Free Essay


In: Other Topics

Submitted By Raschad12
Words 768
Pages 4
The Introduced Red Claw Crayfish in Jamaica

The red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, has been a popular choice for aquaculture since the late 1980s. Brood stock of this Australian native was introduced in 1993 to farms in Jamaica. The first known established specimen living in the wild was collected from the Black River in 1999.

Plate 1. Cherax quadricarinatus

Characteristics of Cherax quadricarinatus The species grows to about 100 mm in carapace length. The carapace is usually green-brown with paler spots and mottles; claws tend to be a deeper green colour (Jones and Morgan, 1994).

A prominent feature of this species is the red claw, which gives the species its common name. The soft red patch on the outer margins of the fixed finger of the claw is only seen in males, and becomes increasingly prominent through successive moults. Females have slimmer bluegreen claws that never show any red colouration (eFishbusiness Online).

Plate 2. Male red claw crayfish

Jones (1990) reported that aside from the red colouration and larger size of the cheliped or claw of the mature male, sexual differences in C. quadricarinatus are reasonably subtle. The only characteristic that can be used to distinguish between the sexes in juveniles is the position of the genital opening: at the base of the 3rd and 5th pereiopods (walking legs) in females and males respectively (Shao et al., 1996).


Cherax quadricarinatus is native to the southern hemisphere: throughout the streams and rivers of northern Australia (Jones and Morgan, 1994).

In Jamaica, they have become established in two of the largest river systems in Jamaica: Black River in the parish of St. Elizabeth, and Rio Cobre in St. Catherine.

Behaviour Red claws are very hardy and can tolerate a wide range of conditions, including low water quality in moderately polluted rivers. They are capable of dispersing further than native shrimp, and have been reported to actively move during times of drought to locate permanent bodies of water in their native ecosystem (Wingfield, 2000). This may have applications to its capacity disperse to other rivers in Jamaica.

Impacts Several crayfish species have been introduced beyond their natural ranges worldwide, either accidentally or intentionally for aquaculture. Typically, these animals had adverse effects on the existing crayfish fauna, including the elimination of native species (Vorburger & Ribi, 1999). No crayfish are native to Jamaican rivers and streams; however there are 14 indigenous freshwater shrimp species (Hunte, 1978). Of this number, nine occur in the Black River and Rio Cobre systems collectively. The impact of the crayfish on the native crustacean fauna is being investigated.

Preliminary results indicate, contrary to reports that C. quadricarinatus does not dig burrows in Australia (Wingfield, 2000), that individuals in Jamaican rivers are generally found occupying burrows which they construct in the banks of the rivers.

Plate 3. Crayfish burrows in river bank – Black River

Red claws now contribute to the livelihoods of many fishermen and vendors in St. Elizabeth, St. Catherine and Kingston; the crayfish are purchased alongside native shrimp in large numbers in St. Elizabeth, St. Catherine and Kingston. The quantity in which this crayfish is caught and sold is an indication of its local abundance.



- Forms and Guidelines (acquired September 30, 2002).

Hunte, W., 1978. The distribution of freshwater shrimps (Atyidae and Palaemonidae) in Jamaica. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 64: 135-150.

Jones, C., 1990. General biology of Cherax quadricarinatus. - In: Shelley, C.C. & M.C.Pearce eds., Proceedings of the seminar Farming the red-claw freshwater crayfish. Pp.1-6.

Vorburger, C. & G. Ribi, 1999. Aggression and competition for shelter between a native and an introduced crayfish in Europe. Freshwater Biology 42: 111-119.

Williams Jr., E.W., Bunkley-Williams, L., Lilyestrom, C.G. & E.A. Ortiz-Corps, 2001. A review of recent introductions of aquatic invertebrates in Puerto Rico and implications for the management of nonindigenous species. Caribbean Journal of Science 37 (3-4): 246-251.

Wingfield, M.J., 2000. An overview of production techniques practiced in the Australian crayfish farming industry (acquired December 7, 2002). Jones, D.S. & G.J. Morgan, 1994. A field guide to crustaceans of Australian waters. Reed/ Western Australian Museum. 216 pp.

Shao, L., Wang, X. & J. Zhu, 1996. Preliminary study on the morphological features and behaviors of Cherax quadricarinatus. J. Zhejiang Coll. Fish., 15 (3): 201-205.

Contact information: Sacha-Renee Todd CHM Information Officer

Institute of Jamaica.

Postgraduate Student Life Sciences Department, University of the West Indies Mona.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

The Woods

...failed, we trod down the center of the stream, lifting up flat rocks to uncover unsuspecting crayfish. We did not know that people actually ate these peculiar looking creatures. In the winter, we would compete to see who could stand on the ice of the frozen stream the longest. The stream would always win, as the ice gave way with a resounding crack. We walked home with heavy feet, dragging rock-hard pant legs frozen up to the knees. Older kids rode their motorcycles in the woods and adjacent field, as the high-pitched engine whine and smells of two cycle oil mixed with gasoline filled the air. Eventually, my neighborhood trio had motorcycles of our own, and our spinning tires would cut trails through the shaded damp sod in the woods. A man would appear from his nearby garage, staring at us as we rode. He worked on large trucks, and this day was no different. His arms were covered in grease from fingertips to elbows. We paid little mind to him, as the thrill of the ride was more exciting. After a few minutes, he returned to his garage work. More than thirty years later, I stand outside my garage and look out at the woods I now own, watching a motorcycle maneuver through the trees. Time has replaced the horse pasture with a housing development, but the woods remain untouched. I see three boys walking down the stream, lifting the same flat rocks to find descendants of crayfish uncovered years ago. The boys spot me, and I give a wave which goes mostly unnoticed. They......

Words: 432 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Are Claw and Antenna Lengths Characteristics of Sexual Selection in Orconectues Rusticus?

...Are Claw and Antenna lengths characteristics of Sexual Selection in Orconectues rusticus? INTRODUCTION The Orconectes rusticus, otherwise known as the Rusty Crayfish, originated from a native range in the Ohio River and other tributaries, centuries ago. It’s introduction to other habitats is largely attributable to it’s use as fishing bait, moving the species from New Mexico to Maine in the United States and as far north as the Province of Ontario and Manitoba. Rusty crayfish in Ontario were first noted in 1963 in the Lake of the Woods, and have since then have been found in Kawartha Lakes Region, Lake Superior watershed, expanding down the Winnipeg River, into Manitoba. As a study of Trent University, these Rusty Crayfish are easy accessible due to the fact that the Otonabee River, a rich habitat for this species, runs right through campus. This species have specific morphological features. Typically, adult O. rusticus reaches a maximum of 11 cm. Males have some different characteristics than females but most appear to have dark “rusty” spots that are apparent on the side of their bodies. (CITATION) These characteristics may differ due to many reasons, one in which may be because the Darwinian theory of sexual selection. This implies that since the female of a species invests so much time in each of her offspring it would be an advantage to choose a particular mate with, making sure that her offspring becomes as fit as possible. On the other hand, a male species......

Words: 1288 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

African Foods

...Vegetable: Scent Leaves for Ofe Akwu or dried and crushed bitterleaves for Delta-style Banga Soup 2 medium onions A handful crayfish or 2 tablespoons of ground Crayfish Salt and Chilli Pepper (to taste) Ogiri Okpei (Iru) 1-2 big stock cubes Before you cook the Nigerian Banga Soup Extract the palm fruit concentrate from the palm fruits. If using the tinned palm fruit concentrate, open the tin and set aside. Cook the beef and the dry fish with 1 bulb of diced onion and the stock cubes till done. Wash and cut the scent leaves into tiny pieces. The scent leaves give the Banga Stew (Ofe Akwu) its unique aroma and taste. If you are outside Nigeria, this may be hard to find, so you can use pumpkin leaves or any other vegetable in place of scent leaves. If cooking Delta-style Banga Soup for starch, you should either cook this soup without vegetables or use dried and crushed bitter leaves. Cut the remaining bulb of onion. Pound the crayfish, ogiri okpei and pepper in a mortar and set aside. You can also grind them with a dry mill. Cooking Directions Set the pot of palm fruit extract on the stove and start cooking at high heat. Leave to boil till you notice come red oil at the surface of the Banga Stew. If you think that the Banga Soup is watery, cook till the soup has thickened to the consistency you like for your stews. Now, add the beef, dry fish and stock, the onions, crayfish and pepper and leave to boil very well. Add the scent leaves or other vegetable and salt to taste.......

Words: 574 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Chapter 12 Test

...can make for yourself without difficulty. I'd like to encourage you to become a Friend of FAOL Your involvement as a "Friend of FAOL" will help support this and future courses this magazine wants to offer. In the long run, your involvement will ensure future courses of instruction that you and others will be able to use to enhance your pleasure and involvement in this fine sport. Enough of that! The first thing you need to know about tying your own flies is a little bit about the flies themselves. Some of you will probably know this information, but there are a few who don't; so I'll give you a refresher course. Streamers are flies that represent minnows, crayfish, leaches and a variety of other life forms that swim under the surface of lakes and streams.Since fish often eat minnows, leaches and crayfish, this is an important type of fly to learn how to tie. Nymphs represent the nymphal or larva stage in an insect's life cycle. Since insects spend most of their life in the nymph or larva stage, this is an important stage in terms of fish forage. I've heard that up to 95 percent of a stream fish's diet is nymphs and larva in some form. Need I say more about the importance of this type of fly? Wet flies are simply flies that don't float. They usually represent nymphs and pupae that are swimming toward the surface of the water or trying to break through the surface film to become adults. Since many insects become lunch menu items during this stage of their......

Words: 677 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Gift Request

...Keith . I am 5 Feet 11 inches tall. I weigh 250 pounds. I am 34 years old I have Red hair, Blue Eyes, and fair skin due to Irish ancestry. I was born, raised, and currently reside, Louisiana. My immediate family is middle class. Although I have many close relatives who are successful. "Epic Inspiration" I enjoy watching the latest movies and social networking such as Facebook and Myspace. I enjoy Heavy Metal and Hard Rock music. I am always going to the next "Big Event" Concert. I am the type of person to say what I mean and mean what I say. I enjoy growing vegetables and am an avid jalapeno eater. I am a smoker and a social drinker. The food where I live is "Epic" Crabs, Crayfish, Shrimp, and oysters. Absolutely nothing compares to "New Orleans Cuisine" I enjoy indulging myself in the endless dishes that can be derived enjoy the simplest things in life. I could live in complete poverty and be fine. . Due to financial hunger I left high school early to pursue an immediate career. I have worked since I was sixteen. My firs job was working as hired help in a local Covington restaurant as the grill man. After working there for a while I practically ran the show. I was the Backbone. But as I turned 17 I knew it was not enough. My Uncle needed help to run his carpet business so I worked by day as his helper......

Words: 404 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Lab Report 10

...Chelapeds: large walking appendages of a crayfish; appendages allow the crayfish to grasp and tear food, and also defend itself (b.) Walking legs: the 4 pairs of appendages used to locomote in the crayfish, they are equipped with gills which allows for gas exchange (taking in oxygen, releasing carbon dioxide) (c:.) Maxillapeds: an appendage modified for feeding: holding food, touching and tasting (d.) Cephalothorax: the first segment of a crayfish, consisting of a head fused to the thorax (e.) Genital pore: location of where sperm or eggs are released (f.) Nephridiopore: Part of the excretory system for removing nitrogenous waste. (g.) Abdomen: the multi-segmented posterior region of the crayfish used to swim backwards (h.) Uropod/telson: - small flippers (2) on the end of the abdomen of a crayfish that is used for swimming (i.) Carapace/exoskeleton: Acts as a skeleton and a shield which projects backwards from the head and covers the thorax. The carapace has two functions; firstly it protects the delicate feather-like gills which branch off from the base of the legs, and secondly it provides a water channel that is a constant flow of oxygenated water to pass over the gills and enables the crayfish to breathe. (j.) Antennas/ Antennules: short sensory appendages below the eyestalks of the head region of the cephalothorax section of a crayfish, sensing food and touch, helps maintain the crayfish’s balance

Words: 2434 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Case Study This issue not only effected the reputation of the hotel negatively within the community and it caused the business to take a loss due to the cash registers being tampered with. Being the only pub for miles making the news in a negative fashion defiantly hurts the business over all. The second major issue was the fact that Dinner was a disaster. Competent in catering for 80 settings, the kitchen didn’t have the correct ingredients available for the new menu. The new menu had been designed by Russell who dismissed any suggestions made by Chef Brendan as ‘too country bumpkin’. With the extra number of diners, the overloaded oven took twice as long to heat the apricot stuffed chicken breasts; the kitchen hand Denise overcooked the crayfish; and there weren’t enough plates because Roger the dishwasher had failed to turn up for work. The Japanese tourist guides complained that they weren’t ‘Greeted & Seated’, that the staff member (Lilian) just talked to the bus driver; the menu on a blackboard was written only in English; the meal was late and the waiting staff were rude. Furthermore the toilet facilities weren’t properly cleaned. This issue would also be a major issue because it is giving a bad rep for the hotel and the way they handle their guest and customers.  The first minor issue that was noticed after analyzing the case study would be the new staff uniforms had been delivered, and there were grumbles about looking like religious cult members. It was generally......

Words: 739 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Two Kinds of Sex Pheromones in Lysmata Shrimps

... Sex pheromones in Lysmata shrimps Rui Yang BIO4995 Undergraduate Research Advisor: Dr. Junda Lin July 30, 2010 Introduction Many crustaceans species, such as crabs (Ryan 1966; Gleeson 1980; Seifert 1982; Hardege et al. 2002; Kamio et al. 2002), lobsters (Atema 1984 for a review), and crayfish (Ameyaw-Akumn and Hazlett 1975; Tierney et al. 1984), copulate with the females using chemical compounds as sex attractants. Pheromones as a kind of chemical signals are widespread in aquatic species. To communicate and mate, sex pheromones that emitted by male or female become the most important chemical messages and are also used in mate choice. Sex pheromones are classified two types: distance pheromones and contact pheromones. As a kind of water-borne (aquatic species) or volatile (terrestrial species) chemical, distance pheromones can take effect within a certain range in water or in air Chang et al. 2007, Lim and Greenfield 2008). Kamio et al. (2002) found that post-molt females can release a water-borne pheromone, which is different from pre-molt females. Unlike distance pheromones, contact pheromones are insoluble and coat the female’s body (Kamiguchi 1972, Bauer 1979, Borowsky 1991, Zhang and Lin 2006). In many animals, pheromones are detected by specialized receptor organs, such as vomeronasal systems of vertebrates (Halpern and Martinez-Marcos 2003). But crustaceans sense chemicals through an organ called cuticular sensilla. Antennules, as the first part of antennae,......

Words: 1862 - Pages: 8

Free Essay


...Animal Diversity Time Requirements: Exercise 1: 15 mins. Exercise 2: 15 mins. Exercise 3: 30 mins. Exercise 4: 10 mins. Exercise 5: 15 mins. Exercise 6: 20 mins. Exercise 7: 30 mins. Exercise 8: 10 mins. Exercise 9: 30 mins. Materials Required: ITEM NUMBER (per group) LOCATION Any living or preserved plant *specimens (listed below) Display Cart/Counter Microscopes (compound and dissecting) Display Counter Colored pencils 1 set Cart/Counter *Specimens: Preserved or Living Prepared Slides Grantia Grantia choanocytes Hydra Planaria Tapeworm Clam Termite Brittle star Crayfish Earthworm Frog Mammal skulls Sand dollar Sea cucmber Sea star Lab Safety: Wear safety goggles/glasses and gloves while handing specimens (it is preferred that specimens remain in the appropriate containers untouched). Lab coats or aprons may be available upon request. Demonstrations/Tutorials: To display each life cycle with specimens and slides, see the following display suggestions – Clean up and Disposal of Waste 1. Return any materials to original locations. 2. Try to preserve any living specimens for future labs. Lab Alternatives – Computer Based p. 113 Exercise 1 – Phylum Porifera – Sponges Given that all sponges are filter feeders, why does it follow that all sponges are aquatic? Filter feeding is the filtering of nutrients and plankton suspended in water therefore for sponges to feed effectively they must be......

Words: 4763 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Epa Issues

...Name: Yolanda Sanchez Lab Activity 11 – Aquatic Biodiversity (Macroinvertebrates) NSCI 102 In this activity, you will learn about how samples of macroinvertebrates found on stream bottoms can be analyzed to determine water quality. Macroinvertebrates are organisms with no backbone that are visible without using a microscope. Crayfish, aquatic snails, and the larvae of aquatic insects are examples of stream-bottom macroinvertebrates. Macroinvertebrates are an important link in the aquatic food chain. They feed upon algae and leaves that fall into the stream and are eaten by larger consumers, such as fish. Macroinvertebrates are useful for studying water quality because some of them cannot survive in polluted waters, while others thrive. Since stream-bottom macroinvertebrates do not generally move very far within a stream, they are excellent indicators of long-term pollution trends. Levels of pollution may vary over time, so a one-time chemical analysis of the water may not provide an accurate picture. However, if pollutants are common in a stream, the macroinvertebrates found there will primarily be the ones that are tolerant of poor water quality. In addition, macroinvertebrates are relatively easy to collect, so analyzing this community can be used to get an initial indication of water quality to see if additional chemical tests are necessary. Materials needed for this lab: - Handouts: Stream Sample A, Stream Sample B, Macroinvertebrate Key ...

Words: 911 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...main suspected threat is the chytrid fungi. Although many studies have been undertaken, the success has been limited, as they have not been able to confirm the critical threat to the frogs. A studying conducted between 1997 and 1999 revealed that the frogs were present in 213 sites around the NSW and Victorian border but this number dropped only 79 sites as of 2001, revealing how quickly these animals were disappearing. A captive-breeding program, led by Sydney's Taronga Zoo, reintroduced 800 eggs into Kosciuszko National Park in 2012. 2. Margaret River burrowing crayfish - Engaewa pseudoreducta IUCN listing: Critically Endangered With only two known populations, the Margaret River burrowing crayfish is highly endangered. Even one of these may no longer exist, as there have been no sightings since 1985. The threats are almost all attributed to human activity. Land clearing  is the biggest danger, as crayfish habitat can be eroded or contaminated by farming, mining and urban development. Feral pigs also damage habitat. No current population information exists but it is estimated that numbers are very low because of the restricted range of the species. 3. Lord Howe Island phasmid - Dryococelus australis IUCN listing: Critically Endangered Once plentiful on Lord Howe Island, the phasmid came under serious threat in 1918 when black rats were introduced. They are now only found in the wild on Balls Pyramid, a rocky outcrop off the coast of the main island. In......

Words: 1801 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Research France

...champenoise for making champagne was invented by Dom Pérignon, a monk. It is left to mature for between one and five years, then the cork and any sediment is removed and the sweetness adjusted before being recorked and sold. North Eastern France: Baeckeoffe is a stew of marinated beef, pork, and mutton stewed with onions and potatoes in wine. Choucroute alsacienne is pickled cabbage flavored with juniper berries and served with sausages, bacon, or pork knuckle. The Rhone-Saone Valley: Bouchons do not have the reputation of being fancy restaurants, though they offer a wide variety of meals, among which are the famous pâté aux foies de volailles (chicken liver pate), quenelles (light dumplings made of meat, fish, or cheese), sauce nantua (a crayfish butter béchamel), and cervelle de canut (traditionally, a farmhouse-style cheese would be used for this cream cheese spread/dip; the rather derogatory name translates as “silk weaver's brains,” The Alps-Jura Region: Rochette jurassienne (pieces of cheese wrapped in ham and fried on a skewer) or escalope de veau belle comtoise (veal escalopes covered in breadcrumbs and baked with slices of ham and cheese) are classic dishes. Other specialities include brési (cured beef in thin slices) and poulet au vin jaune (chicken and morels in a creamy sauce flavored with the local wine). The Central Plateau: The province of Auvergne is a remote and rural region; its traditional cuisine is simple and filling. Dishes often feature a combination......

Words: 594 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...investigated the different of behaviors shown by two crayfish of the same gender, but of different sizes. The objective of this experiment were to apply the scientific method to the agnostic behavior of the crayfish, carefully handle the crayfish and let them acclimate to the environment, and discussed the differences in territorial behavior examined by the animals based on size. The null hypothesis was there will be no difference in the number of seconds crayfish are engaged in agnostic interaction between larger or smaller crayfish. The alternative hypothesis was there will be a difference in the number of seconds crayfish are engaged in interaction between larger or smaller. Predictions made before the experiment indicated there would be more behaviors of meral spread, and retreating observed by the smaller crayfish and more wrestling and clawing by the larger crayfish. Background Red swamp crayfish was found in the year of 1974 Red swamp crayfish are native to south central United States. (Chapman,S, 1998)The Red Swamp Crayfish will eat all types of things, including fish eggs and hatchlings, which can pose a problem. In addition to this, these crayfish tend to dig into the banks deeper than the native European crayfish and this causes erosion. (Chapman,S, 1998). They are an average size but seem too aggressive. Crayfish may engage in agonistic behaviors when they are, in the presence of another crayfish. (Chapman,S, 1998). Crayfish have 5 pairs of walking legs, the......

Words: 331 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...bakery’s advertising bill must be greater than $1000. $1000/15%=$6667. Therefore, the advertising bill of the bakery should be more than $6667 in order to become a better investment project so that the net benefit of saving would exceed $1000 obtained from the first project. Question 3 The table below shows the amount of crayfish production given the number of hours spent fishing. Number of hours | Number of Crayfish | 0 | 0 | 1 | 5 | 2 | 8 | 3 | 9 | The fisher can sell each crayfish for $20. Each hour of fishing costs $70. How many hours will the fisher fish to earn as much profit as possible? Explain. Number of hours | Number of Crayfish | Profit | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 5 | 30 | 2 | 8 | 20 | 3 | 9 | -30 | As can be seen from the information given, we can use the total income minus the total cost to get the total profits of the fisher. For example, if the fisher fish for 2 hours, the total profit would be 8*$20-2*$70=$20. Similar method can be applied to calculate the rest profits at each level. As can be seen from the computation, the fisher maximizes his profit when he fishes for just one hour and catch 5 crayfish. Then there is a declining trend of profit because the speed of income accumulation or efficiency or productivity would be insufficient to catch up with the increasing labour cost. Question 4 Suppose you have just won $100 in a lottery. You have a choice between two alternatives: (1) use it to buy a new shirt that costs......

Words: 1043 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Yyy Yyy

...taste. Simmer for about 10 minutes Serve with cassava fufu AFANG SOUP INGREDIENTS QUANTITIES Beef 8 medium pieces Stockfish head 1 Small size Cow Skin 10 medium pieces Smoked fish (Calabar type) 1 medium pair Perewinkle in shell (optiona) 2 cups Afang leaves (Finely shredded) 1 medium sized mudu Water leaves 5 small bunches or heaps Crayfish (ground) 4 tablespoons Dry Pepper 1 tablespoon Or Fresh Pepper 4 large size Palm Oil 1 litre Maggi Cube 4 Water 2½ litres Salt To taste METHOD - Season the beef with a little salt, dry pepper and Maggi Cube. - Steam till water dries up. Add 1 litre of water, the stockfish head, cow skin and continue cooking for another 20 minutes. - Pound or blend the finely shredded Afang leaves till very fine. - Pick, wash and shred the water leaves finely. - Wash and debone the fish. Add the remaining water, the fish, crayfish, pepper, the remaining Maggi Cube and the periwinkle. - Stir and allow to boil for about 5 minutes. - Add the palm oil, Stir and cook for about 2 minutes. - Add the waterleaves, stir and cover the pot for about 5 minutes add the Afang and stir thoroughly. - Add salt to taste. Simmer for about 5 minutes. - Remove from heat and serve with cassava fufu, pounded yam or Eba. MIYAN......

Words: 18910 - Pages: 76