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Court Systems

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Court System

Introduction
The purpose of this paper is to make the reader aware about the significance of the history of judicial system prevailing within the premises of United States. This paper intends to explore the Court System of United States. The major historical developments in the courts of United States will be discussed. Moreover, the rationale of the dual court system of the United States will be outlined. This paper will also explore the correlation between the historical developments and the dual court system of the United States.

Discussion
The development of the state courts within United States can be traced back from the colonial period. Every state in United States organizes its court system independently. Every state has been provided with the right to choose its own organizational structures and the possible jurisdictions of their respective courts. Various types of courts have been developed throughout the history of United States. The federal level states have trial courts normally called district courts and circuit courts which are the appellate tribunals. In New York most of the trial courts are considered supreme courts (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2007).
The development of court system started in the colonial period. Local judges were called magistrates on the lowest level of their colonial judiciary. By the early eighteenth century, the development of formal courts started. After the American Revolution in 1775, distrust towards the judiciary was developed because of the declaration of courts as unconstitutional. State courts were prominent during the civil war and the industrialization era. Modern state courts were developed in order to handle the immense volume of cases. Modern courts like claim courts, domestic relations courts and juvenile courts become prominent in that era.
Various states within United States approve of the unified court system; however some states still prefer operations that are bewildered with complex courts and overlapping jurisdictions. The state courts have now taken four different forms of trial courts; courts of limited jurisdiction, courts of last resort, intermediate appellate courts and trial courts of general jurisdiction (James, 2009).

The Dual Court System
The dual court system identifies the differences between state and federal courts. As discussed above, state and federal courts are normally distinguishable. The dual court system of United States refers to the different tracks of federation and states under the basic judicial branch of government. Federal courts are normally assumed to conduct the matters of criminal and civil nature which falls under the categories of constitutional law and federal law. Various policies and significantly important issues like bankruptcy and federal taxes are dealt with by the federal courts. On the other hand, state courts are responsible to conduct the cases of criminal and civil nature which falls under the categories of state laws and state constitutional matter (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2007).
The court system within United States provides clear distinctions between the federal and state government’s judicial branches. United States clearly makes the application and interpretation of law dependent on the states and federal levels both. The division of the court system of United States is in two separate systems; the federation and the states refers to the dual nature of United States Court Systems. Both the federation and the states are provided with the independence to execute and create legislative branches within governments.
The dual court system is considered to be the product of the colonial period. The establishment of federal judiciary in 1789 by the constitution of United States refers to the independent court system based on the English model. Both the systems, the English and American, were developed simultaneously. Both systems are now able to practice jurisdiction exclusively in some areas and concurrently in others (Mauer, 1996).
The two branches of the dual court system are federal and state court systems. Federal court systems are assumed to be easier to understand. The federal judiciary involves the highest court of the country which is ‘Supreme Court’ of United States. The Supreme Court is exclusively utilized by the federation and it is clearly provided by the constitution. Moreover, federal judiciary also provides certain courts like Court of Federal Claims and the Tax Courts (Walker, 1980).
The State Courts System, on the other hand, are extremely diverse. None of the states provide similar judicial practices. State Courts include inferior courts which are further classified as magistrate courts, municipal courts, county courts and many others. There are also some superior courts at the state levels known as circuit or district courts (James, 2009).

Correlation between Historical Development and Dual Court System
The dual court system of United States is clearly a product of the historical development. The historical development in the judicial aspects of court systems adopted by the thirteen colonies provides the basis of this distinctive and dual court system. The federal government and thus the federal courts handle the issues related to the national interests. On the other hand, state governments and eventually state courts are also responsible to cater to the issues at state level. However, one state is not allowed to get involved in the matters of others (James, 2009).
The historical developments in the United States Courts and judicial system are certainly correlated with the dual court system. The developments, like the introduction of probation , parole and usage of juvenile courts, can be seen as an impact of historical development on the dual court systems. The progressives, group of political thinkers, also contributed towards the development of dual court systems. However, the limitations of dual court systems are not neglected anywhere in the history. In order to provide ultimate justice within United States, new concepts were developed that impacted the court system of United States (Mauer, 1996).
The historical evolution of dual court systems provides courts with jurisdiction limitations. The United States’ court system is dependent upon the foundations of federalism. The courts are provided with the powers to ensure the implementation of laws and punish those who negate the laws. The existence of dual court systems usually do not hinder the provision of justice, rather it aims to facilitate the provision of justice. However, there are times when the jurisdiction of these courts conflict and the nation is bound to suffer.

Conclusion
This paper explored the court system of the United States. The major historical developments in the courts of United States were discussed. The concept of dual court system traces its evolution from the history. The correlation between the state and federal courts is not easy to understand. The federal and state court systems are equally important while performing their functions in their respective jurisdictions. The purpose of this paper was to make the reader aware about the significance of the history of judicial system prevailing within the premises of United States.
References

James, E. P. (2009) One Supreme Court: supremacy, inferiority, and the judicial power of the United States; Oxford University Press Pp. 120-135
Mauer, M. (1996) The Truth about Truth in Sentencing; Corrections Today Vol. 58. No. 1 Pp. 35-41
The Columbia Encyclopedia (2007) Court System in the United States; Columbia University Press, New York 6th edition Pp. 121-141
Walker, D. (1980) Oxford Companion to Law, Oxford University Press, Pp. 301-307…...

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