Free Essay

Culture Bound

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By merc
Words 3289
Pages 14
Note 1: For best reading quality, read in the print preview mode. This is necessary to read some embedded objects like formulas and some graphs as well as showing the best foramatting.

Note 2: for non-honors students. The material and the order of the material may vary somewhat from that presented in the regular sequence.


The Circular Flow Model

Our next economic model represents the main participants in the economy and how they interact. The two main sectors of an economy are the households and the producers. Producers make the goods and services and sell them to households, but in order to make the goods and services they first need inputs or the factors of production. There are four factors of production and each receives payment for its participation in production: labor is paid wages, capital is paid interest, land is paid rent and entrepreneurship is paid profit. There are always two directions to the flows in the economy – the money to purchase something is moving in one direction, the good or service being purchased is moving in the opposite direction.

Households sell the four inputs to the production sector and receive payment back. Households then spend most of their income buying the goods and services produced by the production sector; what the households don’t spend they save. The production sector and government access those savings by borrowing in order to finance purchases. In addition both the production sector and government spend part of their income buying goods and services. Foreign businesses, governments and consumers not only inject funds into this economy when they buy from us, but also divert funds from this economy when they sell to us. Money keeps flowing from one sector to another forming the basis of income, spending, production and sales. The circular flow chart on the next page shows the basic sectors of the economy and traces the movement of money – for simplicity’s sake we have left off the goods and services being produced.

The overall demand for a nation’s output, Aggregate Demand, comes from the purchasing behavior of the four sectors – the household sector, the production sector itself, the public sector (or government) and the foreign sector. Aggregate demand is the sum of these four components:

C stands for consumption – it is the consumer spending on or demand for goods and services by the household sector. Consumption is by far the largest component of aggregate demand in the US, making up about 2/3 of the spending on American goods and services. Example, GM sells cars to household consumers.

I stands for investment – it is the business spending on or demand for goods and services by the production sector. (The bulk of the net savings of American households is borrowed by the business sector for these purposes and that is the representation on the chart on the next page). Businesses keep some of their own output and buy some of the output of other companies making up part of the demand for American goods and services. . Example, GM sells cars to other businesses and/or keeps some for itself.

G stands for government purchases – it is the government spending on or demand for goods and services by any level of the public sector. This only includes the government buying goods and services; it does not include the government transfers - giving money away without a purchase as in Social Security checks. (Government does borrow from the net savings of households but for simplicity we have left that off the chart). Example, GM sells cars to a government agency.

Financial Markets

Sn Foreign Sector I M X

C Xn

Household Sector G Production Sector

Transfers Taxes

Public Sector

Xn stands for net exports – it is the net spending on or demand for goods and services by the foreign sector. It is a net calculation because the foreign sector pumps money into the domestic economy when they buy our goods (exports) but pumps money out of the domestic economy when they sell goods to us (imports). Part of the C, I and G was spent on foreign goods or services not domestic. Example, GM sells cars to foreign buyers, but some components of the cars GM sold to households, businesses or government were bought from foreign producers which diverted money away from American producers. Net exports equals exports minus imports and can be negative, zero or positive. Each has a different effect on aggregate demand.

X > M Exports are greater than imports, what is known as a trade surplus. This will make net exports a positive number which raises aggregate demand. For example, the US exports $800 billion and imports $500 billion. The foreign sector has pumped $800 billion in purchasing power into the American economy and pumped $500 billion out for a gain of $300 billion. The net exports of $300 billion increases the aggregate demand for American goods and services by $300 billion. X = M Exports are equal to imports, what is known as balanced trade. This will make net exports zero which has no effect on aggregate demand. For example, the US exports $800 billion and imports $800 billion. The foreign sector has pumped $800 in purchasing power into the American economy and pumped $800 billion out for no change to the overall demand for American goods and services.

X < M Exports are less than imports, what is known as a trade deficit. This will make net exports a negative number which lowers aggregate demand. For example, the US exports $800 billion and imports $950 billion. The foreign sector has pumped $800 billion in purchasing power into the American economy and pumped $950 billion out for a loss of $150 billion. The net exports of negative $150 billion decrease the aggregate demand for American goods and services by $150 billion.

Gross Domestic Product

Not only is C+I+G+ Xn equal to aggregate demand it is also equal to the value of national output or gross domestic product. The economic value of something is measured by what people pay for it – what it sells for. If you buy a new car for $16,000, then the value of that new car is $16,000. To measure the value produced by the production sector we can count the value of the goods and services as they sold: how much consumers paid for the goods they bought, how much business paid for the goods they bought, how much government paid for what they bought and how much the foreign sector paid, net, for the goods they bought – which is aggregate demand.

Gross domestic product, or GDP, is the value of the final goods and services produced in a country during a given year. There are several important parts to this definition. Final goods and final services are used in order to avoid multicounting, - counting production more than once. A final good is one that is being sold to the ultimate user in our economy. We do not want to count production whose value is already part of something else we are counting. Primary goods are freshly extracted from nature while intermediate goods are still in the processing phase. Both of these will be part of the value of the final good.

Example: A landowner sells raw timber to Kimberly Clark $10,000 adds $10,000
Kimberly-Clark sells lumber to Home Depot $18,000 adds $ 8,000
Home Depot sells lumber to contractor $32,000 adds $14,000
Contractor sells decks to 20 customers $50,000 adds $18,000

If we counted each of these transactions in GDP we would count the same components more than once – the value of the timber is part of the value of the lumber, the value of the lumber is part of the value of the decks. We could count how much extra value each producer added to the value they started with – so the landowner produced $10,000 and Kimberly Clark added $8000 more value to the $10,000 they started with, etc. This way we have eliminated the duplication of previous steps and will come up with a contribution to GDP of $50,000. That $50,000 is also the value of the final good, the decks to the consumers – we can avoid the duplication by simply taking the value of the final good.

The sale of used goods is omitted from GDP for the same reason – we do not want to count things more than once. Since goods are counted in the year they are produced, we have already included used goods in the GDP of previous years; we do not want to count them again as current production. Any new production associated with the sale would be counted – for example, if we bought new tires or had the air conditioning fixed on our old car before we sold it, that new production would be in this years GDP.

The same concept holds for situations where the good is produced in one year but sold in another – we do not want to count the good more than once. Production is more relevant than purchasing from the point of view of measuring economic performance and looking at the effect on employment and consumer income. We therefore, use the year of production. How do we find out about the good if it has produced but not yet sold? Firms have to take inventory at the end of each calendar year for tax purposes; they report the approximate market value of the inventory at that time. The government then “closes the books” on GDP for that year by using this estimated retail value – while some of these units will eventually sell at a higher price, others will have to be sold at a discount to get rid of them – the error is probably not very large since these two events partially cancel each other out.

Finally, GDP is a measure of production, therefore, we do not consider purely financial transactions to be part of GDP. If you take $1000 out of your bank account and buy a corporate bond with it (essentially lending the company $1000), we do not count this $1000 as part of GDP – it is purely a transfer of money from one party to another and does not reflect $1000 of production. Somewhere someone will use that $1000 to buy something and that is when it will show up in GDP. The company takes the $1000 you lent it and buys a computer then we add $1000 to GDP. What about the $50 commission your broker charged for buying the bond for you? That represents the current production of a service and, therefore, would be in GDP.

Expenditures vs. Cost/Income Approach

C+I+G+ Xn tracked the value of production by the money received for it, the money flowing into businesses as it is spent -. this is known as the expenditures approach because it measures the spending or expenditures on GDP. The other way to calculate GDP is to follow the money as it is dispersed by businesses – the money flowing out. This is known as the cost/income approach because the dispersal represents a cost to the businesses and income to the recipients.
The firms receiving the money represented by C+I+G+ Xn will send that money somewhere; much of it will be paid to those who provide the four factors of production.

Wages compensation for labor
Net interest compensation for financial capital
Rent compensation for land
Profit compensation for entrepreneurship
Indirect Taxes payment to government as part of the cost of production
Depreciation payment to replace the capital stock used in production process

Unless there is measurement or entry error the two GDP calculation methods will give the same answer – there is always measurement and entry error. The two numbers, however, are consistently very close in the US.

The value of aggregate spending must equal the value of aggregate income.

GDP adjustments

Raw GDP numbers can be very misleading when we seek to analyze them over time or space. For example, if we want to interpret how the US economy is doing compared to other countries, we will run into a problem with population. Saying the US has a GDP about 5 times that of France does not mean that we are 5 times richer than the French, we also have almost 5 times as many people to support with that GDP. In order to make such a comparison it is important to adjust the data for population – we want average GDP or GDP per person – this is known as GDP per capita.

GDP per capita = *

NOTE: (US GDP is in billions while population is in millions)

If we took the value of national output and divided it equally between every man, woman and child, each person would receive the GDP per capita. The US consistently has one of the highest GDP per capita numbers in the world and it is often the largest when certain corrections are made.

Raw GDP numbers, even GDP per capita, can be very misleading when we make comparisons over time. For example, if we want to interpret how the US economy is doing compared to the past – measure how GDP is changing, we will run into a problem with the price level. Saying that the US in 1970 had a GDP of $1,039.7 billion while in 2000 the US had a GDP of $9,872.9 billion does not mean we became over 9 times richer during the 30 years. A dollar in 1970 is worth more than a dollar in 2000 because the price level has increased significantly over that generation. Much of the increase in GDP is NOT an increase in production but an increase in prices - we need to correct for inflation. We need to distinguish between nominal and real variables.

Nominal variables reflect face value. They are measured in the dollars of that time (called current dollars) and have not been adjusted for inflation. Real variables reflect purchasing power value. They are measure in the dollars of an arbitrarily selected base year (called constant dollars) and have therefore been adjusted for inflation. In general, economists have little use for nominal data except as a way to get to real data. There are a couple of ways to adjust for inflation and convert nominal measures to real ones. With overall GDP we traditionally use an approach that takes current production and measures that production at base year prices.

If society is currently producing 1000 tons of steel at $50 a ton, 50,000 pounds of wheat at 40¢ a pound and 4000 gallons of gas at $1.40 a gallon then nominal GDP is $75,600. In order to find real GDP we first select a base year – 1980 for example. If steel was $40 a ton, wheat 25¢ a pound and gas $1.40 a gallon in 1980 then today’s real GDP – today’s output in base year prices – was $58,100. The ratio of nominal to real GDP is known as the GDP deflator (this number is typically multiplied by 100 to make the deflator easier to interpret as a percent).

GDP deflator = *

The GDP deflator in this case is approximately 130.12; in other words, prices today are 130.12% of prices in the base year of 1980 or 30.12% higher. This is not the inflation rate which measures the rate of price change on an annual basis.

The nominal GDP of the US in 1970 was $1,039.7 billion but the real GDP was $3,578 billion using 1996 as the base year. The GDP deflator was therefore 29.06 – prices in 1970 were about 29% of prices in 1996 – there has been a lot of inflation over that time. The nominal GDP of the US in 2000 was $9872.9billion, but the real GDP was $9224 billion using 1996 as the base year. Therefore, the GDP deflator was 107.04 – since 2000 is only 4 years away from the base year, prices had not changed significantly, only about 7% during that period.

The bottom line is that we can now compare the increase in production that has occurred from 1970 to 2000 by comparing the real GDPs. The US economy went from $3,578 billion to $9224 billion less than a threefold increase. Our nominal data showed the US economy having expanded by more than a factor of nine; the real data showed the US economy only expanded by a bit less than a factor of three. This was a significant difference.

If we then adjust the real GDP data for population, we see that the per capita real GDP in the US has grown from about $17,626 in 1970 to about $32,779 in 2000. Here we see that the output per person has less than doubled during this time period – a far cry from the increase we saw with nominal GDP uncorrected for population. People on average are close to but not quite twice as well off as they were the previous generation…or are they?

Limits of GDP as a Measure of Economic Well being

The most common interpretation of GDP data is as a measure of economic performance – of the strength of an economy and the well being of the members of that economy. We talk about how the economy has grown, how standards of living have increased. The problem is that GDP data does not reflect all the characteristics we would need to accurately make that assessment. The GDP concept has limits.

A. Does not include non-monetary, non-official transactions

The government can only include the value production that it knows about and can put a dollar amount on. Goods and services that are not sold in the marketplace, whose sales are hidden or that are not sold for money, are difficult even to estimate in value.

1. Home produced, home consumed: these goods and services are both made and used in the home – since they are not bought and sold in the marketplace, the government has no record of their having been produced. The presence of these goods means that GDP is missing some of the actual value produced in the economy – it causes us to underestimate the true material standard of living. As long as every GDP number is off by the same percent, our pattern of changes – how fast GDP is increasing or decreasing – will be accurate. If the degree of home production/home consumption changes over time, this also biases our estimates of economic growth. We will underestimate economic growth if home production, home consumption becomes a larger proportion of actual production over time. We will overestimate economic growth if home production, home consumption becomes a smaller proportion of actual production over time

2. Underground economy: there is a whole network of production and exchange that is non-official, deliberately hidden from view. This includes illegal goods and services, as well as production that is hidden for tax purposes or to avoid regulation. Since the government misses this production, we will underestimate the actual level of goods and services produced in the economy as well as the income of American households. Again, as long as every GDP number is off by the same percent, our pattern of changes – how fast GDP is increasing or decreasing – will be accurate. If the degree of underground production changes over time, this also biases our estimates of economic growth – we will underestimate economic growth if more production is moving into the underground economy and we will overestimate economic growth if more production is moving out of the underground economy.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Culture

...Chapter 5: Culture and history The Chapter 2, 3 and 4 have considered the important influences of the environment, internal capabilities and stakeholder expectations on the development of an organization’s strategic. However, it is danger that mangers only take into account relatively recent phenomena without understanding how those phenomena have come about or how the past influences current and future strategy. Many well-established organizations such as Mitsui Group are strongly influenced by their historical legacies that have become embedded in their cultures (JSW, 2008). The business environment cannot be understood without considering how it has developed over time. The capabilities of an organization, especially those that provide organizations with competitive advantage may have historical roots and hove built up over time in ways unique to that organization. Therefore, such capabilities may become part of the culture of an organization which is difficult for other organizations to copy. However, they may also be difficult to change. So understanding the historical and cultural base of such capabilities also informs the challenges of strategic change. The powers and influence of different stakeholders are also likely to have historical origins that are important to understand. Thus, this chapter will explain the importance of history and culture in relation to strategy development in section 5.1 and 5.2; then followed by section 5.3 to address the......

Words: 1440 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Bound to You

...Bound To You Christopher Pike How Did Karen Holly Die? (4) On August 2, seventeen year old, Karen Holly died. How she died is unknown but this is Jason Whitfield’s story. Jason picked up Karen at her house at 6PM. Her parents were gone for the night. The kids left the house to see a 7PM movie at the Rest Theater in downtown Timber. The man in the ticket booth was Ray Bower. He was able to confirm that they had seen the movie, even though it was a busy night. Ray remembered them because Jason had gone out of his way to make fun of his hair. When the show ended at 9PM, Jason and Karen rode up to Castle Park. It was her idea said Jason. She wanted to see Crystal Falls in the moonlight. They parked in lot H not so far from Snake Tail River. Then they hiked along Pathfinders Trail to the falls. Jason claims that he had didn’t see anyone. Once at the top Jason said that they “hung out”. At around midnight, Jason heard a “strange sound” coming from the other side of the falls. He claims it was the sound of a bear looking for foo and told Karen to stay where she was, while he went to check out what that sound was. When he almost reached the place where the sound was coming from he heard Karen scream. He ran back to where he left her. When Jason went back to Karen he saw a huge bear on top of her, hauling her while she lay on the ground dead and helpless. Jason reached for a stick and started to hit the bear with it, trying to divert his attention from Karen to himself.......

Words: 678 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Bodies Out of Bounds

...The body transgresses many boundaries; no matter how hard it tries to confine itself to its perfect dimensions.  Dana, the protagonist in the novel Kindred by Ocatvia Butler, travels back in time to a different era in which she must learn to adapt or suffer dire consequences.  The nameless narrator in the novel Bodies Out of Bounds by Jeanette Winterson leaves her lover when she finds out the latter has cancer.  As pointed in the article, “Unbearable Weight” by Susan Bordo, society has hardwired into us that there is such a thing as the perfect body. All of these characters try disparately to attain perfection in their lives. There are various boundaries being crossed in Kindred.  The most obvious being the different time eras.  Dana is transported to the antebellum South where she meets her ancestors.  She does not want to be there.  However, she knows that if she does not keep saving Rufus, her very own existence is threatened.  So she will do anything, however awful, to ensure that Hagar is born. Dana hopes that Rufus will not grow up to be like his father.  The question of whether Dana can save hime from his culture is always omnipresent.  Although she would much rather stay and live in her comfortable home in California, she is willing to leave it behind to save Rufus.  Dana does not belong in this era and yet the fate of her family and her very self depend on her. The second obvious boundary that Dana crosses is landscape and geography-wise.  California still was not......

Words: 1629 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Bound for the Promised Land

...We Are Bound for the Promised Land Back in the old days, the communities were a lot more conservative. Every father was the head of the family. Many people lived in small towns, and had farms. Almost everybody knew each other, in each town, and everybody knew if something big had happened, or if something was worth knowing. There were a much bigger difference between boys and girls, and it was not normal to play boys and girls, like it is now. In the text, We Are Bound for the Promised Land, we see some of these points, and we learn about how life was, for a girl named Eilean, back in the days. In the text, We Are Bound for the Promised Land, we meet a girl named Eilean MacLeod. Eilean is a girl living in a small town with her mother, her father and her two sisters. She helps out her family, by feeding the chickens and the cow, wearing a little apron over her dress. Eilean goes to school every day, and has to friends named Angus and Lewis. Angus and Lewis are to boys, and Eilean father is not very happy about that. He wants Eilean to be “normal”, and have friends who are girls, instead of boys. Eilean is the youngest in her family, and is not treated very well, by anybody else, but her mother. Her father is very strict, and at one point he hits her so hard, she falls to the ground. Her mother loves her, but there is nothing she can do, because se does not want the father to get mad. It’s obvious that the father is the head of the family. Eilean seems very quiet, but she......

Words: 724 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Zero Lower Bound have tools to expand the economy, even after its interest rate target hits its lower bound of zero. One possibility is that the central bank could raise inflation expectations by committing itself to future monetary expansion. Even if nominal interest rates cannot fall any further, higher expected inflation can lower real interest rates by making them negative, which would stimulate investment spending. A second possibility is that the central bank could conduct expansionary open-market operations with a larger variety of financial instruments than it normally uses. For example, it could buy mortgages and corporate debt and thereby lower the interest rates on these kinds of loans. The Federal Reserve actively pursued this last option during the downturn of 2008 and 2009. Some economists have suggested that the possibility of hitting the zero lower bound for interest rates justifies setting the target rate of inflation well above zero. Under zero inflation, the real interest rate, like the nominal interest, can never fall below zero. But if the normal rate of inflation is, say, 4 percent, then the central bank can easily push the real interest rate to negative 4 percent by lowering the nominal interest rate toward zero. Thus, moderate inflation gives monetary policymakers more room to stimulate the economy when needed, reducing the risk of hitting up against the zero lower bound and having the economy fall into a liquidity trap....

Words: 423 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Wikileaks and Hacktivist Culture Summary Lately there has been impressive talk about the Wikileaks phenomenon, and justifiably along these lines, given the volume and affectability of the reports the site has discharged. What this exchange has uncovered, notwithstanding, is that the media and government orgs accept there is a solitary hero to be concerned with—something of a James Bond reprobate, in the event that you will—when truth be told the hero is something by and large diverse: a casual system of revolutionary people bound by an imparted ethic and society. Consistent with standard way of thinking, the charged hero is, obviously, Wikileaks originator Julian Assange, and the exchange of him has run from Raffi Khatchadourian's June picture in The New Yorker, which makes Assange resemble an expert spy in a John le Carré novel, to Tunku Varadarajan's epic muckraking bloviation in The Daily Beast: "With his bloodless, pallid face, his thin hair emptied of all shade, his languorous, exceptionally un-Australian appendages, and his atmosphere of blinding whiteness that seems to concede no subtlety, Assange looks every last bit the flippant, uber-geek blackguard." Some have gotten for making Assange bankrupt" (regardless of the fact that we must maltreat universal law to do it), while others, going from Daniel Ellsberg to Assange himself, suppose he is (in Ellsberg's statements) "in some threat." I don't question that Assange is in peril, yet regardless of the possibility...

Words: 576 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

By Leaps and Bounds

...By Leaps and Bounds Technology is a wonderful aide in our society. Having the ability to access information at the stroke of your fingertips is a gift to people. We are able to research on the go, carry multiple books to read in the palm of your hand, and even be able to navigate digitally rather than carry a paper map. There are so many benefits to technology and the advances quickly achieve, in a matter of months! However, like many things in life a good thing can be bad in the wrong hands. As much good technology provides society with by having information in a flash at their fingertips there is the ominous cloud of this same technology gathering information and using it to hurt others. Sharing information has now become dangerous and society must adapt to the ever-changing world of technology and protect them. One of the major changes seen in government was the adoption of the Patriot Act of 2001. This act pertains to the government being able to access personal information and share it under the covering of protection and security. The Department of Justice states, “The Department of Justice’s first priority is to prevent future terrorist attacks. Since its passage following the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Patriot Act has played a key part and often the leading role- in a number of successful operations to protect innocent Americans from the deadly plans of terrorists dedicated to destroying America and our way of life. While the results have been important...

Words: 1016 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

We Are Bound for the Promise Land

...We are Bound to the Promised Land Back then it was normal..? Completely normal to do things like that. It was legal back then, and people would just do it, if seemed necessary. The wife, or woman in the house would mostly stare at it without anything to say, but they couldn’t do that much about it either. Cause back then it was allowed to hit children. To find out we will have to search for the answer in the novel “We are Bound for the Promised Land”, by A.E Watterson Eilean is a little girl with a mother and a father, and two big sisters. They are living in a small village, with a Kirk, where her father is a pastor. We don’t hear Eilean age at any time. But since she is a girl playing with the boys from her class, we can tell that she is about 7-10 years old. She is a girl that wants to decide things by herself, but can’t because her father is strict, and is the one in charge. In the beginning of the novel, Eilean is talking to the animals that live in the other side of the house. That’s a clear sign that Eilean is lonely. Back then the houses were split into two parts. About 2/3 was for the family, and the last part was stable. So that you shared the heat of the fire, with the animals in the winter, so your cow wouldn’t die because of the cold. Eileans relationship to her mother is fine, we don’t want to put that much energy into that. But her relationship to her father is special. Eilean wants to be independent, but her father “knows” what’s best for her and thereby...

Words: 971 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Prometheus Bound

...“Prometheus Bound” by Peter Paul Rubens and Frans Snyder “Prometheus Bound” by Peter Paul Rubens and Frans Snyder is a personal new favorite painting for me. From the first time I laid eyes on this work of art I was immediately drawn in by the image of this defenseless man, chained up, and the gruesomeness of seeing the an eagle ripping his liver from his side. The tale behind this painting and the process by which the Rubens created this painting are equally fascinating. Being raised Catholic during the Baroque period, much of Ruben’s paintings reflected his religion. He produced religious paintings such as “Daniel in the Lions’ Den”, ”Raising of the Cross”, and “Descent from the Cross.” He worked in a studio where he had other artist working on paintings with him. He had artists who specialized in painting certain forms such as fish, birds, and clouds among many other forms. In “Prometheus Bound” Frans Snyder is actually credited with painting the great eagle. “Prometheus Bound” is about the legend of Prometheus, the Greek Titan who gave fire to humankind, which defied Zeus’s order. As punishment for defying Zeus, Prometheus was bound with chains to the side of Mount Caucasas for eternity. It was here that a great eagle would come every day to feast on Prometheus’s liver. Being a Titan, Prometheus’s liver would regenerate every night and the eagle would come back every day and repeat the excruciating punishment. When I look at “Prometheus Bound” I see dark, mountainous,...

Words: 745 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Culture Name: Tutor: Course: Number: Date: Introduction Culture is the general norm of characteristics, traits, as well as behavior of a given segment in a society. The learning objectives for this assignment is to be aware of differences in thinking patterns between different cultures and familiarize with some of the important research findings in the cross-cultural study of mental processes. More so they will help in understanding the general composition of the culture. The following questions were developed after the reading of the assigned books concerning culture. 1. Among primates; a) Only the human brain continues to grow at fetal rates after birth. b) The human beings are the only born with a full developed brain. c) Human beings are the ones who take the shortest time of brain development. d) None of the above. 2. Which one of the following statement is not true? a) Late maturation of the human nervous system is associated by a general development retardation of the human child, compared with other primates. b) ¾ of human brain develops outside the womb. c) Only the human brain continues to grow at fetal rates after birth. d) All the other primates except for human beings, are born with a fully developed brain. 3. What is considered the most distinguishing cultural factor among different populations? a) Primitive mentality. b)...

Words: 627 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

We Are Bound for the Promised Land

...“We Are Bound for the Promised Land” “We Are Bound for the Promised Land” is a novel which is written by A.E Watterson. The story is about relationships within a family and finding your own way to live. The main character is called Eilean MacLeod, who is a girl that lives on a farm with her mother, father and her two elder sisters, Fiona and Mary. The moral of the story is finding your own identity and to not let others control your life that might have a bad influence which can affect your behaviour. The story starts out with Eilean feeding some animals. She has a good relationship with the animals and we see that, because she let one of the chickens eat from her hand. She also talks with a cow as if the cow understands her, and this shows us the fact that she is a little girl with a young mind and has not learnt yet that animals do not understand human-beings. Her family is very religious as her father is a priest. Eilean is the youngest one of all her siblings. The father decides everything in their house. Her family follow the old tradition of the mother being the housewife and the father being the head of the house. Eilean wants to live her life by her choices and not by the rules her father has given. She gives the impression of being independent and having her own dreams on living in the city where there are a lot of shops, escaping her life in a small town with her old fashion minded family. Eilian is also described as a boyish girl. She has two good friends,......

Words: 1056 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...THE TOP TEN WAYS THAT CULTURE CAN AFFECT INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS by: Jeswald W. SalacuseIssues: March / April 2005. Categories: Global Business. * Share on LinkedIn * Share on googlePlus * Share on facebook * Share on twitter * Share by email When Enron was still – and only – a pipeline company, it lost a major contract in India because local authorities felt that it was pushing negotiations too fast. In fact, the loss of the contract underlines the important role that cultural differences play in international negotiation. For one country’s negotiators, time is money; for another’s, the slower the negotiations, the better and more trust in the other side. This author’s advice will help negotiators bridge the cultural differences in international negotiation. (This article first ran in the September/October 2004 issue of Ivey Business Journal). International business deals not only cross borders, they also cross cultures. Culture profoundly influences how people think, communicate, and behave. It also affects the kinds of transactions they make and the way they negotiate them. Differences in culture between business executives—for example, between a Chinese public sector plant manager in Shanghai and a Canadian division head of a family company in Toronto– can create barriers that impede or completely stymie the negotiating process. The great diversity of the world’s cultures makes it impossible for any negotiator, no matter how skilled and......

Words: 3185 - Pages: 13

Free Essay


...It is amazing what many people will do for the sake of their culture. After all, it is those who are most loyal to their culture that keep tradition and culture unique and alive. But how far is too far? Extreme body modification can be seen in many countries, many cultures and from many people of different walks of life. Anyone could sit on a busy street for a full day and continuously watch people and never see all the forms of body modification that are present today. Here in the United States, we starve ourselves, invest thousands of dollars in plastic surgery and spend more hours in the gym than we do with our family just so that we can fit into what our culture defines as beautiful. As big or as little as someone may think this sacrifice is, is it really that bad? Foot binding, neck rings, extreme scarring tooth filing, and ear stretching, are just a few examples of what other cultures engage in so that they can fit into their culture’s idea of beautiful. There are many different theories that attempt to explain why foot binding exists and how the idea came about. “Foot binding began late in the T'ang Dynasty (618-906) and it gradually spread through the upper class during the Song Dynasty (960-1297), lasting through the Ming period (1368-1644) and then ending in the Ching Dynasty (1644-1911)” (Seagrave). There are several legends that attempt to account for the creation of this custom. One is that the concubine of a Chinese prince named Yao Niang walked so......

Words: 1795 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Cultural Bound Syndromes

...Culture-bound syndrome The term culture-bound syndrome was included in the fourth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) which also includes a list of the most common culture-bound conditions (DSM-IV: Appendix I). Included in DSM-IV-TR (4th.ed) the term cultural-bound syndrome denotes recurrent, locality-specific patterns of abnormal behavior and troubling experience that may or may not be linked to a particular DSM-IV-TR diagnostic category. Many of these patterns are naturally considered to be illnesses, or at least afflictions, and most have local names. Although presentations conforming to the major DSM-IV-TR categories can be found throughout the world, the particular symptoms, course, and social response are very often influenced by local cultural factors. In contrast, cultural-bound syndromes are generally limited to specific societies or culture areas and are localized, folk, diagnostic categories that frame coherent meanings for certain repetitive, patterned, and troubling sets of experiences and observations. In medicine, a culture-specific syndrome or culture-bound syndrome is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture. There are no objective biochemical or structural alterations of body organs or functions, and the disease is not recognized in other cultures. While a substantial portion of......

Words: 1568 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Bound Feet & Western Dress

...According to Chinese culture and tradition, women are seen as nothing. When Chinese girls are born, they are raised to obey their fathers and seen as no use because she will eventually become the property of a husband and his family with the sole purpose of bearing children. They are simply raised to believe that women are much less important than men. Pang-Mei Natasha Chang is the author of the book: Bound Feet & Western Dress, which is a memoir that reflects on the life and struggles of her great-aunt, Chang Yu-i, her family and friends, as well as the family of her first husband, Hsu Chih-mo during the crossroads of traditional Chinese culture and Western ideas. This book includes a chronology of events, prologue, and also an epilogue. Bound Feet & Western Dress was published in New York City, by Anchor Books in October of 1997. Furthermore, from information in this book, I will attempt to write an essay that will explain the changing ideas of the family in modern China, how and why these ideas change, and why Chang Yu-i’s experiences were exceptional. Yu-i was born in the year 1900, a time when Chinese tradition and culture were taken very serious. As men moved forward, women stayed behind in the past with the sole purpose of becoming the property of a husband one day and giving birth to sons to carry on the family name. Before Yu-i told her story to her niece, there were a few things she wanted her to know so she would understand: “In China, a woman is nothing.......

Words: 1644 - Pages: 7

Captulo 140 : ¡Habitantes de Nunca Jamás! ¡La banda pirata Pumpkin! | SkymoviesHd Org - Thugs of Hindostan (2018) Hindi PerDVDRip x264 AAC Bollywood Movie 720p [750MB] | Pulp Fiction