Premium Essay

Critically Evaluate the Factors Influencing the Global Heat Budget

In: Science

Submitted By PiersBradley
Words 2388
Pages 10
CRITICALLY EVALUATE THE FACTORS INFLUENCING THE GLOBAL HEAT BUDGET - 40 MARKS The global heat budget is the balance between incoming insolation, and outgoing radiation from Earth. There are many factors that influence this heat budget, some of which are more important than others. In this essay I am going to describe and explain each factor involved. Insolation is the incoming energy from the sun in shortwave ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The distribution of insolation over the Earth’s surface is complicated; however there are patterns to be seen. Insolation has numerous aspects to it that each affects it in turn, which are divided into three categories of long term, short term and local. Quite possibly the most important aspect is latitude, a long term factor. The effect of latitude on the heat budget can be seen all over the globe, but the most striking examples are that the annual amount of insolation in the Arctic region, located 66° north of the equator, is 75 W/m2 however it is 275 W/m2 in Egypt, located 26° north of the equator. Latitude holds such a large effect on insolation because a variation in latitude means variations in the altitude of the sun. Altitude of the sun affects insolation because as the angle of the sun in the sky decreases and becomes more oblique, the land area to be heated up by the rays and the depth of atmosphere they must travel through increase. Therefore the amount of insolation lost through absorption, scattering and reflection increases. Areas in lower latitudes have higher temperatures than those in higher latitudes, because the sun is at a higher angle of incidence. One might expect the highest amount of insolation to be found on land directly below the equator, due to the sun’s highest angle of incidence being located here, meaning the equator receives more energy as solar radiation strikes the Earth head-on. However, as a…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Factors Influencing Biodiversity

...3.1.1 Factors influencing biodiversity Globally, biodiversity levels vary widely across land and oceans. Both physical and human factors influence levels of biodiversity and these factors operate at a variety of scales from local to global. Global physical factors such as variations in climate, play a major role in controlling the presence or absence of limiting factors, such as: • Temperature • Availability of light • Humidity • Nutrient supply • etc. An absence of limiting factors leads to high levels of primary productivity and the energy produced leads to high levels of biodiversity. Conversely, where limiting factors are strongly evident, e.g. in cold temperatures such as the Arctic, arid regions like deserts, darkness, etc. this will lead to low levels of biodiversity. The size of the area is another key factor, as the larger the continuous area the more species that can flourish in it. Hence the recent ‘size matters’ mantra, and the creation of huge transnational conservation areas such as the Peace Parks of Africa. Locally, there are numerous factors that may have an impact on biodiversity: • Disturbance from a natural disaster e.g. hurricanes, volcanoes, tsunamis on both land and ocean ecosystems, Asian tsunami 2004 – destroyed some mangrove forests • Quasi-natural disasters, e.g. wildfires (Victoria, Australia 2009), hunting, fishing, slash and burn farming • Eutrophication from high-tech agricultures Physical factors Human factors • Climate, e...

Words: 712 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Choose One Global Crime as a Case Study and Critically Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Transnational Policing of This Crime.

...Choose one global crime as a case study and critically evaluate the effectiveness of the transnational policing of this crime. This essay focuses on money laundering and argues the effectiveness of the transnational policing of this crime; money laundering is one of the world’s most prevailing organised crimes. This essay firstly defines policing from contrasting viewpoints of different philosophers as well as identifying modes of the police. I will explore the modes of policing and various definitions of policing; this essay considers definitions and approaches to policing through a transnational concept with influences from prominent figures within the ideology of transnational policing. The conventional process of money laundering is clarified together with implications of the how this global crime effects other crimes as well as society as a whole. Aided with two case studies I give examples of how money laundering takes place; taking into hindsight the effectiveness of the policing of money laundering. This essay also addresses the connection between money laundering and the risk society theory whilst also taking into consideration the contrasting views of domestic police modes and transnational police modes. Through addressing ways in which money laundering is combated through global organisations such as Interpol, I critically address significant notions of the policing of money laundering. Policing is typically understood as a method of crime control; however......

Words: 3023 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Factors Influencing Consumers Laptop Purchase.

...2012      Factors influencing  consumers purchase  decision of laptop:  A causal research          2      EAST WEST UNIVERSITY MKT 414 MARKETING RESEARCH Submitted To: Dr. Md. Humayun Kabir Chowdhury Chairman Department of Business Admisistration Submitted by: MD. Mosabbeur Rahman Pious  Id. 2008‐3‐10‐033  MD. Amran Kabir  Id. 2008‐3‐10‐024  Jannat Jahan  Id. 2008‐3‐10‐028  Section: 1 Date of submission: 18th April 2012  3    Letter of Transmittal  Date: 18th April, 2012 To, Dr. Md. Humayun Kabir Chowdhury Professor Department of Business Administration. East West University, Dhaka. Subject: Submission of research on “Factors influencing consumers purchase decision of laptop”. Dear Sir, It is an honor and immense pleasure for us to submit our research paper on “Factors influencing consumers purchase decision of laptop”. This research was assigned to us as compulsory requirement of the course Marketing Research. During the process of preparing this report, we had the chance of experiencing and rediscovering our potential. This research gave us an opportunity to apply our theoretical knowledge, ideas and communication skills, which will help us in our future professional career. Thank you for giving us this opportunity and we look forward to receive your cordial approval of our submission. Yours truly, Md. Mosabbeur Rahman Pious (2008-1-10-129) ________________________ Mohammad Amran Kabir (2008-3-10-024) ________________________ Jannat......

Words: 4923 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Critically Evaluate the Factors Influencing the Global Heat Budget

...Critically Evaluate the factors influencing the Global Heat Budget (40 marks) The global heat budget, also known as the atmospheric heat budget, is the balance between the incoming insolation (solar radiation), and outgoing radiation from Earth. Due to absorption, reflection and scattering throughout the atmosphere, the Earth’s surface only receives 24% of the incoming insolation. Whilst the atmosphere has a net deficit of energy, the surface has a net gain, except for the polar regions. This difference therefore results in movement of energy from the surface to the atmosphere. Several factors affect the amount of insolation and thus the heating of the atmosphere, including latitude, seasons, diurnal range, altitude, ocean currents, cloud cover, human activity, aspect, specific heat capacity and distance from the ocean. Latitude, defined as the angular distance of a place north or south of the equator, is often considered  the main factor influencing the heat budget. As the latitude increases, the angle of the sun in the relative sky decreases, causing more insolation to be absorbed or reflected by the atmosphere. The curvature of the Earth results in the insolation spreading out over a larger surface area in more Northerly and Southerly latitudes than at the equator, thus lowering the amount of insolation per km2 at higher latitudes. NASA data indicates that areas around the equator absorbed around 200 W/m2 more on average than were reflected or radiated, whereas areas aroun...

Words: 2230 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Factors Influencing Divorce Statistics

...Factors influencing divorce statistics September 12, 2012 In the United States an estimated 40-50% of all first marriages and about 60% of second marriages will end in divorce. Divorce has always been a concern in America, but has increased in the last 50 years. Factors that influence divorce could be marrying at an early age, income, living together before marriage, pregnancy, religion, coming from a divorced family, and feelings of insecurity. Marrying at a young age increases the likelihood of divorce, mostly in the early years of marriage and those who marry in their teens have an even higher risk of divorce. Finances also are a huge factor. Finances can be stressful and can end up tearing a marriage apart. Pregnancy prior to a marriage increase the likelihood of divorce significantly. More than one-third of children are born to parents who are not married. If those parents do marry, most will separate before the child begins school. If you have experienced divorce with your own parents it doubles your own risk for divorce. And if your spouse’s parents also divorced it triples your risk. People will give other reasons for their divorce. Lack of commitment, too much arguing, infidelity, marrying too young, unrealistic expectations, lack of equality, not enough preparation for marriage, and abuse are the most common reasons that are given. More than half of people have......

Words: 306 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Critically Evaluate Internal Analysis

...their competitive advantage position and renew and/or change their resource and competence basis. They have certain capabilities and resources that can be coordinated and utilized in different ways, and the dynamic capabilities view is about an “organization’s ability to build, integrate, and reconfigure capabilities to address rapidly changing environments” (p.109). If the company is successful in this it helps them on their way to fulfill the organizational goals. This framework facilitates the analysis of both sources and methods of wealth creation, and finds that the internal processes in the firm are important to take care of since they are the main source of wealth creation. The main purpose however of an internal analysis is to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses. An assessment is made whether or not you possess the right resources and if you possess the right competencies and capabilities. There are methods you can use in order to analyze the internal environment. First you can conduct a value chain analysis and find out what it is that your customers value most and what activities the firm is currently conducting. Secondly, the internal side of the SWOT-analysis can be used to summarize the strengths and weaknesses found. These methods that have been mentioned here will be further explained in the Tools-section. Analytical Tools The following tools can be used to conduct an internal analysis: The VRIN framework was developed by Barney in 1991 and shows......

Words: 1315 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Factors Influencing on Financial Decision

... | | | | | | | | Factors Influencing on Financial Decision A Case of a company operating in Bangladesh Company Name: GPH ispat ltd. Submitted To Mr. Saleh Mohammed Mashehdul Islam Asst. Professor, SOB, AUST. Submitted By Roll # 12-52-02-012 Mahmud Hassan Principle of Finance (MBA 603) Section # B Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology Date of Submission : 3rd Jan, 2013 Chapter-1 Company Information GPH Ispat Limited is one of the leading integrated steel manufacturing companies in Bangladesh engaged in manufacturing of M. S. Billet & M. S. Rod. The Company was incorporated in Bangladesh on 17 May 2006 as a Private company limited by shares under the Companies Act 1994. The principal activities of the Company are manufacturing and trading of iron products and steel materials of all kinds or other metallic or allied materials and marketing thereof. The commercial production of the factory commenced on 21 August 2008. The company subsequently converted into a Public limited Company. Nature of Business The Company is engaged in the manufacturing process of......

Words: 2262 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Factors Influencing Consumers’ Laptop Purchases

...FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMERS’ LAPTOP PURCHASES Dr. V. Aslıhan Nasır, Sema Yoruker, Figen Güneş and Yeliz Ozdemir Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey ABSTRACT The rapid developments in IT sector accompanied by increased competition and acquisitions and mergers in the market, lead both academicians and practitioners to concentrate on the consumers’ purchase decisions in portable PC industry. The NDP group’s report published by PC World state that in May 2003, U.S. retailers made more money selling laptop/notebook computers than they did selling desktops. It was the first time that laptops have outsold desktops in the U.S. This research seeks to develop a better understanding of the factors influencing consumers’ laptop purchases. What makes this study distinctive from other sectoral studies is that, this research also seeks the differences among three consumer groups (stayers, satisfied switchers, and dissatisfied switchers) of a company with respect to the factors influencing consumers’ laptop purchases. It is found that core technical features, post purchase services, price and payment conditions, peripheral specifications, physical appearance, value added features, and connectivity and mobility are the seven factors that are influencing consumers’ laptop purchases. Furthermore, price and payment conditions factor shows significant difference among three consumer groups of a company’s customer base. INTRODUCTION There are seminal studies on consumer......

Words: 4404 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Factors Influencing Communication

...CO2520 Project Part 1: Factors Influencing Communication: Baseball Erik L. Hansen ITT-Technical Institute Author Note Erik L Hansen, Department of Drafting & Design, ITT-Technical Institute, Boise. Correspondence concerning this project should be addressed to Erik L Hansen, E-mail: Introduction. The grass is freshly cut, uniforms recently pressed and washed. The summer-night-air is filled with the smell of functioning concession stands and the sounds of many conversations. Players and fans take their positions, the players trot onto the field and fans get comfortable in their seats. The show is about to begin. First pitch is thrown and a stadium relying on communication is operational once more. Foremost, this research paper will continue with the assumption that the reader understands the basics of the game of baseball and/or has been to a game. As we know every action within the stadium requires some sort of communication. The game of baseball itself is a game where the most successful team communicates superbly. Baseball relies on communication from preparation, studying, and putting the game-plan through action to in-game adjustments and secret signs. Delving deeper into the stadium we discover that the game is not the only thing relying on forms of communication. Concession stand employees will need to use their listening skills to appropriately form a customer’s order, stadium signs will properly direct fans to their...

Words: 2565 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Factors Influencing Motivation

...tSee discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: Factors Influencing Motivation: An Empirical Study of Few Selected Sri Lankan Organisations ARTICLE · JANUARY 2007 DOWNLOADS VIEWS 5,720 1,459 1 AUTHOR: Thirunavukkarasu Velnampy University of Jaffna 54 PUBLICATIONS 110 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Available from: Thirunavukkarasu Velnampy Retrieved on: 09 September 2015 Factors Influencing Motivation: An empirical Study of Sri Lankan Organisations Dr.T.Velnampy Senior Lecturer, Dept of Commerce, Faculty of Mg Studies & Commerce, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Email: Abstract Motivating employees is a way to make them to give their best to the organization for the achievement of organizational goals. But choosing the strategy for motivation may differ from time to time and organization to organization, because it is a psychological phenomenon and it is depending on the preference of employees. Therefore the present study is made to find out the motivational factors with the samples of 676 respondents from 55 public and private sector organizations in Sri Lanka. The finding of the study is that the perceived level of motivation of the employees in both the sectors is high. As the factors influencing motivation, wages and salaries, physical working conditions, job descriptions, dependency, friendly working atmosphere, interpersonal......

Words: 4949 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Influencing Factors of Healthcare Expenditure

...Influencing Factors of Health Care Expenditure: Opportunities to Improve Canada’s Statistics [Authors Name] [Institutional Affiliation(s)] Author Note [Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.] Table of Contents Introduction………………………………………………………………………………2 Comparing Health System Performance…………………………………………………4 Sweden’s Healthcare Policy Framework………………………………………………...8 Canada’s Opportunities for Improvement………………………………………………..9 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….11 References……………………………………………………………………………….13 Influencing Factors of Health Care Expenditure: Opportunities to Improve Canada’s Statistics Globally, the number of variations that contribute to the government’s financial contribution to the health care system is great and ever changing. The amount of money spent on health expenditures varies as well, and is specific to each country. In countries with a high income, such as the United States and France, the per capita health expenditure averages over 3,000 USD, while in countries that are considered resource poor, such as Israel and Mexico, the average per capita amount is only 30 USD. (Ke, Saksena, & Holly, 2011). Wide variations in health expenditure are also specific to each country’s economic development. Less resourceful countries have been noted to only spend less than 3% of GDP on health, while other, more economically developed countries spend more than 12% of GDP on health. (Ke et al.,2011). The......

Words: 2715 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Factors Influencing Organizational Performance

...Abstract This research study is aimed to investigate that transformational leadership along with the other factors that can have significant relation with organizational performance in the context of Mirage Company. Our aim is to understand how transformational leadership can help to increase organizational over all performance along with other factors. Introduction Mirage Company started its journey in the year 2000. The company is locally owned and its operations are confined in the borders of Bangladesh. Basically, it is a High-tech company. It manufactures various software programs and provides building automation and security services. As we know there are some factors that are significantly related with an organizations overall performance. Such factors include IT, trust culture, learning strategy, flexible structure and design, and transformational leadership. If we think in the context of Bangladesh transformational leadership is quite new and the other factors are very obvious for an organization. Recently, Mirage Company’s organizational performance is declining. Therefore, our objective is to investigate that transformational leadership along with the other factors have any significant relation with organizational performance in the context of Mirage Company. Problem Statement In the earlier study Rhodes, Hung, Lok, Lien, and Wu (2008) noted that IT systems had the most significant relationship with organizational performance. Though, the organizational...

Words: 2388 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Factor Influencing Customer

...FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMER PURCHASE INTENTION OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENT PRODUCTS IN PENANG ISLAND OOI SAY KEAT Research report in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration 2009 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am grateful. First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia for giving me the opportunity to accomplish this Master of Business Administration course. It has been a pleasant and remarkable experience in my life. My deepest appreciation goes to my supervisor, Dr. Azizah Omar on her unlimited guidance, encouragement and support in steering me through this research. Without her valuable advice and assistance, I may not materialize and complete this research timely. I am also grateful to Mr. Shahidan, for his advice at the early stage of this research. I would like to extend my sincere appreciation to my course mates for their constructive comments and criticisms, which helped me get to where I am. Not forgetting also, my heartfelt gratitude to my colleagues for their generous time to provide insightful comments. Support from you all has not gone unnoticed. Last but not least, I would like to express my gratitude to my parents, family members and friends for their support and understanding throughout my post graduate study. Their unconditional love, patience and encouragement have made this research and my MBA course possible. Thank you so......

Words: 6783 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Factors Influencing Attitudes to Food

...Discuss factors that influence our attitudes to food (8+16) One factor that influences our attitudes to food is social learning theory which states that through observation of other people eg. role models such as parents , we learn and develop our own attitudes and behaviours to food. Children may learn their attitudes to eating behaviour through observing parents and their preferences and the satisfaction they receive from food and through vicarious leaning, they replicate the behaviour themselves. Brown and Ogden’s research has shown a correlation between parent and child behaviour towards food, including body dissatisfaction, snacking between meals and eating motivations. Social learning may also occur through the media which highlights different attitudes to food that people observe and learn from. However attitudes towards food are a result of more than just social learning. Evolutionary explanations suggest that our preferences to fatty or sweet foods are a direct result of adaptation. There is research support for the social learning theory. Meyer and Gast surveyed 10-12year olds and found a significant positive correlation between peer attitudes and eating patterns and it was found that the ‘likeability’ of peers was an important factor in how influential they were. Fisher et al also found support for how influential the social learning theory is in our attitudes to food, when studying mother and daughter relationships. It was found that the daughters eating......

Words: 682 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Global Factors Influencing on Business Strategy

...“The global factors influencing on business strategy” Content 1. Abstract 4 2. Introduction 4 3. Literature review 5 4. Research metrology 6 5. Strategy 7 5-1 - Export Markets 8 5-2 - International Markets 8 5-3 - International Competitiveness 9 5-4 - International trade 9 5-5 -Trade blocs 10 5-6- International strategy 10 5-6-1 Mergers and acquisitions 11 5-6-2 Alliance 12 5-6-3 Cost leadership 13 5-6-4 Joint venture 13 6. Global Factors: 14 6-1 -Political 14 6-2 -Social 15 6-3 -Economic 17 6-4 -Technological 18 6-5 - Legal 19 7. Conclusion 20 8. Reference 21-22 1-Abstract Successful global business strategy addresses the operational and executive issues enterprise face when looking internationally for few opportunities. Attend successful global operations to develop an action plan...

Words: 3460 - Pages: 14

Lo nuevo | 1С-Рарус: Мобильный ТСД v8.3 | Michael Kors horloge