7. (a) Why is an Object [] array called a universal array? (b) What is the difference between the size and capacity of a vector Object? (c) Write a program for multiplication of matrices (Test the validity of matrix sizes before performing multiplication). 8. (a) Define a class in Java. How classes & objects can be in Java programs. Illustrate with example. (b) Write down the usage of finalize () method. 9. (a) Discuss about static member data and static method with an example. (b) How do we invoke a constructor? (c) Design a class to represent a Bank Account. Include the following members. • Name of the depositor • Account number • Type of Account • Balance amount in the account Methods • To assign initial values • To deposit an amount • To withdraw an amount after checking balance • To display the name and the balance. 10. (a) Write a Java program, which will read a string and rewrite in the Alphabetical order. For example, the word STRING should be Written as GINST. (b) What is a vector? How does it differ from an array? Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 173

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Assignment Questions

(c) Write a Java program that accepts a shopping list of five items from the command line and stores them in a vector. 11. Write a java program to explain the concept of Classes and Objects 12. (a) Write a java program to explain the concept of type casting and conversion. (b) Write a java program to explain constructors.

13. (a) Write a java program to explain scope and life time of variable 14. (a) Write a java program to explain scope and life time of variable (b) Briefly discuss about garbage collection.

UNIT III: INHERITANCE 1. (a) What is an interface? What is the major difference between an interface and class. (b) Describe the various forms of implementing interfaces. Give examples of java code for each case. 2. (a) Write a Java Program to show the use of Abstract classes. (b) Explain constructor over loading with an example. (c) List out the characteristics of interface. 3. What is Inheritance? Discuss the differences in inheritances in C++ and java. 4. (a) Define Abstract class? Explain with a suitable example. (b) Write a sample program to demonstrate the order of initialization of the base classes and derived classes. Now add member objects to both the base and derived classes, and show the order in which their initialization occurs during construction. 5. Create a 3-level inheritance hierarchy. Each class in the hierarchy should have a finalize( ) method, and it should properly call the base-class version of finalize( ). Demonstrate that your hierarchy works properly. 6. (a) Define Abstract class? Explain with a suitable example. (b) Write a sample program to demonstrate the order of initialization of the base classes and derived classes. Now add member objects to both the base and derived classes, and show the order in which their initialization occurs during construction. 7. (a) How can you prevent a method from overriding? (b) When will you use the keyword super? (c) How can you prevent a class from instantiation.? Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 174

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Assignment Questions

8. Create an inheritance hierarchy of Rodent: Mouse, Gerbil, Hamster, etc. In the baseclass, provide methods that are common to all Rodents, and override these in the derived classes to perform di_erent behaviors depending on the specific type of Rodent.Create an array of Rodent, fill it with di_erent specific types of Rodents, and call your base-class methods.Explain what happens. 9. What is inheritance? Explain the member access mechanism in inheritance with an example. 10. Create an abstract class with no methods. Derive a class and add a method. Create a static method that takes a reference to the base class, downcasts it to the derived class, and calls the method. In main( ), demonstrate that it works. Now put the abstract declaration for the method in the base class, thus eliminating the need for the downcast. 11. Define abstract classes. Write a java code to explain abstract classes. 12. Explain different forms of Inheritance with the help of an example 13. Write a java program to explain the concept of Classes and Objects

UNIT IV: PACKAGES AND INTERFACES 1. Prove that all the methods in an interface are automatically public. 2. Write a program to create an interface containing a static inner class. Implement this interface and create an instance of the inner class. 3. What is package? Explain the procedure to create a package with the help of example. 4. Create an object of this class and see what kind of compiler messages one get when he tries to access all the class members? Explain with a example program. 5. (a) Define interface and explain its use with an example. (b) How classpath will set and give its importance. 6. (a) Write a program to show interface can be extended. (b) Define package and show how it is created and use. 7. (a) Define interface and explain its use with an example. (b) Write the differences between abstract class and interface 8. (a) Define package and show how it is created and use. (b) How classpath will set and give its importance. Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 175

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Assignment Questions

9. Write a program to create a private inner class that implements a public interface. Write a method that returns a reference to an instance of the private inner class, upcast to the interface. Show that the inner class is completely hidden by trying to downcast to it. 10. Write a program create an interface U with three methods. Create a class A with a method that produces a reference to a U by building an anonymous inner class. Create a second class B that contains an array of U. B should have one method that accepts and stores a reference to a U in the array, a second method that sets a reference in the array (specified by the method argument) to null and a third method that moves through the array and calls the methods in U. In main( ), create a group of A objects and a single B. Fill the B with U references produced by the A objects. Use the B to call back into all the A objects. Remove some of the U references from the B. 11. Write a java code to explain Polymorphism and Method overriding 12. Define an Interface. Write a java code to explain implementation of interface.With the help of a java code, explain how to create and access a package. 13. With the help of a java code, explain how to create and access a package. 14. (a) Discuss about the creation of class path (b)Explain the differences between the classes and interfaces

UNIT V: EXCEPTION HANDLING 1. (a) Explain how exceptions are handled in Java. Demonstrate how exceptions are thrown. (b) Describe with the help of a diagram the exception class hierarchy. 2. (a) What is the role of stack in exception handling? (b) Give the classification of exceptions. 3. (a) What is the difference between unchecked and checked exceptions in java? (b) Give the list of different unchecked exceptions in java and their meaning. (c) Explain in detail any two unchecked exceptions. 4. (a) Discuss about the benefits of exception handling (b) Briefly discuss about various class methods of java util package. 5. (a) Write a java code to create user defined exceptions. (b) Discuss about any four string handling functions with examples. 6. With a java code to explain the handling of exceptions using throws

UNIT VI: MULTITHREADING 1. (a) Why thread is called light weight task and process heavy weight task. (b) What are the different things shared by different threads of a single process. What are the benefits of sharing? Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 176

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Assignment Questions

(c) Is multithreading suitable for all types of applications. If yes explain any such application. If no, explain any application for which multithreading is not desired. 2. (a) Define multithreading. Give an example of an application that needs multithreading. (b) How multithreading in single processor system is different from multithreading in multiprocessor system. Explain. 3. (a) Explain throws statement in Java with the help of an example program. (b) What is the difference between throw and throws statement. 4. (a) Explain how threads with different priorities execute in environment which supports priorities and which doesn’t support priorities. (b) what are the functions available in java related to priority. 5. What is Error? What is Exception? Are they totally different or related? As a programmer what is the difference in handling an error and an exception. With the help of a simple java program explain the concepts error and exception. 6. (a) Give the Class hierarchy in Java related to exception handling. Briefly explain each class. (b) What is the necessity of exception handling? Explain exception handling taking “divide-by-zero” as an example. 7. (a) With the help of an example, explain multithreading by extending thread class. (b) Implementing Runnable interface and extending thread, which method you prefer for multithreading and why. 8. 9. 10. Write a java code to explain the concept of thread priority in multithreading Write ajava code for producer consumer problem using Multithreading concept With a neat diagram explain the thread life cycle in detail.

UNIT- VII: EVENT HANDLING 1. Explain at least 5 functions of the applet class with necessary example. 2. Write an applet that asks the user to enter two floating-point numbers, obtain the two numbers from the user and draws the sum, product, quotient of the two numbers. 3. With an example show how to use show Status () method Explain the applet viewer functions. 4. Write a program to draw several shapes in the created window using applets. 5. Write a java program, which creates human face. 6. Write a java code for producer consumer problem using Multithreading concept. 6. Write a java program, which displays a clock. The edges are static. Three edges are required indicating hour, minute, and seconds. The length and width of edges should be approximately chosen. Display “Timex” at the center of the clock. Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 177

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Assignment Questions

7. What are the methods supported by the following interfaces. Explain each of them (a) ActionListener interface (b) MouseMotionListener interface (c) TextListener interface. 8. How event driven programming is different from Procedure oriented programming. 9. Give overview of Java’s event handling mechanism. 10. What is event source? Give examples of event sources. How events are generated. Are all events generated by user actions? Comment on it. 11. Briefly discuss about event Listeners? Explain how mouse and keyboard events handling is used in selecting the options in menu bar'? 12. (a) Write a java code to create check box groups and text fiel (b) With an example explain grid layout 13. Explain various layouts manager types with the help of an examUNIT-VIII: APPLETS AND SWINGS

UNIT -VIII 1. Write a java program to design a dialog box as shown below.

2. Write a java program to create frame with two button called father and mother. When he click the father button the name of the father, his age and designation must appear. When you click mother similar detail of mother appears. 3. Write a java program to print the fol1owing frame. The size increases when you move from left to right

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Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Assignment Questions

4. (a) What is the use of JPasswordField? Explain with an aid of an application program. (b) What are the differences between JPopupMenu and JMenu? 5. Differentiate following with suitable examples: (a) Frame, JFrame (b) Applet, JApplet (c) Menu, Jmenu. 6. Explain the following: (a) Creating an applet (b) Passing parameters to applets (c) Adding graphics and colors to applets. 7. Explain various methods of Applet class with necessary examples. 8. What are various layout managers available in JFC? List each of them with their functionality. Explain them with suitable examples. 9. How will you add Text area, Button, Checkbox, and Lists to an applet? Explain with Skeleton code. 10. Write short notes on: (a) JscrollPane (b) JtabbedPane (c) JtoolBar 11. With a neat diagram explain the life cycle of an applet program 12. Write an Applet code to create check boxes, radio buttons and combo boxes 13. Write a java code to create an applet to draw circle, rectangle, and triangle based on the choice selected from the men.

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ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS

Object Oriented Programming Through Java

Assignment Questions

ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS
UNIT I: OBJECT ORIENTED THINKING 1. Explain the difference between structured programming and object oriented programming 2. Explain in detail about oops concepts. 3. Explain in detail about oop paradigm. 4. Explain in detail about abstraction mechanisms

5. Explain the difference between overloading and overriding UNIT II: JAVA BASICS 1(a) What are the different types of constructors that can be defined in a Java class? (b) Write a Java program that will create a stack using array structure. 2(a) Explain the statement Public Static Void main (String args[ ]) {.......}. (b) Define a class called circle with the attributes radius, Circumference and a method to display a circle. In the main method define a circle of 10 entries. In the command line receive the radius of the circles, construct the circles and display them. 3.(a) What is meant by call by reference? How call by reference can be achieved in Java? (b) Discuss the String class in Java. 4.(a) Explain the advantages of having static method static method in a Java program by giving suitable example. (b) What is the usage of operator new? Explain with an example. 5.(a) Explain about method overloading with example. (b) Explain about assigning object reference variable with example. 6.(a) Write the difference between classes and object. Explain about this keyword. (b) Explain about assigning object reference variable with example. 7. (a) Explain about static keyword with an example. (b) Define constructor and explain how it is used in java with example. 8. (a) Explain about assigning object reference variable with example. (b) Describe about String class. 9. Explain call by value and call by reference with examples. 10. Explain static and final keyword with examples. UNIT III: INHERITANCE 1. (a) Discuss about Hybrid Inheritance with a suitable example. Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 181

Object Oriented Programming Through Java (b) Discuss about Hierarchical Inheritance with a suitable example. 2. (a) Define inheritance and write the program to show inheritance. (b) Explain about Object class. 3. (a) Explain about super keyword with an example. (b) Define method overriding and explain it with an example. 4. (a) What is meant by dynamic method dispatch explain with example. (b) Explain about final and super keyword with example.

Assignment Questions

5. (a) Define abstract class with an example and give the difference between class and abstract class. (b) What is meant by dynamic method dispatch explain with example. 6. (a) What is meant by inheritance in the OOP paradigm. Explain (b) What is the difference between base class and derived class. Explain (c) What is the significance of visibility labels. 7. What are Abstract classes? Write a program having Student as an abstract class and create many classes such as engineering, Science, Medical etc., from the Student class. Create their objects and process them. 8. (a) Explain with an example the main difference between overloading and overriding? (b) Describe the various forms of implementing inheritances? Give an example of code for each case? 9. What is inheritance and how does it help us to create new classes quickly? 10. How to implement multiple inheritance in Java and explain with a suitable example. UNIT IV: PACKAGES AND INTERFACES 1. Create an interface with at least one method, in its own package. Create a class in a separate package. Add a protected inner class that implements the interface. In a third package, inherit from your class and, inside return. 2. Prove that the fields in an interface are implicitly static and final. 3. (a) What is a package? How do we design a package? (b) How do we add a class or interface to a package? 4. (a) What is interface? Write a program to demonstrate how interfaces can be extended. (b) What is package? How do you create a package? Explain about the access protection in packages? 5. Create an interface with at least one method, and implement that interface by defining an inner class within a method, which returns a reference to your interface. 6. Write a program to create a class with a non default constructor and no default constructor. Create a second class that has a method which returns a reference to the first class. Create the object to Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 182 a method, return an object of the protected inner class, upcasting to the interface during the

Object Oriented Programming Through Java 7. Write a sample program to illustrate packages.

Assignment Questions

return by making an anonymous inner class that inherits from the first class.

8. Create three interfaces, each with two methods. Inherit a new interface from the three, adding a new method. Create a class by implementing the new interface and also inheriting from a concrete class. Now write four methods, each of which takes one of the four interfaces as an argument. In main( ), create an object of your class and pass it to each of the methods. 9. (a) What is an interface? What is the major difference between an interface and class? (b) Describe the various forms of implementing interfaces. Give examples of java code for each case. 10. (a) What is a package ? (b) Design a package to contain the class Student that contains data members such as name, roll number and another package contains the interface Sports which contains some sports information . Import these two packages in a package called Report which process both Student and Sport and give the report. (c) Discuss the various levels of access protection available for packages and their implication. UNIT V: EXCEPTION HANDLING 1. (a) When do you use Nested try statements. Explain nested try statements with the help of an example java program. (b) Explain nested try statements in the context of method calls with the help of an example java program. 2. (a) What is the use of five keywords of Java related to exception handling i.e., try, catch, throw, throws, and finally. (b) Write an example Java program using all the five key words mentioned above, and explain how the program works. 3. Explain the following Thread related exceptions with examples: (a) IllegalMonitorStateException (b) IllegalThreadStateException.

UNIT VI: Multithreading 1. (a) What is multithreading? What are its advantages? (b) compare process based and thread based multitasking. 2. (a) Explain about Exception handling in java. (b) Define thread and write a program to demonstrate deadlock. 3. (a) Explain how built in exception is created with and example. [8+8] (b) Define thread and write a program to create multiple threads by using Thread class. Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 183

Object Oriented Programming Through Java (b) Explain about different types exceptions in java with an example. 5. (a) Explain about inter thread communication with example. (b) Write a program to demonstrate thread priorities. 6. Explain the following exceptions with the help of examples: (a) ArithmeticException (b) NullPointerException (c) NumberFormatException.

Assignment Questions

4. (a) Define thread and write a program to create multiple threads by using Runnable interface.

7. (a) With the help of an example, explain multithreading by extending thread class. (b) Implementing Runnable interface and extending thread, which method you prefer for multithreading and why.

UNIT- VII: Event Handling 1. What is Delegation Event model? Explain it. What are its benefits? 2. Define Event. Give examples of events. Define event handler. How it handles events. 3. (a) Explain about different event classes and Adapter classes. (b) Write a program to demonstrate keyboard event handling. 4. (a) Explain about different event listener. (b) Define event, event source, event listener and explain event handling model. 5. Explain about Color and Graphics class. 6. Write a program to demonstrate keyboard event handling. 7. Define event, event source, and event listener and explain event-handling model. 8. Write a program to demonstrate mouse event handling. 9. Why creating a subclass of Frame is preferred over creating an instance of Frame when creating a window. 10. Explain the steps in creating a subclass of frame with the help of examples.

UNIT-VIII: Applets and Swings 1. How will you create check boxes and Choice boxes? Explain the steps in detail. 2. Explain the differences between exclusive checkbox and non- exclusive checkbox. 3. Explain about Button, Labels, and Text field. 4. Write a program to create a button by using swing. 5. Explain about life cycle of applet. 6. Explain about layout managers. 7. Write a program to create an applet in which message is moving form left to right. 8. Explain about JApplet, JFrame and JComponent. Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 184

Object Oriented Programming Through Java 10. Explain about life cycle of applet.

Assignment Questions

9.Write a program to add text area, check boxes, check box group and menu to a frame.

****THE END***

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MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
Mr. Mohan rao

AssT. Professor

COURSE FILE
Department of

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

VIGNAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE
VIGNAN HILLS, DESHMUKHI VILLAGE, POCHAMPALLY (MANDAL) NALGONDA (DISTRICT) - 508284

Sponsored by Lavu Educational Society
(Approved by AICTE and Affiliated to JNT University, Hyderabad)

COURSE OBJECTIVE

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Course Objective

COURSE OBJECTIVE

Managerial economics & Financial analysis subject is introduced to B.Tech students of JNTU. The aim of this is to equip the students with fundamental concepts of economics, budgeting, management & accounts. It helps them to understand the intricacies of business units. The study of this subject strengthen them to start an enterprise on their own accord

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Syllabus

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Syllabus

SYLLABUS
UNIT I: INTRODUCTION TO MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS: Definition, Nature and Scope Managerial Economics, Demand Analysis: Demand Determinants, Law of Demand and its exceptions. UNIT II: ELASTICITY OF DEMAND: Definition, Types, Measurement and Significance of Elasticity of Demand. Demand Forecasting, Factors governing demand forecasting, methods of demand forecasting (Survey methods, Statistical methods, Expert opinion method, test marketing, controlled experiments, judgmental approach to demand forecasting.Definition, Types, Measurement and Significance of Elasticity of Demand. Demand Forecasting, Factors governing demand forecasting, methods of demand forecasting (Survey methods, Statistical methods, Expert opinion method, test marketing, controlled experiments, judgmental approach to demand forecasting. UNIT III: THEORY OF PRODUCTION AND COST ANALYSIS: Production Function – Isoquants and Isocosts, MRTS, Least cost combination of inputs, Production function, Laws of returns, Internal and External Economies of scale. Cost Analysis: Cost concepts, Opportunity cost, Fixed Vs. Variable costs, Explicit costs Vs. implicit costs, Out put of pocket costs vs. imputed costs. Break even analysis (BEA) – Determination of Break even Point (Simple problems) – Managerial Significance and Limitations of BEA. UNIT IV: INTRODUCTION TO MARKETS & PRICING STRATEGIES MARKET STRUCTURES: Types of competition, Features of Perfect competition, Monopoly and Monopolistic competition. PriceOutput Determination in case of Perfect competition and Monopoly. Objectives and Policies of pricing: Cost plus pricing, Managerial cost pricing, Sealed bid pricing, Going rate pricing, Limit pricing, Market skimming pricing, Penetration pricing, Two part pricing, Bunding pricing, Peak load pricing, Cross subsidization. UNIT V: BUSINESS & NEW ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT: Characteristics features of Business, Features and evaluation of Sole proprietorship, Partnership, Joint stock company, Public enterprises and their types, Changing Business environment in Post liberalization scenario. UNIT VI:: Capital and its significance, Types of capital, Estimation of Fixed and working capital requirements, Methods and sources of raising finance. Nature and scope of capital budgeting, features of capital Vignan Institute of Technology & Science II Year B.Tech. 2nd Semester Page 190

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Syllabus

budgeting proposals, Methods of capital budgeting: Payback Method, Accounting Rate of return (ARR), and Net present value method (Simple problems). UNIT- VII: INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING: Double Entry Book keeping, Journal, Ledger, Trial Balance-Final Accounts (Trading account, Profit and Loss Account, and Balance sheet with simple adjustments). 2005-2006.

UNIT-VIII: FINANCIAL ANALYSIS THROUGH RATIOS: Computation, Analysis and interpretation of Liquidity Ratios (Current Ratio and Quick Ratio), Activity Ratios (Inventory turnover ratio and Debtor Turnover ratio), Capital structure Ratios (Debt-Equity ratio, Interest coverage ratio), and Profitability Ratios (Gross Profit Ratio, Net Profit Ratio, Operating Ratio, P/E Ratio and EPS).

TEXT BOOKS
1: Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis, 2/e, TMH, 2005 2: Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics, Sultan Chand, 2003 3: Dwivedi : Managerial Economics 4: S.N Maheswari & S.K Maheswari: Financial Accounting

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LECTURE PLAN

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Lecture Plan

LECTURE PLAN
No of Periods

S.No

NAME OF THE TOPIC

Method of Teaching

Text books referred

UNIT I: INTRODUCTION TO MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction Introduction to Managerial Economics Definition, Nature of Managerial Economics Scope of Managerial Economics Demand Analysis: Demand Determinants Law of Demand and its exceptions 1 2 2 1 2 2 Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk
Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

UNIT – II ELASTICITY OF DEMAND 7. 8. 9. 10. Definition, Types Measurement and Significance of Elasticity of Demand Demand Forecasting, Factors governing demand forecasting Methods of demand forecasting 1 2 3 3 Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk

UNIT – III THEORY OF PRODUCTION AND COST ANALYSIS 11. Production Function , Isoquants and Isocosts 1 Black board and Chalk

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Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Lecture Plan
Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

MRTS, Least cost combination of inputs Production function, Laws of returns, Internal and External Economies of scale Cost Analysis: Cost concepts, Opportunity cost, Fixed Vs. Variable costs, Explicit costs Vs. implicit costs, Out put of pocket costs vs. imputed costs Break even analysis Managerial Significance and Limitations of BEA

1 1 1 1 1

Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk

17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

UNIT- IV INTRODUCTION TO MARKETS & PRICING STRATEGIES MARKET STRUCTURES Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Types of competition, 1 Black board and Chalk Economics Features of Perfect competition Features of Monopoly and Monopolistic competition Price-Output Determination in case of Perfect competition Price-Output Determination in case Monopoly 1 1 1 Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk
Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics

22.

Cost plus pricing, Managerial cost pricing, Sealed bid 1 Black board and Chalk pricing, Going rate pricing, Limit pricing Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Market skimming pricing, Penetration pricing, Two part pricing, Bunding pricing, Peak load pricing, 1 Black board and Chalk Economics Cross subsidization. UNIT – V BUSINESS & NEW ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT Characteristics of Business features of Business Features and evaluation of Sole proprietorship 1 1 1 Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk
Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and

23. 24. 25.

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Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Lecture Plan
Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

26. 27. 28. 29.

Partnership, Joint stock company Public enterprises and their types

1 2 2

Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk

Changing Business environment in Post liberalization Black board and Chalk 1 scenario UNIT-VI CAPITAL AND CAPITAL BUDGETING: METHODS OF CAPITAL BUDGETING Capital and its significance Types of capital, Estimation of Fixed and working capital requirements Methods and sources of raising finance Nature and scope of capital budgeting features of capital budgeting proposals 1 2 1 1 1 Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

Payback Method, Accounting Rate of return (ARR), 3 Black board and Chalk and Net present value method (Simple problems) UNIT-VII INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING Double Entry Book keeping, Journal Ledger Trial Balance 1 2 1 2 Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk

36. 37. 38. 39.

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II B.Tech 1st Semester Page 195

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Lecture Plan

40.

Aryasri: Managerial Economics and Final Accounts (Trading account, Profit and Loss Account, and Balance sheet with simple adjustments). 2 Black board and Chalk Financial Analysis 2005-2006 UNIT-VIII FINANCIAL ANALYSIS THROUGH RATIOS

41. 42. 43. 44. 45.

Computation Analysis and interpretation of Liquidity Ratios (Current Ratio and Quick Ratio) Activity Ratios (Inventory turnover ratio and Debtor Turnover ratio) Capital structure Ratios (Debt-Equity ratio, Interest coverage ratio) Profitability Ratios (Gross Profit Ratio, Net Profit Ratio, Operating Ratio, P/E Ratio and EPS)

1 2 2 2 2

Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk Black board and Chalk

Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics Varshney & Maheshwari: Managerial Economics

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Learning Objective

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
UNIT I: INTRODUCTION TO MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The nature and scope of economics The definition of managerial economics The nature & scope of managerial economics The linkages of managerial economics with other disciplines Laws of governing consumer behaviour Concepts & definitions of demand Law of demand and its exceptions

UNIT II: ELASTICITY OF DEMAND 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Elasticity of demand & its types Factors affecting elasticity of demand Measurement of elasticity of demand Significance of elasticity of demand The need for forecasting demand Factors affecting demand forecasting demand forecasting methods evaluation of each demand forecasting method

UNIT III: THEORY OF PRODUCTION AND COST ANALYSIS 1. Production function 2. Input – output relationship 3. Laws of increasing, constant & decreasing returns to scale 4. Internal economies 5. External economies 6. Diseconomies of scale 7. Cost concepts 8. Cost – output relationship 9. Optimum size 10. The concept of break even analysis (BEA) 11. Determination of BEP 12. Application of BEA 13. Significance of BEA 14. Limitations of BEA

UNIT IV: INTRODUCTION TO MARKETS & PRICING STRATEGIES MARKET STRUCTURES Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 198

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Learning Objective

1. 2. 3. 4.

Types of markets & their comparative situations Features of perfect market, monopoly, and monopolistic competition Price – output determination in different cases Different pricing methods

UNIT V: BUSINESS & NEW ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT: 1. Factors affecting the choice of form of business organsiation 2. Types & features of business organisation 3. Critical evaluation of each of the form of business organisation 4. New economic environment 5. New industrial policy 1991 6. The concepts of Liberalization, Privatization, & Globalization (LPG) policies 7. Liberalization measures 8. Forms of Privatization 9. Factors that led to Globalization 10. Policy measures towards Globalization 11. Changing business environment to post – Liberalization scenario 12. Critical evaluation of LPG policies

UNIT VI 1. Concept of capital 2. Significance of capital 3. Types of capital 4. Sources of capital and their implementation to the business 5. Factors affecting the requirements of capital 6. Estimation of working capital requirements 7. Institutional network with Indian context for raising capital 8. The concept and significance of capital budgeting 9. Kinds of capital budgeting decisions 10. Estimation of cash inflows & outflows 11. Evaluation of investment proposals under different methods 12. Limitation of capital budgeting process

UNIT- VII: INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING 1. Concept & significance of accounting 2. Branches of accounting 3. The concept & preparation of trail balance 4. Accounting concepts 5. Double entry book keeping and its significance Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 199

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Learning Objective

6. Types of accounts & rules governing them 7. Preparation subsidiary books & ledger accounts 8. Preparation of final accounts comprising trading account, P & L account and Balance sheet with simple adjustments

UNIT-VIII: FINANCIAL ANALYSIS THROUGH RATIOS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ratio as an analytical tool Concepts of liquidity, solvency & profit ability Types of liquidity ratio Types of activity ratio Types of solvency ratio 6. Types of profitability ratio 7. Limitations of ratio analysis

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OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Objective Questions

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

UNIT I: INTRODUCTION TO MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS

1. Application of micro economic principles to managerial decision making is called ____________ 2. Managerial economics concentrate on making economic theory more application oriented. Hence it is called ____________ 3. According to marshall, economics is ___________, on the other hand, according to robbins it is ____________ 4. Micro economic theory is also known as _______________ 5. Write demand function in simple mathematical form______________ 6. Related goods are divided in two, they are ____________& _____________ 7. Three important demand determinants are____________ 8. The other name of inferior goods is_____________ 9. Veblen goods are those which are of_________ 10. Demand of the commodity is determined by _____________nature

Answers:
1. Managerial Economics 2. Pragmatic 3. The study of laws that govern wealth, concerned with problems of choice 8. Low Quality goods 4. Price theory 5. Dx = f (P,I,T,EP,EI,S,A,O)

6. Substitute & Complementary

7. Price, Income, Related good prices

9. Costly

10. Its

UNIT II: ELASTICITY OF DEMAND 1. 2. 3. 4. Law of supply states that ____________ _____________ is an activity that creates utility or value Production function in mathematical form ________________ _________________Production function is linear production function of two factors capital & labour 5. The most famous statistical production function is ______________ Answers:

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Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Objective Questions

1. Relation between Price & Supply is directly Propotional

2. Production

3. Q = f (A, B, C, D…….)

4. Cobb. Douglas

5. Cobb. Douglas

UNIT III: THEORY OF PRODUCTION AND COST ANALYSIS 1. List of two determinants of costs ____________ 2. Historical costs do not have relevance to managerial decision making when _____________ are more relevant 3. The costs which would not be incurred if a particular project is not under ____________ 4. _____________costs are theoretical costs which are not recognized by accounting system 5. The cost of best alternatives for gone is _______________ ANSWERS: 1. Level of output, cost of inputs 2. Future costs 3. Incremental costs 4. Imputed 5. Opportunity cost

UNIT IV: INTRODUCTION TO MARKETS & PRICING STRATEGIES MARKET STRUCTURES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. _____________method is used to enter the market aggressively Example of psychological price ____________ _____________ is a method of fixing the price by contractors List the components of PLC ______________ State one organization which is charging dual pricing _________

ANSWERS: 1. Penetration Pricing 2. Bata Shoe 3. Sealed bid pricing 4. Introduction, Growth, maturity & decline 5. APSRTC

UNIT V: BUSINESS & NEW ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT 1. An undertaking having the characteristics of Separate Legal Existence, Common Seal and Perpetual succession is known as a. Sole Proprietory b. Partnership Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 203

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Objective Questions

c. Co-operative Society d. Joint Stock Company 2. This form of organization can maintain personal contact with customers. a. Sole Proprietory b. Public Limited Company c. Co-operative Society d. Joint Stock Company 3. An association of persons usually of limited means who have voluntarily joined together to achieve a common economic end is known as. a. Sole Proprietory b. Partnership c. Co-operative Society d. Joint Stock Company 4. The farmers of a small village have joined together and formed an association for the purpose of procuring their agricultural requirements like fertiliz ers etc. , This association is known as a. Sole Proprietory b. Partnership c. Co-operative Society d. Joint Stock Company 5. Private Limited is added at the end of a a. Government Company b. Public Limited Company c. Private Limited Company d. Departmental Undertaking Answers: 1. D UNIT VI 1. Where the unpaid dividend in arrears cannot be claimed in future by the Preference Shareholders is known as a. Participating Prefe rence Shares b. Redeemable Preference Shares c. Cumulativ e Preference Shares d. non-cumulative Preference Shares 2.. If the Outstanding Wages increase, what will be the effect on Working Capital? a. The Gross Working Capital Decreases b. The Gross Working Capital remains unchanged c. The net Working Capital Decreases d. The Net Working Capital Increases 3. If the Cash on Hand increases from Rs.10,000/- to Rs.20,000/-, what will be the effect on Gross Working Capital? a. The Gross Working Capital Decreases Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 204 2. A 3. C 4. C 5. C

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Objective Questions

b. The Gross Working Capital remains unchanged c. The Net Working Capital Decreases d. The Gross Working Capital Increases 4. If the Raw Material requirement increases from 3 months to 4 months, what is the effect on the Working Capital? a. The Net Working Capital Remains Unchanged b. The Gross Working Capital Remains Unchanged c. The net Working Capital Increases d. The Net Working Capital Decreases 5. If the Operating Cycle increases, what will be the effect on Working Capital? a. The Gross Working Capital Decreases b. The Gross Working Capital remains unchanged c. The Net Working Capital Decreases d. The net Working Capital Increases Answers: 1. D 2. C 3. D 4. C 5. D

UNIT- VII: INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING 1. The Principle of double entry in the case of Personal Account is a. Debit - What Com es in Credit What Goes out b. Debit - Receiver Credit - Giver c. Debit - Expenses Credit - Income d. Debit - Cash Credit - Sales 2. The Principle of double entry in the case of Real Account is a. Debit - What Comes in Credit What Goes out b. Debit - Receiver Credit - Giver c. Debit - Expenses Credit - Income d. Debit - Cash Credit - Sales 3. The Principle of double entry in the case of _ominal Account is a. Debit - Receiver Credit - Giver b. Debit - Expenses Credit - Income c. Debit - What Com es in Credit What Goes out d. Debit - Cash Credit - Sales 4. The amount of Debit must _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the amount of Credit. a. Be greater than b. Be equal to c. Be Less than d. Be unequal to 5. Cash Rs.10,000/-, Capital Rs.1,00,000/-, Fixed Assets Rs.40,000/-, Sundry Debtors Rs.50,000/-. What is the total of trial Balance? a. Rs.2,00,000/Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 205

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Objective Questions

b. Rs.1,00,000/c. Rs.50,000/d. Rs.10,000/Answers: 1. B 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. B

UNIT-VIII: FINANCIAL ANALYSIS THROUGH RATIOS

1. The Current Ratio for the Years 2003 and 2004 are 3:1 and 2:1 respectively. What does the Ratio indicate? a. The Current Liabilities have gone up b. The Current Assets have gone down c. The Current Assets have remained unchanged d. The Current Assets have gone up 2. Ratio measuring the liquidity of a company is a. Debt-equity Ratio b. Current Ratio c. Earning Per Share d. Interest Coverage Ratio 3. What is the formula for Quick Ratio? a. Current Assets - Current Liabilities b. Current Assets / Current Liabilities c. Quick Assets / Current Liabilities d. Current Liabilities / Quick Assets 4. How to calculate Quick Assets? a. Current Assets (Opening Stock + Closing Stock) b. Current Assets - (Closing Stock + Prepaid Expenses) c. Current Assets Current Liabilities d. Current Assets Prepaid Expenses 5. Current Ratio is a. Current Assets - Current Liabilities b. Current Assets + Current Liabilities c. CL/CA d. Current Assets / Current Liabilities. Answers: 1. B 2. B 3. C 4. B 5. D

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 206

ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

ESSAY Questions

ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS

UNIT I: INTRODUCTION TO MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS 1. Write short notes on: (a) Demand Function (b) Complementary goods and demand (c) Substitution effect (d) Inferior goods 2. Define Managerial Economics. Explain its nature and scope 3. Explain the Law of Demand. What do you mean by shifts in demand curve 4. What is Managerial Economics? Explain its focus areas. UNIT II: ELASTICITY OF DEMAND 1. What is meant by Elasticity of demand? How do you measure it? 2. Explain Income Elasticity of demand and its significance in making business decisions. 3. (a) What is meant by price Elasticity of demand. (b) Determine price elasticity of demand given that the quantity demanded of a product is 1000 units when the price is Rs. 100 and when the price declines to Rs.50, demand increases to 1500 units. 4. What are the various methods of demand forecasting? Evaluate various survey-based demand-forecasting methods.

UNIT III: THEORY OF PRODUCTION AND COST ANALYSIS 1. (a) “To reach Break even position means to reach zero point” In the light of the above statement explain how output, cost and revenue relationship can be established. (b) What are its limitations? (c) Use suitable diagrams. 2. If Selling Price Per Unit Rs.12, Variable Cost Per Unit Rs.8, Fixed Cost Rs.40000 Find out (a) Break Even sales units and value (b) profit when sales are Rs.300000 (c) Margin of Safety when sales are Rs.350000. 3. (a) What are Isoquants? Explain the chief characteristics of Isoquants? (b) What do you understand by Least Cost Combination of inputs and how can it be achieved.

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 208

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

ESSAY Questions

UNIT IV: INTRODUCTION TO MARKETS & PRICING STRATEGIES MARKET STRUCTURES 1. (a) Define Market and explain how markets are classified? (b) What are the important features in any market structure? 2. (a) ‘The monopolist represents one man industry’ ? Comment and discuss how equilibrium position can be attained by the monopolist. (b) Use appropriate diagrams to supplement your answer. 3. (a) What are the different types of market structures? (b) Explain the characteristics of perfect competition. (c) How is the price determined under perfect competition? 4. (a) What are the features of monopolistic competitions? (b) Explain the differences between monopolistic competition and perfect competition.

UNIT V: BUSINESS & NEW ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT: 1. (a) What are the characteristics of a business unit? (b) What are the characteristic features of a sole trader form of organization? 2. (a) What are the different types of business organizations? (b) What are the differences between proprietary and partnership business organizations? 3. (a) What is a partnership deed? (b) Outline the types of partners and comment on the limitations of partnership business. 4. Evaluate the partnership form of business organization. How does it overcome the limitations of sole trading?

UNIT – VI 1. Are there any considerations other than profitability to be made in managerial decisions about investment proposals? Explain them. 2. Calculate the Net present value (NPV) of the two projects X and Y. Suggest which of the two projects should be accepted assuming a discount rate of 10%. Item Project - A Project - B Initial Investment Rs.80000 Rs.120000 Life Period 5 Years 5 Years Scrap value Rs. 4000 Rs. 8000 Annual Cash Inflows Year – 1 24,000 70,000 Year – 2 36,000 50,000 Year – 3 14,000 24,000 Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 209

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

ESSAY Questions

Year – 4 10,000 8,000 Year – 5 8,000 8,000 3. Give a comparative description of various methods of ranking investment proposals by using assumed data. 4. A company is considering two investment opportunities (A and B) that cost Rs. 4,00,000 and Rs. 3,00,000 respectively. The first project generates Rs. 1,00,000/- a year for four years. The second generates Rs.60,000/-, Rs. 1,00,000/, Rs. 80,000/- Rs, 90,000/- and Rs. 70,000 over a five-year period. The company’s cost of capital is 8%. Which project would you choose under NPV method? UNIT- VII: INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING 1. Give a brief account on the important records of Accounting under Double entry system and discuss briefly the scope of each. 2. From the following balances extracted from the books of Amit Kumar you are required to prepare final accounts and compute (a) Gross profit (b) Net profit and (c) Balance sheet total as on 31st March 2005. Dr (Rs) Cr (Rs) Opening stock 60500 Purchases and sales 90,300 1,37,200 Returns 2,200 1,300 Drawings and capital 4,500 30,000 Land and buildings 38,000 Debtors and creditors 25,000 45,000 Cash on hand 13,500 Interest received 3,500 Postage expenses 12,000 Salaries 11,000 Bank overdraft 40,000 2,57,000 2,57,000 Adjusments: (a) Closing stock was valued at Rs.75,000 (b) Provide 5% reserve for bad and doubtful debts (c) Provide depreciation @ 5% on land and buildings. 3. Explain the following adjustments and illustrate suitably with assumed data. (a) Closing stock (b) outstanding expenses (c) Prepaid Income (d) Bad debts. 4. You are required to compute Gross profit, Net profit and Balance Sheet total for the Accounting period 2004-2005, in the books of Bhansale, with the Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 210

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

ESSAY Questions

help of following

UNIT-VIII: FINANCIAL ANALYSIS THROUGH RATIOS 1. What do you understand by Accounting ratios? How do they help in the financial analysis? 2. Discuss the importance of Ratio Analysis for inter firm and intra-firm comparison, including circumstances responsible for its limitations, if any 3. (a) What are the parties that make use of financial statements for their decision making? (b) How do they apply the same? Elaborate. 4. (a) From the following information, calculate [16] i. Debt-Equity ratio ii. Current ratio Rs. Rs. Debentures 1,40,000 Bank balance 30,000 Long term loans 70,000 Sundry Debtors 70,000 General reserve 40,000 Creditors 66,000 Bills payable 14,000 Share capital 1,20,000 (b) Calculate Interest Coverage ratio from the following information. Rs Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 211

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

ESSAY Questions

Net profit after deducting interest and taxes 6,00,000 12% Debentures of the face value of 15,00,000 Amount provided towards taxation 1,20,000

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 212

Assignment QUESTIONS

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Assignment Questions

ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS
UNIT I: INTRODUCTION TO MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS 1. Write short notes on: (a) Demand Function (b) Complementary goods and demand 2. Define Managerial Economics. Explain its nature and scope 3. Explain the Law of Demand. What do you mean by shifts in demand curve UNIT II: ELASTICITY OF DEMAND 1. What is meant by Elasticity of demand? How do you measure it? 2. Explain Income Elasticity of demand and its significance in making business decisions. 3. What are the various methods of demand forecasting? Evaluate various survey-based demand-forecasting methods.

UNIT III: THEORY OF PRODUCTION AND COST ANALYSIS 1. If Selling Price Per Unit Rs.12, Variable Cost Per Unit Rs.8, Fixed Cost Rs.40000 Find out (a) Break Even sales units and value (b) profit when sales are Rs.300000 (c) Margin of Safety when sales are Rs.350000. 2. (a) What are Isoquants? Explain the chief characteristics of Isoquants? (b) What do you understand by Least Cost Combination of inputs and how can it be achieved.

UNIT IV: INTRODUCTION TO MARKETS & PRICING STRATEGIES MARKET STRUCTURES 1. (a) Define Market and explain how markets are classified? (b) What are the important features in any market structure? 2. (a) ‘The monopolist represents one man industry’ ? Comment and discuss how equilibrium position can be attained by the monopolist. (b) Use appropriate diagrams to supplement your answer. 3. (a) What are the different types of market structures? (b) Explain the characteristics of perfect competition. (c) How is the price determined under perfect competition?

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 214

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis

Assignment Questions

UNIT V: BUSINESS & NEW ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT: 1. (a) What are the characteristics of a business unit? (b) What are the characteristic features of a sole trader form of organization? 2. (a) What are the different types of business organizations? (b) What are the differences between proprietary and partnership business organizations? 3. What is a partnership deed?

UNIT – VI 1. Are there any considerations other than profitability to be made in managerial decisions about investment proposals? Explain them. 2. Calculate the Net present value (NPV) of the two projects X and Y. Suggest which of the two projects should be accepted assuming a discount rate of 10%. Item Project - A Project - B Initial Investment Rs.80000 Rs.120000 Life Period 5 Years 5 Years Scrap value Rs. 4000 Rs. 8000 Annual Cash Inflows Year – 1 24,000 70,000 Year – 2 36,000 50,000 Year – 3 14,000 24,000 Year – 4 10,000 8,000 Year – 5 8,000 8,000 3. Give a comparative description of various methods of ranking investment proposals by using assumed data. UNIT- VII: INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING 1. Give a brief account on the important records of Accounting under Double entry system and discuss briefly the scope of each. 2. From the following balances extracted from the books of Amit Kumar you are required to prepare final accounts and compute (a) Gross profit (b) Net profit and (c) Balance sheet total as on 31st March 2005. Dr (Rs) Cr (Rs) Opening stock 60500 Purchases and sales 90,300 1,37,200 Vignan Institute of Technology & Science III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 215

Managerial Economics and Financial Analysis Returns Drawings and capital Land and buildings Debtors and creditors Cash on hand Interest received Postage expenses Salaries Bank overdraft 2,200 4,500 38,000 25,000 13,500 12,000 11,000 40,000 2,57,000 2,57,000 1,300 30,000 45,000 3,500

Assignment Questions

Adjusments: (a) Closing stock was valued at Rs.75,000 (b) Provide 5% reserve for bad and doubtful debts (c) Provide depreciation @ 5% on land and buildings. 3. Explain the following adjustments and illustrate suitably with assumed data. (a) Closing stock (b) outstanding expenses (c) Prepaid Income (d) Bad debts.

UNIT-VIII: FINANCIAL ANALYSIS THROUGH RATIOS 1. What do you understand by Accounting ratios? How do they help in the financial analysis? 2. Discuss the importance of Ratio Analysis for inter firm and intra-firm comparison, including circumstances responsible for its limitations, if any 3. (a) What are the parties that make use of financial statements for their decision making? (b) How do they apply the same? Elaborate.

****THE END***

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 216

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Laboratory
VIJAYKUMAR R URUDE Associate Professor & Mr. B.OBULESU

SR.AssT. Professor

Laboratory schedule

Department of
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

VIGNAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE
VIGNAN HILLS, DESHMUKHI VILLAGE, POCHAMPALLY (MANDAL) NALGONDA (DISTRICT) - 508284

Sponsored by Lavu Educational Society
(Approved by AICTE and Affiliated to JNT University, Hyderabad)

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB

LABAROTARY SHEDULE

S.NO

Name Of The Experiment

1.

2. 3.

4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Generation of Sinusoidal Waveform / signal based on recursive difference equations To find DFT /IDFT of given DT signal To find frequency response of a given system given in(Transfer function/Differential equation form) Implementation of FFT of given sequence Determination of Power Spectrum of a given signal(s) Implementation of LP FIR filter for a given sequence I internal lab examination Implementation of HP FIR filter for a given sequence Implementation of LP IIR filter for a given sequence Implementation of HP IIR filter for a given sequence Generation of Sinusoiadal signal through filtering Generation of DTMF signals Implementation of Decimation process Implementation of Interpolation process Implementation of I/D sampling rate converters II internal lab examination

Regular Experiment/ Additional Experiment Regular Experiment

Remarks

Regular Experiment Regular Experiment

Regular Experiment Regular Experiment

Regular Experiment

Regular Experiment Regular Experiment Regular Experiment Regular Experiment Regular Experiment Regular Experiment Regular Experiment Regular Experiment

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 218

MICROPROCESSORS AND MICROCONTROLLERS Laboratory
Mr.j.v.rao Assoc.professor & Mr.P.Nageswara rao Asst.professor

Laboratory schedule

Department of
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

VIGNAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE
VIGNAN HILLS, DESHMUKHI VILLAGE, POCHAMPALLY (MANDAL) NALGONDA (DISTRICT) - 508284

Sponsored by Lavu Educational Society
(Approved by AICTE and Affiliated to JNT University, Hyderabad)

MICROPROCESSORS AND MICROCONTROLLERS LAB

L ABAROTARY SHEDULE

S.NO

Name Of The Experiment

Regular Experiment*/ Additional Experiment+

Remarks

1

Programs for 16 bit arithmetic operations for 8086 (using Various Addressing Modes).

Regular Experiment

2

Program for sorting an array for 8086.

Regular Experiment Regular Experiment Regular Experiment Regular Experiment Regular Experiment Regular Experiment Regular Experiment

3

Program for string manipulations for 8086.

4

Program for digital clock design using 8086.

5

Interfacing ADC and DAC to 8086.

6

Parallel communication between two microprocessors using 8255.

7

Parallel communication between two microprocessors using 8255.

8

Serial communication between two microprocessor kits using 8251.

9

Interfacing to 8086 and programming to control stepper motor.

Regular Experiment

10

Programming using arithmetic, logical and bit manipulation instructions of 8051.

Regular Experiment

11

Program and verify Timer/ Counter in 8051.

Regular Experiment Regular III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 220

12

Program and verify Interrupt

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

MICROPROCESSORS AND MICROCONTROLLERS LAB

L ABAROTARY SHEDULE

handling in 8051 13 UART Operation in 8051.

Experiment Additional Experiment

14

Communication between 8051 kit and PC.

Additional Experiment Additional Experiment

15

Interfacing LCD to 8051.

16

Interfacing Matrix/ Keyboard to 8051.

Additional Experiment Additional Experiment

17

Data Transfer from Peripheral to Memory through DMA controller 8237 / 8257.

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 221

ADVANCED ENGLISH COMMUNICATION SKILLS Laboratory
Mr.k.chandra sekar Asst.professor & Mr.g.vinod kumar Asst.profesor

Laboratory schedule
Department of
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

VIGNAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE
VIGNAN HILLS, DESHMUKHI VILLAGE, POCHAMPALLY (MANDAL) NALGONDA (DISTRICT) - 508284

Sponsored by Lavu Educational Society
(Approved by AICTE and Affiliated to JNT University, Hyderabad)

ADVANCED ENGLISH COMMUNICATION SKILLS LAB

L ABAROTARY SHEDULE

SlNo 1 2

Unit

No of Classes Functional English - starting a conversation – responding appropriately and relevantly 2 – using the right body language – role-play in different situations. Vocabulary building – synonyms and antonyms, word roots, one-word substitutes, 2 prefixes and suffixes, study of word origin, analogy, idioms and phrase. Reading comprehension – reading for facts, guessing meanings from context, scanning, skimming, inferring meaning, critical reading. Writing Skills- structure and presentation of different types of writing - Resume’ writing/ e-correspondence/ Technical Report writing/Port folio writing – planning for writing– Research abilities/ data collection/ organizing data/ tools/analysis – improving one’s writing. Group Discussion – dynamics of group discussion, intervention, summarizing, modulation of voice, body language, relevance, fluency and coherence. Presentation Skills – Oral presentations (individual and group) through JAM sessions/seminars and written presentations through posters/ projects/reports/PPTs/emails/assignments etc., Interview Skills – concept and process, pre-interview planning, opening strategies, answering strategies, interview through tele and video-conferencing

3

3

4

3

5

2

6

2

7

2

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 223

OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING THROUGH JAVA Laboratory
MR.murali

AsSt. Professor
& MR.s.srihari

ASST.PROFESSOR

Laboratory schedule
Department of
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

VIGNAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE
VIGNAN HILLS, DESHMUKHI VILLAGE, POCHAMPALLY (MANDAL) NALGONDA (DISTRICT) - 508284

Sponsored by Lavu Educational Society
(Approved by AICTE and Affiliated to JNT University, Hyderabad)

OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING THROUGH JAVA LAB

LABAROTARY SHEDULE

S.NO Name Of The Experiment

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

A program to find real solutions for quadratic equation A program to print the nth value in Fibonacci sequence. A program to display prime numbers up to a given number A program to check whether the given string is palindrome Aprogram to multiply two given matrices. A program to read numbers in one line and display the sum. A program to display information about a file. A program to display the file contents. A program to count the number of characters,lines and words in a file. A program to demonstrate Runtime Polymorphism A program to implement Stack interface. A program to create Multiple Threads. A program to demonstrate Thread Synchronization.

Regular Experiment*/ Additional Experiment+ Additional Experiment Additional Experiment Additional Experiment Additional Experiment Additional Experiment Additional Experiment Additional Experiment Additional Experiment Additional Experiment Additional Experiment Additional Experiment Additional Experiment Additional Experiment

Remarks

Vignan Institute of Technology & Science

III B.Tech 2nd Semester Page 225

*** THE END ***…...

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...The computer is one of the most brilliant gifts of science. This device was originally developed by Charles Babbage. Most countries have developed fast due to computerization. Writing a program is essential for a computer. Speed, accuracy, reliability, and integrity are the main characteristics of a computer. Many of the routine activities today at home and in business are done by computers. The computer has proved a friend and servant of science, technology and industry. Most offices, shops, factories and industries use computers. The Internet is a storehouse of information. The computer is a boon to all. Telecommunication and satellite imageries are computer based. Computers have made the world a global village today. The computer is one of the most brilliant gifts of science. It is an electronic device for storing and analyzing information fed into it, for calculating, or for controlling machinery automatically. Charles Babbage developed this device first in 1812 followed by George Boole in 1854, Howard and Aitten in 1937, Dr. John Nouchly and J. P. Eckert in 1946. These computers were named the first generation equipment. Today, wit the 'Artificial Intelligence' technology, we are using fifth generation computers. Each new generation of computers has been smaller, lighter, speedier and more powerful than the earlier ones. Now note-book sized computers like laptop are fairly common. Computers have been dominating technology since 1970s, and has now entered almost all......

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... THE HISTORY OF COMPUTER One of the earliest machines designed to assist people in calculations was the abacus which is still being used some 5000 years after its invention. In 1642 Blaise Pascal (a famous French mathematician) invented an adding machine based on mechanical gears in which numbers were represented by the cogs on the wheels. Englishman, Charles Babbage, invented in the 1830's a "Difference Engine" made out of brass and pewter rods and gears, and also designed a further device which he called an "Analytical Engine". His design contained the five key characteristics of modern computers:- 1. An input device 2. Storage for numbers waiting to be processed 3. A processor or number calculator 4. A unit to control the task and the sequence of its calculations 5. An output device Augusta Ada Byron (later Countess of Lovelace) was an associate of Babbage who has become known as the first computer programmer. An American, Herman Hollerith, developed (around 1890) the first electrically driven device. It utilised punched cards and metal rods which passed through the holes to close an electrical circuit and thus cause a counter to advance. This machine was able to complete the calculation of the 1890 U.S. census in 6 weeks compared with 7 1/2 years for the 1880 census which was manually counted. In 1936 Howard Aiken of Harvard University convinced Thomas Watson of IBM to invest $1 million in the development of an electromechanical version of Babbage's......

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...CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 1.1 Introduction Modern civilization has become so complicated and sophisticated that to survive one has to be competitive. This compels people to keep themselves informed of all types of happening in the society. And this in turn entails the need for an infrastructure of information. This is the point where information technology or IT becomes most important, as it is the infrastructure that allows us to get information accurately and in time. Before we define information technology, it is important to understand the notion of Data, Information, Technology, and Knowledge. In everyday conversation, people use the terms data and information interchangeably. However, some computer professional make a distinction between the two terms. Data It is the words, numbers, letters, symbol, sound, video and graphics that describe people, events, things and ideas. It is raw facts about people, objects, and events that have little or no meaning. It is the raw material used to create useful information. It becomes information when you use it as the basis for initiating some action or for making a decision. Information It is defined as the words, numbers, letters, symbol, sound, video and graphics used as the basis for human action or decisions. It is data that have been processed and presented in a form suitable for human interpretation, often with the purpose of revealing trends or patterns that can be used in decision-making. It is data...

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...Computer The word'computer ' is an old word that has changed its meaning several times in the last few centuries.The Techencyclopedia(2003) defines computer as " a general purpose machine that processes data according to a set of instructions that are stored internally either temorarily or permanently" Computer history The trem history means past events.It indicates the gradual development of computers.Here we will discuss how this extraordinary machine has reached of it's apex. In the begining............................... The history of computers starts out about 2000 years ago, at the birth of the 'abacus' a wooden rack holding two horizontal wires with breads strung on them.Just like our present computer,abacus also considered a digit as a singal or codeo and processed the calculation. Blasie Pascal ists usually credited to building the first digital computer in 1942.It added numbers to help his father.In 1671,Gottofried Wilhelm Von Leibniz invented a computer that was built in 1694.It could add,and, after changing somethings around,multiply. Charles Babbage: A serious of very intersting developement in computer was started in Cambridge,England,by Charles Babbage, a mathmatics proffessor.In 1982,Babbge realized that many lng calculations,espically those need to make mathematical tabes ,were really a series of predictable actions that were constantly repated.From this he suspected that it......

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...The computers process information's that come in all shapes and sizes from any fields so accurately that, some people may call these "Informatics"— The Science of Informal ion Processing, i.e. the methods of recording, manipulating and retrieving information's. It may be from a mathematical equation to a company's work-force necessary to produce a payroll or from meteorological department to forecast tomorrow's weather or from space research to project a new space craft. The following characteristics that make the computers very popular for its multifarious uses may give the befitting reply. Speed First, the computers are regarded as high speed calculators. They can process voluminous data within a fraction of second which no human being could do earlier. If we want tomorrow's forecast today, meteorologists can use the computers for necessary calculations and analyses. The units of speed of a computer are the microsecond, the nano (10)-9 second and even the picot second. Storage As human brain can store the knowledge in memory and can able to recall it, the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of a computer can do the same job without any failure. But the internal memory of CPU is only large enough to retain a certain amount of information. So, to store each and every information inside the computer, an Auxiliary or Secondary Storage Device is being attached outside the memory of the CPU. Accuracy The computers are much popular due to their high speed along with......

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