Free Essay

Confederation and National Policy

In: Other Topics

Submitted By domax
Words 1347
Pages 6
Confederation and National Policy

The Canadian Confederation entails the process through which the Canada emerged in 1867 when three colonies under Britain formed the four provinces Canada. During the emergence of Canada in 1867, several factors played vital roles in its formation and these factors include political, economic and social factors and other forces and actors. The National Policy was introduced by John Macdonald in the year 1879 and it entailed the implementation of high tariffs on the manufactured imported products so as to safeguard and protect manufacturing industries in Canada. The National Policy was also very crucial in the development of the rural Prairie West as cattle ranching activities were introduced in the region. The paper will discuss the factors that led to the emergence of Canada, analyse the National Policy and its significance for the development of the rural Prairie West.

Political, Economic and Social factors, actors and forces that were instrumental in the emergence of Canada in 1867
Several factors played a significant role in the emergence of Canada in 1867. These factors include political, economic and social factors in combination to other forces and actors. The political factors played a considerable role in the emergence of Canada because by the mid 1860s, the Great Britain had almost lost its concern for the colonies it controlled in North America and particularly Canada. The loss in interest was mainly because these colonies had become a huge monetary, military and political load for the Great Britain. As a result, Britain wanted to detach itself from some colonies and also give other colonies some independence so as to reorganize the colonies' political organization. Additionally, the political organization of Canada during the late 1850s and mid 1860s was exceedingly unpredictable. For instance, there were regular government crises that had taken place annually from 1855 to 1858 and also two times in the year 1858 and 1863 to 1865. As a result, there was the need for a legislative union for the colonies in the Northern America under the control of Britain and this resulted in the emergence of Canada (Barman, 2007).
The economic factors that resulted in the emergence of Canada in 1867 revolved around the success Canadian railway companies. In the year 1855, with the ever increasing cost of construction, the government started a colossal outlay with the Grand Trunks Railway firm so as to bail out the project. However, the dedication indicated an economic devastation for the government as it could not effectively service the interest accrued from the debts. As a result, the administration of the Union was compelled to raise the import tariffs so as to generate revenue even though these move never solved the economic challenges of the colony. The government was forced in 1860 source for more funds in buying out the debts accrued by the Grand Trunks Railway firm and this forced the Canadian debts to hit a high of $50 million. With the imminent expiry of the Reciprocity Treaty signed with the U.S., the Canadian government was forced to shift its markets to the British Atlantic colonies. With the expiry of the Treaty in 1866, Canada had few markets and this necessitated the emergence of the confederation so as to establish new markets (Easterbrook & Aitken, 1988).
The social factor that resulted in the emergence of Canada in 1867 was mainly on the demographic pressure that was as a result of the rapid population expansion. The population increase in Canada meant that the government spending on the provision of basic needs and employment opportunities increased and this factor was effectively solved by the emergence of the confederation (Barman, 2007). There were other forces and actors that were influential in the emergence of Canada in 1867 such as the security factors in the region. By the year 1863, Britain was unwilling to finance the defence of its colonies in North America and consequently, the United Canada was left with the responsibility to have its own defence. After the end of the American Civil, Britain had worries with regards to the U.S. response to its support for the Southern cause. As a result, Britain had no option but to retreat from its colonies in the Northern America so as to normalize relationship between Canada and U.S. resulting in the emergence of Canada in 1867 (Barman, 2007).
The National Policy and its significance for the development of the rural Prairie West
The National Policy was an economic program in Canada that was brought into force by John Macdonald in the year 1879 and the policy basically required the implementation of high tariffs on manufactured imported products so as to safe guard and protect manufacturing industries in Canada. For a long time, the National Policy remained in force in Canada so as to protect safeguard the local Canadian manufacturing industries (Clarence, 2005). The National Policy contains three key sections that include the construction of the transcontinental railway line, developing tough immigration policies and the shielding the growing Canadian industries with high tariffs. In addition, the manufacturers in Canada enjoyed low customs duties when importing the required raw materials and other unfinished items lowering the production cost as a result. The purpose of the national policy was mainly to produce a real nation that supports its national economy by protecting its local industries against stiff competition from the international and developed industries.
The National Policy played a crucial role in the development of the rural Prairie West by the introduction of cattle ranching. The rural Prairie West during the early years of the confederation did not effectively attract settlers due to the unfavourable agricultural technology and conditions and low wheat prices. During the 1870s, the National Policies in the Prairie West were not working as the rangers from United States usually crossed the line with their cattle to graze on the Canadian prairie. The native inhabitants of the rural Prairie West were mostly restricted to the reserves. When the buffaloes became extinct by 1879, the Canadian government was forced to use large sums of money in importing beef to supply to the Indians and other natives of Canada (MacLachlan, 2003).
Through the National Policy, the Canadian government in 1879 the managed to buy about 1,000 heads of breeding cattle so as to enhance the domestic supply of beef; the cattle ranches were established in the rural Prairie West for the native inhabitants. Consequently, in line with the policy of import substitution as outlined in the Macdonald's National Policy, the Canadian prairie adopted the cattle ranching role as the measures in promoting their economic standards. Regulations were introduced such as the Dominion Land Act that was enacted in 1889 and it prohibited cattle from grazing on land that has not been leased resulting to the end of the open range system in the Prairie (MacLachlan, 2003).
Over a period of few years, the National Policy played an important role in transforming the rural Prairie West as the cattle industry boomed. The area was also covered by the Transcontinental Railway line and this ensured that the beef that was exported to Britain was possible as the British import regulations were in favour of the beef imports from Canada as compared to America (MacLachlan, 2003). In addition, the number of cattle ranches in the rural Prairie West increased considerably as the plain experienced a cattle boom. As a result, the National Policy played a vital role in ensuring that the rural Prairie West experiences economic development for the benefit of the Canadian economy and the lives of the inhabitants.

Barman, J. (2007). The West beyond the West: A History of British Columbia. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Clarence, B. L. (2005). “Canadian Tariff Policy” in Canadian. Journal of Economics and Political Science, 21(4), 513–530.
Easterbrook, W. T., & Aitken, H. G. J. (1988). Canadian economic history. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
MacLachlan, I. (2003).The Historical Development of Cattle Production in Canada. Retrieved from f?sequence=3…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Confederation and Constitution

...ESSAY #1 Confederation and Constitution The Articles of Confederation was agreed to by Congress on November 15, 1777 and was ratified and in force on March 1, 1781. By the year 1787, this new government had fallen short of the expectations of the people it was intended to govern. The weaknesses in The Articles of Confederation were numerous and had, in the thinking of many prominent men of that time, failed and would lead to a state of anarchy. There was such a sense of urgency to amend it that there seemed to be an atmosphere of panic among many of our Founding Fathers. John Dickenson and fellow members of the 2nd Continental Congress, weary of monarchy rule, had created the Articles of Confederation as a listing of twelve specific Powers given Congress by which to govern. Legislation required nine votes to pass. Each state had only one vote and this was problematic to the larger states, as their problems, more often than not, were based on a larger population and it was not unusual that the smaller states didn’t understand or want to pay for the solutions. Some lesser acts did not require nine votes to pass, but simply a majority of those present. Acts of Significant Consequence did require nine votes. The trouble with all of this was that even if nine votes could be achieved, there was no enforcement of law to be implemented by Congress. Congress could make law but not enforce it. It could charge states for their share of national......

Words: 2326 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

National Employment Policy Instrument and Startegy

...1 National Employment Policy and Strategy of Ethiopia November 2009 Addis Ababa ii Acronyms AIDS ART CETU CSA EEF EPRDF ERP FDI GDP HERQA HICES HIV ICT IHDP IMF M&E MDG MFI MOFED MSE NEC NEPS NES NGO PASDEP PSNP TVET UEAP Acquired Immunity Deficiency Syndrome Anti-retroviral Therapy Confederation of Ethiopian Trade Unions Central Statistical Agency Ethiopian Employers’ Federation Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front Economic Reform Program Foreign Direct Investment Gross Domestic Product Higher Education Relevance and Quality Agency Household Income and Consumption Expenditure Survey Human Immunodeficiency Virus Information and Communication Technology Integrated Housing Development Program International Monetary Fund Monitoring and Evaluation Millennium Development Goals Micro-finance Institutions Ministry of Finance and Economic Development Micro and Small Enterprises National Employment Council National Employment Policy and Strategy National Employment Secretariat Non-governmental Organization Plan for Accelerated and Sustainable Development to End Poverty Productive Safety Net Program Technical and Vocational Education and Training Universal Electricity Access Program iii Table of Contents Foreword ............................................................................................................................ iv PART ONE Background ......................................................................................................

Words: 20689 - Pages: 83

Premium Essay

National Policy on Biofuels

...Government of India Ministry of New & Renewable Energy National Policy on Biofuels Block No. 14, C.G.O. Complex Lodhi Road New Delhi- 110003 Page 1 of 18 National Policy on Biofuels 1.0 1.1 PREAMBLE India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The Development Objectives focus on economic growth, equity and human well being. Energy is a critical input for socio-economic development. The energy strategy of a country aims at efficiency and security and to provide access which being environment friendly and achievement of an optimum mix of primary resources for energy generation. Fossil fuels will continue to play a dominant role in the energy scenario in our country in the next few decades. However, conventional or fossil fuel resources are limited, non-renewable, polluting and, therefore, need to be used prudently. On the other hand, renewable energy resources are indigenous, non-polluting and virtually inexhaustible. India is endowed with abundant renewable energy resources. Therefore, their use should be encouraged in every possible way. 1.2 The crude oil price has been fluctuating in the world market and has increased significantly in the recent past, reaching a level of more than $ 140 per barrel. Such unforeseen escalation of crude oil prices is severely straining of the developing various economies the world over, particularly those countries. Petro-based oil meets about 95% of the requirement for transportation fuels, and......

Words: 4245 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

National Education Policy

...pose today is; is the current National Education Policy (NEP) of Pakistan capable of achieving that which its predecessors have failed to deliver? The answer to this question is not quite as simple as it may seem at first sight. In the course of this paper, we intend to take a step back from the deluge of specific data available on Pakistan’s educational sector and instead, analyze the broad strategic importance of education and the NEP at large. Furthermore, we would, through the course of this paper, dig to the roots of the main problems that have marred the NEP of Pakistan in the past. The representation of numbers will be used where it is most comprehensive, but it should be borne in mind that the strategic importance of education policy, and its effectiveness, takes precedence over the depiction of specific policies being followed at various levels in the education sector. Education, Strategy & the NEP: The vital role of education in the economic growth and social advancement of the society is undeniable. In fact, the relevance of education to the global competitiveness can be gauged from the fact that education forms two pillars (out of twelve) of the Global Competitive Index (GCI). Exhibit 1 shows an excerpt from the GCI report of 2007. The position of Pakistan on the education front relative to its major international competitors is indeed grim. What then, is the NEP targeting? Here, it will be useful to understand what the educational policy of a country actually......

Words: 2169 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Confederation and Constitution

...Confederation and Constitution United States History Professor: 9/30/12 The Articles of Confederation were a great start to shaping and unifying our country, but it was just that, a “start”. It needed to take the country as a whole into consideration in order for it to hold this unity in place. The Articles of Confederation led to the Constitution of the United States. Although similar in some aspects, very different in others. The articles had many weaknesses that were changed in the Constitution. There were many compromises made between the states in order to effectively draft the Constitution. Roger Sherman’s Plan kept the Constitutional Convention together which was later known as the Great Compromise. The fight for the Constitution had just begun and the ratification processes needed to take place. Even with some states being in favor of the Constitution it would take time to get the nine states needed to complete this process. The states in favor would called themselves The Federalist and those opposed were called the Anti-Federalist. The Federalist set out to change the mind of the remaining states with a series of letters that were written to newspapers. The Articles of Confederation were used as a base for the Constitution. The ideas from the Articles of Confederation were used in the writing of the Constitution. Both the Articles and the Constitution established “federal” systems of multiple sovereigns whose continued existence was......

Words: 1610 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

An Act Providing for a National Policy on Reproductive Health and Population and Development

...FIFTEENTH CONGRESS OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES First Regular Session ) ) ) '1~ JUN-6 P7:56 SENATE S. B. No.2865 RECEIVi~,!1 gy:-~_ (In substitution of SB 2378 and 2768, taking into consideration PSR 238) \;--- Prepared Jointly by the Committees on Health and Demography; Finance; and Youth, Women and Family Relations with Senators Defensor-Santiago, Lacson and (P.) Cayetano as authors AN ACT PROVIDING FOR A NATIONAL POLICY ON REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT Be it enacted by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SECTION 1. Short Title. - This Act shall be known as the "The Reproductive Health Act of2011." SEC. 2. State Policies. - The State recognizes and guarantees the human rights of all persons including their right to equality and non-discrimination of these rights, the right to sustainable human development, the right to health which includes reproductive health, the right to education and information, and the right to choose and make decisions for themselves in accordance with their religious convictions, ethics, cultural beliefs, and the demands of responsible parenthood. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 The State shall comply with all its international obligations under various human rights instruments relative to reproductive health and women's empowerment including the Universal Declaration of Human......

Words: 5255 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

The Confederation and the Constitution

...The Confederation and the Constitution | | | | | Shortly after Thomas Jefferson penned the Declaration of Independence in 1776, the delegates at the Second Continental Congress agreed that a new government was necessary to govern the now-independent colonies. After much debate, they drafted and adopted the Articles of Confederation in 1777. Although the Articles were not officially ratified until 1781, they served as the actual constitution until that time. Under the authority of the Articles, the states created a national Congress comprised of annually elected delegates from all thirteen states. Each state had one vote in Congress, and, in most cases, decisions were made based on majority rule. The National Congress’ powers over the states were specific and definite: it had the sole power to negotiate treaties, declare war, and make peace. It also reserved the right to maintain an army and navy and regulated interaction with Native Americans in the West. The delegates also granted Congress the power to resolve interstate disputes, grant loans, print money, and operate a national postal system. Eventually, Congress was also authorized to govern western territories until they achieved statehood. All powers not granted to Congress were reserved for state governments. Congress had no power to levy taxes. For example, it could only request that the individual states raise revenue to cover their share of national expenses. Furthermore, any amendments made to the......

Words: 3410 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

National Labor Relations Board and Social Media Policies

...Student:XXX Professor:XXX National Labor Relations Board and Social Media Policies National Labor Relations Board has been an important federal agency that administers and enforces the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, being and important middleman in relationship between employers and employees. The area of our interest is section 7 of the National Labor Relations Act (29 U.S.C. §157) that permits employees to engage in so called "protected concerted activity” and the recent changes that needed to be brought in order for the Act to catch up with modern day technology advances. Internet has penetrated our lives and social networks started to play an important role in our daily communication. As with everything else, employment and issues associated with it are often being discussed between employees. Reasonably, there is a number of concerns regarding this particular type of online activity and NLRB had to step in in order to clarify its standing regarding these concerns and provide social network communication policies. Social networks like Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn have become the central communication arena for various companies’ employees and social media policies were established by various employers in order to limit what and how can be expressed when communicating online. The idea is to discourage potential discussions that portray the company in a negative way. Employers also don’t want their...

Words: 2926 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Confederation and Constitution

...Articles of Confederation vs. Constitution    There were many differences between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. At the end of the American Revolution the free states needed some sort of control that would generate to a unified country. Issues arose such as: How should power be divided between local and national governments? How should laws be made, and by whom? Who should be authorized to govern those laws? How could the government be designed to protect the unalienable individual rights? Their first attempt at solving this issue was the Articles of Confederation, which was a failure for the most part, but not completely. After the failure of the articles, the state delegates tried to revise the articles, but instead, constructed the Constitution. There were so many changes made and very little remained the same.  The thirteen states formed a Confederation referred to as the “league of friendship” in order to find a solution for common problems such as foreign affairs.The Articles of Confederation was the nation’s first Constitution. The articles created a loose Confederation of independent states that gave limited powers to the central government. Each state would have one vote in the house of Congress, no matter the size of the population. Members of the one-house Congress, such as Pennsylvania, agreed that the new......

Words: 1427 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

National Educational Policy

...NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL POLICY Education - a continuous process which aims to prepare a person to play his role as an enlightened member of the society. In other words, it means all round development of personality of a person. The system of education introduced by the British Government in India was not suitable to needs of free, independent and developing India. Since our independence, India is trying to restructure its education policy to suit the needs of technological and industrial developments. Several Commissions under the chairmanship of well-known educationists have been setup in the past. The last commission on Education was set up under the chairmanship of Dr. D.S. Kothari in 1964. On the basis of its recommendation National Policy on Education was last declared in 1968. Since the adoption of 1968 policy, there has been considerable expansion of education in the country at all levels. Many of the formulation of 1968 policy, however, could not be implemented mainly due to lack of financial and administrative support. The political and socio-economic changes since then and growth of population made the government to think and announce a new education policy. In January 1985, immediately after the new government of Rajiv Gandhi came to power, it was announced that the Government would publish a document on education which would form the base for new education policy for the country. Accordingly "Challenge of Education—a policy per¬spective" was published by the......

Words: 2560 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Foreign Policy Must Be Formulated in Accordance with the National Interest’. Evaluate This Claim Which Is Attributable to Realist Thinking on Foreign Policy.

...Foreign Policy Module Summative Assessment Question 1: Foreign policy must be formulated in accordance with the national interest’. Evaluate this claim which is attributable to realist thinking on foreign policy. * * According to realist thinking on foreign policy, international relations and politics are formulated in accordance with national interest. This presupposes that the key actors in International Relations are sovereign states that behave similarly regardless of their type of government. As well, a state of anarchy is at the fundamental core of this argument and national interests of egoistic states as the main outward presence in international realm. Classic Realism, originally emerged from the European concert of aristocratic diplomacy. By evaluating this claim, this essay will reassert the position and importance of Offensive and Defensive Realism in our contemporary post 9/11 world. These are respectively neoclassical realism and neorealism. Firstly, a detailed account of realism will be produced highlighting the emergence of national interest as the fundamental feature or goal of sovereign states. This is done either through the maintenance of a status quo or aspiration of accumulating influence. It will be concluded that Defensive Realism or neorealism is the principal theoretical sub-school in according this claim any legitimacy. Secondly, a general evaluation of neorealism in post 9/11 world will be provided; and a comparison, and ultimately an...

Words: 4135 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Policy Making in the Federal System Pol201American National Government

...Federal Highway Policy Xanthyne Perrin POL 201 American National Government Professor Angela Cranon-Charles June 8, 2015 When we define the Federal Highway policy, we initially think of the many rules and guidelines that are to be followed when considering operating a motor vehicle. The Federal Highway Policy is placed to make a safer driving experience for many road users that are considering traveling by a motor vehicle. The creation of the Federal Highway Policy system in 1956, which was funded by road users who were paying a federal fuel tax of 18.3 cents per gallon of gasoline (The Heritage Foundation, 2010), which initially lost its since of purpose and today no more than 65% of all federal trust fund spending’s goes to general purpose roads. Like any policy in reference to federalism, there are the pros as well as the cons to any situation. The minimum age of drinking, the safety of the way these roads operate and the speed limits are all considered when discussing the Federal Highway Policy as well as the many issues that takes place in reference to the three issues listed. As we are all familiar, the legal drinking age of alcohol consumption is 21. There are many issues to the legal drinking age and why some agree that is should be lowered. Back in the 1970’s, a trend toward lowering the minimum legal drinking age 18, 19, or 20 took place in the states providing many natural experiments (Wagenarr & Toomey, 2005). As a result of lowering the legal......

Words: 1196 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

National Environmental Policy Act (Nepa)

...Let’s talk about social government policies in the economy. Social government policies aim to improve human welfare and to meet human needs for education, health, housing and social security. For example, The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is considered a social policy. The NEPA is a national environmental law that the U.S. established promoting the enhancement of the environment and to regulate activities that have an environmental impact in the United States. January 1st 1970, President Richard Nixon signed the NEPA which then proceeded to create the Council on Environmental Quality which would analyze the environmental impact of federal actions. The legislation during this period concerned primarily first-generation pollutants in the air, surface water, groundwater, and solid waste disposal. Air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone were put under regulation, and issues such as acid rain and global warming were also concerns. In surface water, the contaminants of concern were bacteria, suspended and dissolved solids, nutrients, and toxic substances such as metals. Finally, solid waste contaminants from agriculture, industry, mining, municipalities, and others were put under control. The NEPA goes through a series of actions before making a...

Words: 692 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Articles of Confederation

...The new United States had finally gained their freedom from England. With being a new country they needed to form a new system of government. The Articles of Confederation was adopted between 1781 to 1789. The Articles of Confederation, I believe, were a "successive failure." Even though the Articles had some successes, there weren't too many. One of the successes was that the negotiation of the Treaty of Paris, which ended up ending the Revolutionary War. Another successful section was the passage of the Northwest Ordinance. In the Northwest Ordinance, formal procedure for transforming territories into states was established. The Ordinance included a Bill of Rights, which guaranteed freedom of religion, the right to trial by jury, public education and a ban on slavery in the Northwest. The Articles were key as to guide the new nation through a critical period of it's beginning. Also through the successes there were the failures produced by the Articles of Confederation. Measures that were passed by Congress needed to seek the approval of nine out of the thirteen states. Under the Articles, the government was severely limited in its powers. They could not raise money by collecting taxes; they could only ask the states, of which did not have give the money. They also had no power over foreign commerce and could not regulate trade between the states. Laws could be passed, but the states could not be forced to agree with them. Since the states did not have to comply, often......

Words: 556 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Articles of Confederation

...Why? The Articles of Confederation provided an inadequate government because of various financial, diplomatic, and social problems that the weak system could not handle. Merchants and planters who depended on the English market were hit hard when an American victory cut ties with England. Staple crops such as rice were no longer in high demand, nor were other products such as fish. England did nothing to ease the impact of these problems; the sale of American farm products were banned in the West Indies ad the rights of American vessels to carry goods to and from the Caribbean were restricted. To finance the war, the Continental Congress had printed more than $240 million in paper money that was backed by “good faith” rather than by hard currency such as gold or silver. The value of this paper currency diminished as doubts that they could ever pay the sum in return rose. The government was unsuccessful when trying to raise money as well; because of the necessary unanimous approval to pass tariffs, the government could not place tariffs on goods because states declined. The Confederation’s diplomatic record was as discouraging as its financial plight. Although the British agrees to evacuate their western forts in the Treaty of Paris, they refused to take any action until the Americans honored their end of the treaty and repaid war debts and returned loyalists’ confiscated properties. A new document was created to replace The Articles of Confederation in 1787. The......

Words: 373 - Pages: 2

Download | the team | The Vampire Diaries