Free Essay

Crickets and Dopamine

In: Science

Submitted By nkapoor
Words 4412
Pages 18
Cocaine reward and locomotion stimulation in mice with reduced dopamine transporter expression
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
Abstract
Background
The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a critical role in regulating dopamine neurotransmission. Variations in DAT or changes in basal dopaminergic tone have been shown to alter behavior and drug responses. DAT is one of the three known high affinity targets for cocaine, a powerful psychostimulant that produces reward and stimulates locomotor activity in humans and animals. We have shown that cocaine no longer produces reward in knock-in mice with a cocaine insensitive mutant DAT (DAT-CI), suggesting that cocaine inhibition of DAT is critical for its rewarding effect. However, in DAT-CI mice, the mutant DAT has significantly reduced uptake activity resulting in elevated basal dopaminergic tone, which might cause adaptive changes that alter responses to cocaine. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine how elevated dopaminergic tone affects how mice respond to cocaine.
Results
We examined the cocaine induced behavior of DAT knockdown mice that have DAT expression reduced by 90% when compared to the wild type mice. Despite a dramatic reduction of DAT expression and marked elevation in basal dopamine tone, cocaine produced reward, as measured by conditioned place preference, and stimulated locomotor activity in these mice.
Conclusion
A reduction in DAT expression and elevation of dopaminergic tone do not lead to adaptive changes that abolish the rewarding and stimulating effects of cocaine. Therefore, the lack of reward to cocaine observed in DAT-CI mice is unlikely to have resulted from the reduced DAT activity but instead is likely due to the inability of cocaine to block the mutated DAT and increase extracellular dopamine. This study supports the conclusion that the blockade of DAT is required for cocaine reward and locomotor stimulation.
-------------------------------------------------
Background
Cocaine is a powerful psychostimulant and an addictive drug of abuse. Considerable evidence indicates that the blockade of the dopamine transporter (DAT) by cocaine and the subsequent elevation of extracellular dopamine (DA) primarily MEDIATE the stimulating and rewarding effects of cocaine [1-4]. DA is an important neurotransmitter involved in many critical functions includingMOTOR CONTROL, emotion, motivation, memory, and reward [5]. The DA transporter is responsible for DA reuptake and RECYCLING, and thus plays a critical role in maintaining DA homeostasis and in regulating DA neurotransmission. Variations or polymorphisms in the DAT gene have been associated with behavioral changes and modified drug response. For instance, it has been shown that the 9-repeat allele of a 3' variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the DAT gene is associated with lower basal DA tone and greater DA release in response to nicotine [6]. More significantly, the 9-repeat allele has also been associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and increased aggression [7,8].
There is also evidence that changes to DAT in animals can affect their drug responses and behavior. It is widely believed that the addictive psychostimulants elevate locomotor activity and produce reward by activating the dopaminergic system. However, cocaine still produces reward in dopamine transporter knockout mice (DAT-KO mice) [9-11]. Importantly, DAT-KO mice show additional differences from wild type mice. The selective serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitor fluoxetine and the selective norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor nisoxetine do not produce reward in wild type mice, but both drugs produce reward in DAT-KO mice [12-14]. Fluoxetine and reboxetine (another NET selective inhibitor) have also been reported to increase extracellular DA levels in the nucleus accumbens in DAT-KO mice, but not in wild type mice [13,15,16]. It is likely that the absence of DAT in DAT-KO mice has altered neuronal signaling pathways. Therefore, it is not clear how the modulation of DAT would affect cocaine induced reward and locomotor activity.
To avoid the adaptive changes seen in DAT-KO mice, we previously generated a knock-in mouse line with a cocaine-insensitive DAT (DAT-CI) [17]. In DAT-CI mice, cocaine decreases locomotor activity and does not produce reward as measured by conditioned place preference (CPP) [17]. Our results suggest that the blockade of DAT is required for cocaine induced reward and locomotor stimulation. In DAT-CI mice however, the modified DAT has reduced transport function resulting in elevated extracellular DA levels and hyperactivity. Therefore, it is a concern that cocaine's inability to produce reward or to increase locomotor activity might be due to increased DA basal tone or other adaptations caused by the reduced DA transport function in DAT-CI mice.
A DAT knock-down mouse line (DAT-KD) has been generated which has a 90% reduction in DAT expression compared to the wild type mice [18]. DAT-KD mice display significantly altered behaviors, such as hyperactivity and slower habituation to a novel environment. Importantly, amphetamine, which increases locomotion in wild type mice, reduces locomotor activity in DAT-KD mice [18]. DAT-KD mice also exhibit differences from wild type mice in their response to sweet rewards [19,20]. These studies indicate that alterations in DAT expression can change an animal's behavior and modify its response to drugs including psychostimulants. DAT-KD mice provide a good animal MODEL to test how reduced DAT expression affects cocaine-induced animal behaviors.
In the current study, we compared the cocaine response in DAT-KD mice and wild type mice with two behavioral tests: drug induced locomotion and CPP. Our results revealed the effects of reduced DAT expression on cocaine-elicited animal behaviors.
-------------------------------------------------
Results
Locomotion stimulation
First, we examined the effects of cocaine or saline injection on mouse locomotor activity. WT and DAT-KD mice were placed in an open field box (25 cm × 25 cm) and locomotor activity was recorded for 60 minutes. After the habituation period, cocaine or saline were injected and mouse locomotor activities were monitored for another 60 minutes. Figure 1A and 1B show the time COURSE of the response of DAT-KD and wild type mice, respectively, to saline, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg cocaine. DAT-KD mice displayed higher basal locomotor activity (p < 0.001, t-test) than their wild type littermates (Fig. 1C). This observation is consistent with previously published results [18]. Fig.1D shows the total distance TRAVELED IN 30 min after injection of saline or different doses of cocaine. Two way ANOVA detected a main effect of drug (F3,66 = 22.38, p < 0.001) and significant difference between genotypes (F1,66 = 19.57, p < 0.001); but the drug-genotype interaction did not reach a significant level (F3,66 = 2.686, p = 0.053). The data were further analyzed with post hoc Bonferroni tests. Comparing the two genotypes of mice, we found no difference between WT and DAT-KD mice in distance traveled after saline injection (p > 0.05), despite the higher basal locomotor activity in DAT-KD mice. However, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg cocaine had a greater stimulating effect on locomotor activity in the DAT-KD mice (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001), while there was no significant difference in the effects of 20 mg/kg cocaine on the two genotypes of mice (p > 0.05). For the cocaine effect, post hoc tests indicated that 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg cocaine significantly stimulated locomotor activity compared to saline in the DAT-KD mice (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001). In the wild type mice, 5 mg/kg cocaine did not significantly stimulate locomotor activity, while 10 and 20 mg/kg cocaine did (p > 0.05, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001 respectively).
Figure 1. Effect of cocaine on locomotor activity in DAT-KD mutant mice compared to WT mice. Mice were habituated to the locomotor test chamber for 60 minutes. Cocaine or saline were injected (ip) and mice were returned to the test chamber and monitored for another 60 min. A) and B): Time COURSE of locomotor activity of WT mice and DAT-KD mice. Saline, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg cocaine was given at the time indicated by the arrows. Data shown are average distance traveled in 5 min. C) Total distance traveled in 60 minutes for wild type and DAT-KD mice during their habituation to the chambers before drug or saline injection. DAT-KD mice are significantly more active than wild type ice (***, p < 0.001, t-test). D) Total distance traveled in 30 min after the injection of saline or 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg cocaine with 6 – 8 mice in each group. Two-way ANOVA was performed. Cocaine significantly increased locomotor activities in both genotypes of mice (for drug effect, F3,66 = 22.38, p < 0.001) and had greater effect on DAT-KD mice than on the WT mice (for genotype, F1,66 = 19.57, p < 0.001). Error bars represent standard error of means. Post hoc Bonferroni tests versus saline: *, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.01; ***, p < 0.001. Comparing between the two genotypes, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg cocaine had a greater effect on locomotor activity in the DAT-KD mice than in wild type mice (#, p < 0.01).
Conditioned place preference
Next, we tested whether cocaine can still produce reward in DAT-KD mice using the CPP test. As shown in Fig. 2, 5 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg cocaine significantly increased the time spent in cocaine-paired chamber by both wild type and DAT-KD mice. Statistical analysis with ANOVA indicated a main drug effect (F2,40 = 24.25, p < 0.0001), the lack of a difference between genotypes (F1,40 = 0.1180, p > 0.05) and the lack of a drug-genotype interaction (F2,40 = 0.8827, p > 0.05). Post-hoc Bonferroni analysis showed the increase in time spent in the cocaine-paired chamber was significant at 5 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg cocaine for both wild type (p < 0.05 and 0.01 respectively) and DAT-KD mice (p < 0.001 and 0.001 respectively). The time mice spent in the unpaired chamber decreased in the cocaine treated groups (data not shown). Therefore, the rewarding effect of cocaine is preserved in DAT-KD mice in which the activity of DAT, the primary target of cocaine, is dramatically reduced.
Figure 2. Cocaine induced CPP in DAT-KD mutant mice and WT mice. CPP is represented by the difference in the time mice spend in the drug-paired chamber between pre-conditioning day and post-conditioning day. Both 5 and 20 mg/kg cocaine produced significant CPP in both WT mice and DAT-KD mice (for drug effect, F2,1 = 24.25, p < 0.0001). Eight mice were examined in each group. Error bars represent standard error of means. Post hoc Bonferroni tests versus saline: *, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.01; ***, p < 0.001.
-------------------------------------------------
Discussion
The dopamine transporter is a key component in the regulation of DA neurotransmission. Most evidence suggests that the blockade of DAT and the subsequent increase in extracellular DA primarilyMEDIATE the stimulating and rewarding effects of cocaine. However, the persistence of the rewarding effect of cocaine in DAT-KO mice suggests a mechanism of DAT-independent cocaine reward, which might be due to the extensive adaptive changes in DAT-KO mice. To test whether the DAT-independent cocaine reward also plays a role in normal mice, we made a knock-in mouse line with the endogenous DAT replaced by a cocaine-resistant DAT mutant. In these DAT-CI mice, cocaine suppresses locomotion and does not produce reward, supporting the hypothesis that cocaine blockade of DAT is required for cocaine reward in normal mice [17]. However, DAT activity in DAT-CI mice is significantly lower than that in wild type mice, and changes in DAT have been shown to alter behaviors or drug responses. For example, reduced DAT activity in DAT-KD mice has been shown to alter behavioral responses to amphetamine, another psychostimulant that impacts the dopaminergic system [18]. It remains a concern that in DAT-CI mice the lack of cocaine response might be due to compensatory changes from the lowered DAT activity. Therefore, we studied cocaine effects on DAT-KD mice.
The DAT-KO and DAT-CI mice were generated using ES cells from 129Sv/J mice and crossed with C57BL6 mice, thus they have a mixed genetic background [17]. Several studies used mice that were backcrossed with C57BL6 mice for many generations [17]. The original DAT-KD mice were generated in 129Sv/J background but this strain does not respond well in many tests that are used to evaluate psychostimulant effects. Therefore, the DAT-KD mice used in this study were backcrossed to C57BL/6J for 8 to 9 generations and thus their background matches with the backgrounds of both the DAT-CI mice and DAT-KO mice. This is important because it has been shown that cocaine's effects are not the same in different strains of mice [21,22]. In addition, DAT-KO mice backcrossed to different strain backgrounds also respond to cocaine differently [23].
In DAT-KD mice, DAT activity is reduced to 10% of the wild type level, resulting in a hyperdopaminergic tone and increased locomotor activity [18]. In addition, DAT-KD mice have an altered response to amphetamine, which might be due to an altered balance between DA autoreceptor and heteroreceptor functions [18]. Amphetamine elevates extracellular DA by interacting with DAT and, more importantly, with the vesicular monoamine transporter, inhibiting DA uptake, and inducing DA release from DA containing vesicles to the cytosol through the vesicular monoamine transporter and to the extracellular space through DAT [5]. In contrast, cocaine elevates extracellular DA by simply binding to DAT and inhibiting DA reuptake. Despite the vastly different mechanisms of action, amphetamine and cocaine both increase DA in the synapse and enhance dopaminergic neurotransmission, thereby stimulating locomotor activity and producing reward in animals. The fact that amphetamine produces locomotor inhibition instead of stimulation in DAT-KD mice suggested the possibility that cocaine effects might also be altered in these mice.
Fig. 1 shows that DAT-KD mice had considerably higher baseline locomotor activity than WT mice before drug or saline injection and this difference was statistically significant (Fig. 1C). This result CONFIRMS our previous observation [18] and is consistent with the hyperdopaminergic tone in these mice [18]. Fig. 1 also shows that cocaine clearly increased locomotor activity in DAT-KD mice as well as in WT mice. While cocaine was capable of increasing locomotor activity in both genotypes, there were differences in each genotype's response. For instance, both 5 and 10 mg/kg cocaine produced stronger locomotor stimulation in DAT-KD mice than it did in wild type mice (Fig. 1D). The reason for this difference is not clear but could be due to presynaptic or postsynaptic adaptive changes, such as reduced D2 autoreceptor signaling, in response to the hyperdopaminergic tone in DAT-KD mice. It is also not clear why the amphetamine effect is altered in DAT-KD mice while the cocaine effect is maintained. Our results demonstrate that a dramatically reduced DAT activity does not lead to a loss or a reduction of the stimulating effect of cocaine. This is in contrast to observations of DAT-KO mice and DAT-CI mice. In heterozygous DAT-KO mice, DAT activity is reduced by 50% and cocaine stimulates locomotion as well as in WT mice; while in homozygous DAT-KO mice, DAT is absent and cocaine has no effect on locomotion [24]. In DAT-CI mice, the mutated DAT is over 50-fold less sensitive to cocaine inhibition but has lower uptake activity. Instead of stimulation, cocaine suppresses locomotor activity in DAT-CI mice [17]. The fact that cocaine retains these effects in both heterozygous DAT-KO mice and DAT-KD mice indicates that the reduction of DAT expression and thus DAT activity to 50% and 10% of wild type mice does not by itself lead to adaptive changes that abolish the stimulating effect of cocaine and in fact, 10% DAT activity seems to be sufficient for the preservation of many normal functions, such as some cocaine responses. Therefore, the locomotor suppression observed in DAT-CI mice is not due to reduced DA clearance or changes in DA homeostasis but is due to the lack of cocaine inhibition of DAT and to cocaine effects on other cocaine targets. Cocaine inhibition of DAT, SERT, and NET and the resulting enhancement of neurotransmission in all three systems may contribute to the locomotor effect in wild type mice. Cocaine inhibition of SERT and/or NET in the absence of DAT inhibition in DAT-CI mice leads to locomotor suppression. It is not clear whether cocaine inhibition of SERT or NET enhances or dampens locomotor stimulation in wild type mice where DAT is also inhibited. Further studies are being performed to assess the role of SERT and NET in locomotor suppression.
Cocaine and other addictive drugs are known to produce reward in humans as well as in mice and other animals. CPP tests are commonly used to measure the rewarding properties of drugs. In this behavioral test, drug administration to animals is repeatedly paired with a set of environmental cues. When allowed to explore freely, the animals spend more time in the environment paired with a drug that produces reward.
Previously we have shown that up to 20 mg/kg cocaine is not enough to inhibit the cocaine-insensitive mutant DAT and elevate extracellular DA in DAT-CI mice [17]. We have also shown that cocaine lost its ability to produce reward in DAT-CI mice while amphetamine still produces CPP in these mice. Therefore, we conclude that the reward pathway in DAT-CI mice is functional and the lack of cocaine-induced reward in DAT-CI mice is due to the inability of cocaine to block the modified DAT. However, DAT activity in DAT-CI mice is significantly lower than that in WT mice. The DA clearance rate in DAT-CI mice is between those of DAT-KD mice and heterozygous DAT-KO mice [17]. It remains a concern that lowered DAT activity might lead to neuroadaptations that may alter cocaine effects. Thus, we examined whether cocaine is still able to produce reward in DAT-KD mice that have only 10% of wild type DAT expression. Fig. 2 shows that cocaine still produced robust CPP in DAT-KD mice. In addition, cocaine produces reward in heterozygous DAT-KO mice [9-11]. These results demonstrate that the reduction of DAT activity and elevated dopaminergic tone does not abolish cocaine's rewarding effect in mice.
Several mouse MODELS have been generated with alterations to the DAT gene, providing excellent tools to study the functions of DAT and the mechanism of cocaine effects: DAT-KD mice [18] and heterozygous DAT-KO mice [24] with DAT expression reduced to 10% and 50% of the wild type level respectively, DAT-CI mice [17] with a cocaine-insensitive DAT mutant that is functional but with reduced uptake activity, and homozygous DAT-KO mice [24] with DAT completely deleted. Heterozygous DAT-KO mice [24]and DAT-KD mice have significantly elevated DA tone but in these mice DAT is blocked by cocaine and the mice respond to cocaine similarly to wild type mice. The adaptive changes to the elevated dopaminergic tone in these mice are likely to be moderate. The changes do not abolish cocaine's ability to produce reward or to stimulate locomotor activity. Therefore, it is likely that the mechanism of cocaine action in these mice is similar to that in wild type mice.
In DAT-CI mice, DA uptake activity is reduced and the basal DA tone is also significantly elevated[17]. Since the extent of basal DA elevation in DAT-CI mice is between those in heterozygous DAT-KO and DAT-KD mice [17], it is reasonable to assume that the adaptive changes in DAT-CI mice are also moderate and do not interrupt the drug reward pathway. We have shown that amphetamine still produces reward in DAT-CI mice suggesting a functional reward pathway [17]. Although the elevated basal DA tone is due to reduced DAT activity in all mouse lines, the causes of the reduction are different; reduced expression of wild type DAT, in heterozygous DAT-KO and DAT-KD mice, versus normal expression of a mutant DAT with lower uptake activity in DAT-CI mice. Therefore, it is still possible that the mutated DAT in DAT-CI mice may cause unique adaptive changes, by an unknown mechanism, which could abolish cocaine reward and locomotor stimulation.
In contrast, in homozygous DAT-KO mice DAT is completely lacking. Intriguingly, the elimination of DAT, the consequent severe alteration of DA homeostasis and related pathways, and the tremendous adaptive changes still fail to abolish the rewarding effect of cocaine [24]. However, the mechanism of cocaine reward in DAT-KO mice is very different from that in wild type mice. For example, inhibition of SERT or NET with selective inhibitors elevates DA levels in the nucleus accumbens and produces reward in DAT-KO mice but not in wild type mice [24]. These results indicate that the complete deletion of DAT significantly alters the mechanism of cocaine effects. It seems that cocaine-induced DA elevation in the nucleus accumbens is still critical and the signaling from serotoninergic or noradrenergic systems to the dopaminergic system might be altered. The exact mechanism is not clear and currently under intensive investigation.
-------------------------------------------------
Conclusion
In summary, genetically modified mouse strains with a reduction in DAT function by 50% (heterozygous DAT-KO mice) and 90% (DAT-KD mice) retain the stimulating and rewarding effects of cocaine. These results are consistent with the idea that reduced DAT activity in DAT-CI mice does not lead to adaptive changes that abolish the stimulating and rewarding effects of cocaine. Therefore, the lack of cocaine reward and locomotor stimulation in DAT-CI mice is unlikely due to reduced DAT activity or the resulting hyperdopaminergic tone, but due to the inability of cocaine to inhibit the modified DAT. This investigation lends further support to the conclusion that cocaine inhibition of DAT is necessary for the rewarding and stimulating effects of cocaine.
-------------------------------------------------
Methods
Animals
The DAT-KD mice were generated by the insertion of a DNA construct containing the neomycin-resistant gene and other elements into the promoter region of DAT gene in an attempt to control DAT expression [18]. This promoter modification results in a 90% reduction in DAT expression [18]. Mice used in this study were produced from the breeders that have been backcrossed with C57BL/6J mice for 8–9 generations. Heterozygous male and FEMALE DAT-KD mice were bred to produce homozygous DAT-KD mice and their WT littermates used in the experiments. The genotypes of the mice used in these experiments were determined by PCR using forward primer TGGGGTCCACATACAAATGATGA and reverse primer ACACGTGGCAGATTCATAGGTA. Only male mice between 10 and 14 weeks of age were used in this study. Mice were group housed, with 3 – 5 mice per cage, on a 12 hour day/night cycle with lights off at 6 pm. Food and water was provided ad libitum. All procedures were conducted in accordance with the animal use committee at The Ohio State University. Experiments were performed between 9:00 am and 5:00 pm. Only drug naïve animals were used in experiments and separate animals were used for the locomotor and CPP studies.
Drugs
The drug supply program of National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH (Bethesda, MD), kindly supplied cocaine HCL. Doses of 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg were given for the locomotion studies and doses of 5 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg were used for the CPP studies. Vehicle (0.9% NaCl) and cocaine were administered through intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection.
Locomotion tests
Locomotion tests were performed in acrylic test chambers measuring 25 cm(W) × 25 cm(L) × 25 cm(H) that are inside a sound-attenuating behavioral test enclosure. Mice were placed in the chamber without drugs for 60 min. The total distance traveled during this time was used to determine the basal activity. Then cocaine or vehicle was administered and mouse locomotor activities were monitored for another 60 minutes. Cumulative distance traveled and speed was recorded by a video-based monitoring system, Limelight (Actimetrics, Evanston, IL). The stimulatory effects of cocaine peaked between 10 and 20 minutes, thus we used distance traveled within the first 30 minutes after injection as a measurement of cocaine effect on locomotion.
Conditioned place preference
CPP was performed as previously described [17]. In this setup, we used a three-chambered box with the two end chambers differing in wall patterns and FLOOR MATERIALS. One chamber had a thin wavy pattern on a white background on the walls and thin-mesh flooring, while the other chamber had a thick grid pattern on a white background on the walls and thick-mesh flooring. The middle chamber, used as a neutral initial placement point, had gray walls and a slick, acrylic floor. On the pre-conditioning day (day 1) mice were locked in the middle chamber for 30 seconds, then allowed to freely explore the entire apparatus for 30 min. Movement and time spent in each chamber was recorded with the video-based monitoring system LimeLight. Mice did not show a significant preference for either end chamber. Mice were randomly paired to one end chamber and randomly divided into saline control and cocaine-injected groups. On days 2, 4, 6, and 8, the mice were injected with saline and confined in one of the two end chambers for 30 min; and on days 3, 5, 7, and 9, the mice were injected with cocaine or saline and confined to the opposite end chamber for 30 minutes. On the test day (day 10), the mice were confined to the central chamber for 30 seconds, and then allowed free access to both end chambers for 30 min. The time spent in each of the end chambers was recorded. The difference between the time spent in the paired chamber on pre-conditioning day and time spent in the same chamber on post-conditioning day was calculated and presented.
Data analysis
The experimental data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni tests using GraphPad PRISM (GraphPad Software, Inc. San Diego, CA)…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Cricket and Gambling

...Cricket, Gambling and India Gambling has gambled heavily on India. It’s appetite to enter Indian market, over the years, has shown only signs of strengthening. Now it has on its side some of the biggest moguls of Indian industry like Subhash Chandra (Zee) and Vijay Mallya (Kingfisher). Subhash Chandra might be famous as a media biggie but as early as in 2007 he earned almost as much from his lottery brand Playwin as the rest of his media, packaging and real estate businesses added together i.e. a cool Rs. 2400 crore. According to Playwin website, the company has at least ten games to offer. The lotto & gaming brand of Pan India Network Ltd. claimed in June 2010 to have created 71 crorepatis and over 3,000 lakhpatis from all over India within a short span of 8 years since its establishment. Of course it doesn’t talk about the many people who would have gone bankrupt due to gambling. But this is the visible picture. According to a story published in the Businessworld in 2008, unlawful betting in the IPL cricket season averaged $100 million per match in 2008. Indians bought over 30 million lotteries a day and the lottery market alone was estimated to be upto Rs 50,000. The total gambling industry was upwards of Rs. 100,000 crore in 2008 itself. There is hardly any doubt that despite all the recessions, the gambling industry has only gone up. Howsoever we frown at the moral aspect of gambling, it remains the most popular vice. That it can’t be stopped is clear. That it...

Words: 740 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Analysis the Grasshopper and the Bell Cricket

...ANALYSIS THE GRASSHOPPER AND THE BELL CRICKET BY: YASUNARI KAWABATA ”The grasshopper and the bell cricket” is a short story, written by Yasunari Kawabata, written in a narrative perspective of someone watching children searching for insects using colored and decorated lanterns. I would like to think that the author is trying to symbolize life, and that it is not only one path to go. We are all aiming for acceptance and to fit in to the society, but this story tells us that The author, who put himself as narrator, describes how he walks through the halls of the university and approaches the upper school and its playground, and he seems to get so emotionally attached that he cannot take another turn. “I turned right so as not to leave the playground behind. Kawabata writes, “When I turned to the left, the fence gave way to an embankment planted with orange trees”. The color orange usually symbolize a warning, danger or something strong. Later on Kawabata describes a group of young children that are searching for insects with lanterns in bright colors as crimson, pink, indigo, green purple and yellow. This probably is a way of describing different personalities; to clarify this Kawabata also writes, “the candle’s light seemed to emanate from the form and color of the design itself." This is probably also one of the reasons to why the author chose to write about children to symbolize how we easily forms after our surroundings and how we think things should be. Each...

Words: 591 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Spot Fixing in Cricket Matches

...------------------------------------------------- Topic: Spot fixing in cricket matches. 1. Introduction Spot fixing in sports is the practice of fixing a specific segment within a match. It usually involves a player agreeing, prior to the game that he will perform in a particular way. In cricket this might involve a batsman agreeing to only get a certain number of runs, or a bowler bowling a consecutive number of wide balls in a particular over, etc. Spot fixing stands in contrast to match fixing which refers to the practice of fixing the result of an entire match rather than the performance of one or more individual players within it. By its very nature then, spot fixing is a more discreet manipulation of a game, making it much more difficult to detect than match fixing. Spot fixing in cricket has rapidly increased for the last few years. It’s becoming impossible to detect as well. “Spot-fixing, the manipulation of individual incidents within a match which may not affect the result, is a more insidious crime and one which can be impossible to detect.” (Mehaffey,2012). The players are becoming addicted to it as it is less risky and also it will help them to earn more money within a short period of time. Spot fixing is becoming a great threat. Betting houses and gamblers are aware of it and they are putting more money on cricket. It’s not the only concern for cricket but also the money that has been earned through betting are used to illegal activities such as......

Words: 5128 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Biomechanics of Cricket

...| Biomechanics of Cricket | | | | | | Cricket is a worldwide sport which incorporates many features of biomechanics at both a competitive and social level. Biomechanics is the area of study which concerns the internal and external forces and the effects produced by these forces. Biomechanics plays a significant role in all aspects of the sport cricket such as of the game such as batting, fielding and bowling. The sport of cricket dates back to the sixteenth century and has developed significantly throughout all aspects of the game. The central theme of biomechanics is based on balance and stability; these factors play an extremely important role in the skills and ability of the wicket keeper. Biomechanics can positively or negatively affect technique development and help reduce injury which must personally be considered by the cricket bowler. Understanding the biomechanics of cricket can aid in equipment design which can improve or weaken how the batsmen strikes the cricket ball. Biomechanics in cricket plays a very important role in the overall quality and complexity of the game. Cricket originated in the sixteenth century and was often enjoyed by people of royalty. It was initially introduced as a game of pleasure, however was soon also played for competition. The first recorded cricket match took place in Kent, United Kingdom in 1646 and, by the late sixteen century fines were often handed out for those missed church to play. In 1706 William......

Words: 2002 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Leadership and Cricket

...LEADERSHIP THROUGH SPORTS. I SUPPOSE LEADRSHIP AT ONE TIME MEANT MUSCLE; BUT TODAY IT MEANS GETTING ALONG WITH PEOPLE. - MAHATMA GHANDHI CRICKET is a mixture of mind as well as physical game. It provides us some great examples over the issue of leadership and how certain traits affect the leadership ability. Cricket is always about a calm mind and violent body (this golden rule always work in each and every sphere of life). Cricket provides a wonderful insight of this fact and how leadership helps in getting this thumb rule is the core of our project. In this project we look deep into the role of a leader and how leader inspires other through words. We tried to find out how emotional intelligence shapes the leadership ability. In this project we would be focusing on this issue and will come up with some live examples. Our paper also presents a deep insight on what takes place when leaders are tested and what is the shelf-life of a leader. Key –words : CRICKET,LEADER,EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE INVENTORY CAN BE MANAGED BUT PEOPLE MUST BE LED……. H.ROSS PEROT . In the words of Stephen R.Convey, management is efficiency in climbing the ladder of success, leadership determines whether the ladder is leaning against the right wall. Leadership is a perplexing issue.......

Words: 2906 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Cricket Gambling

..." Topic  * India Cricket A Test match lasts five days and, if it goes the distance, 2,700 legal deliveries are bowled through that period. In one-day internationals (ODIs), it is 600 balls, and in Twenty20 (T20) the number is 240. If someone could get a cricketer to fix just five or six balls in a match, they could collect huge gambling profits without anyone noticing. And the possibilities for fixes are almost endless. Before the match Bets are taken on predicting the playing squad, and fixers have allegedly prevailed upon players to pull out minutes before the start of a game. The toss comes next, and, in the past, a corrupt captain could fix even that, by quickly picking up the coin and congratulating the opposing captain on his "winning" the toss. Bets can also be placed on who will open the batting and from which ends, and on who is going to bowl the first over. Such decisions are somewhat random and therefore fixes are hard to detect. During the match Punters can wager on any event and on every ball. Examples: how many runs a batsman will score; if he will hit the next ball for a six, four, single or simply pat it back to the bowler; the mode of his dismissal; which bowler is going to get him out; or when a bowler will deliver a no-ball or wide. "The odds of a batsman getting out hit-wicket are as high as 80 to one," a Mumbai bookmaker said. "So imagine the money to be made if a punter or bookmaker could convince a batsman to get out in that mode." The......

Words: 3672 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

House Cricket Experiment

...House Cricket Experiment Introduction The topic of house cricket aggression in response to residency has been previously studied. (Alexander 1961) split this aggression behavior into five levels: 1) no aggression, dominance, or retreat; 2) no aggression with a retreat by one cricket; 3) mild one-sided aggression with mild repercussion; 4) moderate to intense aggression from both crickets; or 5) sustained combat. Interestingly, in Polistes wasps (Pardi 1948a), Sphecius wasps (Mr Norman Lin, personal communication), and crayfish (Bovbjerg 1953; Lowe 1956) aggressive behavior has been split into four or five levels. (Alexander 1961) The experimental organism in this experiment was Acheta domesticus, more commonly known as the house cricket. Acheta domesticus (Linnaeus) is a species distributed by man. It was considered native to Europe but may have come from northern Africa or Southwest Asia according to Ghouri (1961). Both Blatchley (1920) and Alexander (1957) have reported it in the eastern United States. (Weissman and Rentz 1977) The purpose of the house cricket experiment was to answer the question: “Does residency affect a male cricket’s motivation in pair-wise interactions with other male crickets?” The hypothesis was “male crickets that are resident in a territory have greater motivation to defend their territory”. The prediction was if male crickets that are residents in an artificial territory are challenged by introduction of an intruder, they will win more......

Words: 1230 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Cricket Road

...original estimates of rental income and cash flow analysis are still not guaranteed. Exhibit 2 provides a net present value range between 103,000 and $214,000 for proceeding with the mid-rise apartment complex and selling in year 10 based on a range of cap rates. • Option 3 (Keep Existing Rental House, Selling in Year 10): The existing structure is very old and deteriorating. Sexton expects maintenance costs to increase even more. As a result, I would not advise him to hold on to the property. He could get more value out of selling it now than holding on for 10 years. Exhibit 3 provides a net present value range between 140,000 and $162,000 for keeping the existing rental house and selling in year 10 based on a range of cap rates. Cricket Road...

Words: 633 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Grasshopper and the Bell Cricket

...The Grasshopper and the Bell Cricket Yasunari Kawabata Characters: * Kiyoko – (Flat Character) “The girl’s lantern, which dangled loosely from her wrist, did not project its pattern so clearly, but still one could make out, in a trembling patch of red on the boy’s waist, the name “Kiyoko”.” * Fujio – (Flat Character) “In the faint greenish light that fell on the girl’s breast, wasn’t the name “Fujio” clearly discernible? The boy’s lantern, which he held up alongside the girl’s insect cage, inscribed his name, cut out in the green papered aperture, onto her white cotton kimono.” Setting: At the base of the embankment “At the base of the embankment was a bobbling cluster of beautiful varicolored lanterns, such as one might see at a festival in a remote country village.” Conflict: The bell cricket was mistaken for a grasshopper And finally, to your clouded, wounded heart, even a true bell cricket will seem like a grasshopper. Should that day come, when it seems to you that the world is only full of grasshoppers. Point of View: Limited First Person Point of View The story is told in First Person Point of View since the narrator is within the story, the narrator explicitly refer to himself using words and phrases involving “I”. In this case, we are able to see the point of view (including opinions, thoughts and feelings) only of the narrator and no other characters. “Walking along the tile-roofed wall of the......

Words: 682 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Grasshopper and the Bell Cricket

...In Yasunari Kawabata’s “ The Grasshopper and the Bell Cricket” the theme of youth and love are used to explain the transition of emotions from children to adults. The children are outside playing with their lanterns, that they have made in search for grasshoppers. Now when the boy finds a grasshopper his reaction is a bit unusual to the narrator until he says “ how silly of me not to have understood his actions until now”(495). The narrator is much older than these children and the boy’s intensions still fool him. Unlike the other children this boy is using the caught grasshopper to interact with a girl he seems to be infatuated with. Kawabata uses the lights as a symbol of attraction and discovery when both the girl and the boy’s name show up through the lanterns on each other bodies. The interaction of the two children shows how both of them are changing because; instead of looking for grasshoppers they have found each other. The author also uses the setting to set the tone of this romantic encounter. At night with all the colored lanterns I kept thinking of “A midsummer nights dream” and how all the young children where in an enchanted place searching for love. What I did not understand is what the author says at the end of the story after the girl corrects the boy and says the grasshopper is in fact a bell cricket. At fist I thought this meant that the girl was like the bell cricket in the sense that she was different than the other girls who are grasshoppers. When the......

Words: 335 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Cricket

...Introduction: Cricket is one kind of outdoor game. It is played between two teams. It is played with a ball, a bat and wickets. The ball, the bat and the wickets are properly sized for this game. They are called cricket-ball, cricket-bat and cricket-wickets. Cricket is the national game of England. Its origin is traced back to 13th century. Cricket is very popular in England and its popularity has spread to other parts of the world. Now it is a game of international status and now match-games of cricket are being played in international tournaments. Description: Cricket is played between two teams. One is the bowling side and the other is the batting side. There are eleven players in each team. The players of the bowling side play in different positions such as: Bowler, Wicket keeper, first slip, second slip, point, gully, long-off, long-on, long off boundary, long-on boundary, third man boundary. The players of the batting side come to play as: two openers, first down, second down, third down, fourth down, fifth down, sixth down, seventh down, eighth down, ninth down. Beside, there are tow umpires, one stands just the back of the wicket of the bowling side and the other stands some yards away, left or right of the wicket of the batting side. Cricket is played in a round field. A cricket-wicket is made of three stumps and two bails. They are a approved size. Two wickets are correctly fixed in the middle of the cricket-field. There is a pitch between......

Words: 550 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Cricket

...non-event, for the move to open the bowling with left-arm spinner Ankeet Chavan almost yielded success when Tendulkar was trapped in front first ball. Paul Reiffel, the umpire, felt the ball pitched outside leg when it hadn't. Chavan should have had Tendulkar again in the sixth over, catching him on the pads during an attempted pull, but Reiffel, once more, felt otherwise. Shane Watson's early breakthroughs - he dismissed T Suman and Ambati Rayudu in successive overs - coupled with Chavan's discipline had deprived Mumbai of an attacking start they would have hoped for after choosing to bat, though Tendulkar's reprieves gave them the opportunity to rebuild. Rohit Sharma had won praise from Warne as one of the most exciting talents in Indian cricket, and he undoubtedly would have impressed his opposing captain with his performance today. He quickly took the lead in the stand with Tendulkar, smashing Watson over midwicket and charging out to Chavan to dispatch him over mid-on. His stand-out shot was an imposing drive against Warne through extra cover, matched by a delightful punch in the same region off Johan Botha who couldn't restrain Rohit despite chasing him as he made room. In the battle of the heavyweights, Warne managed to induce a leading edge from Tendulkar, who followed up with a slash past point and a controlled thump over mid-off (both for twos) despite being surprised by the turn and bounce. The contest was cut short when Tendulkar upper-cut Amit Singh......

Words: 421 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Grasshopper and the Bell Cricket

...child singing plaintively and looking up at the sky, gradually came closer. When she’d come down to the low branch of a nearby pine, the chick flapped its wings, trying to fly up to her. Stumbling forward in its efforts, falling all over itself, it kept singing. Still the mother bird cautiously held off from hopping down to the ground. Soon, however, it flew in a straight line to the side of its child. The chick’s joy was boundless. Turning and turning its head, its outspread wings trembling, it made up to its mother. Evidently the mother had brought it something to eat. Yoshiko wished that her father and stepmother would come soon. She would like to show them this, she thought. The Grasshopper and the Bell Cricket August 27, 2008 “The Grasshopper and the Bell Cricket” Yasunari Kawabata Walking along the tile-roofed wall of the university, I turned aside and approached the upper school. Behind the white board fence of the school playground, from a dusky clump of bushes under the black cherry trees, an insect’s voice could be heard. Walking more slowly and listening to that voice, and furthermore reluctant to part with it, I turned right so as not to leave the playground behind. When I turned to the left, the fence gave way to another embankment planted with orange trees. At the corner, I exclaimed with surprise. My eyes gleaming at what they saw up ahead, I hurried forward with short steps. At the base of the embankment was a bobbing cluster of beautiful varicolored......

Words: 3032 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Crickets

...that a crickets chirping is directly related to temperature. And that one can know approximately what temperature it is by the amount of chirps they put out. There has also been an equation that I have read about that I would like to test. So based on this my hypothesis is: Hypothesis: The amount of cricket chirps heard in a fifteen second time frame plus 48 is the approximate temperature of the cricket's environment in degrees Fahrenheit. + 48 = Background Information: Male crickets have organs that produce sound on their front wings. Male crickets rub their wings together to produce that chirp you hear at night. But they are not just chirping to make the quiet night go by. Male crickets are trying to attract females. Scientists have noticed a very unusual relationship between crickets' chirpings and temperature. On very cold days, there are large intervals between cricket chirps. That means the space between each cricket chirp is long, and so the chirps are not very frequent. On warmer days, the interval between each cricket chirp is smaller and so the chirps are heard frequently. Hypothesis: The amount of cricket chirps heard in a fifteen second time frame plus 48 is the approximate temperature of the cricket's environment in degrees Fahrenheit. Materials: Stopwatch Scratch piece of paper Thermometer Food/Water Supply Container to House Crickets Light Source (to allow for temperature changes) Procedure: 1. Observe the crickets 3......

Words: 323 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Cricket

...Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the runs scored by the batting team. A run is scored by the striking batsman hitting the ball with his bat, running to the opposite end of the pitch and touching the crease there without being dismissed. The teams switch between batting and fielding at the end of an innings. In professional cricket the length of a game ranges from 20 overs of six bowling deliveries per side to Test cricket played over five days. The Laws of Cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) with additional Standard Playing Conditions for Test matches and One Day Internationals.[1] Cricket was first played in southern England in the 16th century. By the end of the 18th century, it had developed into the national sport of England. The expansion of the British Empire led to cricket being played overseas and by the mid-19th century the first international matches were being held. The ICC, the game's governing body, has ten full members.[2] The game is played particularly in Australasia, the Indian subcontinent, the West Indies, Southern Africa and the British Isles. The rivalry between England and Australia gave birth to The Ashes in 1882 and this has......

Words: 1234 - Pages: 5

Thám Tử Lừng Danh Conan chap 808 | 7.8 | DVDFab 8.1.7.5 Final Multilingual Portable