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Christianity in the Tokugawa Period
Teather, Rhiannon A. The Palme of Christian Fortitude: Japan’s martyrs in seventeenth-century records. Bristol University. 6.3 (2014): n.p. Web. 3 April 2016.Teather highlights key reasons that informed Tokugawa’s persecution of Kirishtans (Roman Catholic Christians) during his reign. The article goes further to show the wrong reception that western Christian missionaries were received with described as cold and filled with intimidation.
Munson, kabuki. The opening, closing and re-opening of Japan? Japanese foreign relation before during and after the Takugawa Shonjugate (1600-1868). Rondolph-Macon college. (2013): n.p. Web. 3 April 2016. Kibuki discusses the state of Christianity in Japan after Portuguese missionary’s arrival. It explains Japans understanding of missionaries and the adoption of a “closed country” ideology by Takugawa’s leadership.
Sadler, Leon. Takugawa Ieyasu Shogun: “The old Badger.” makers of history. 5.5 (1977): 723-760. Web. 3 April 2016. Sadler highlights Tokugawa’s leadership perspectives before the arrival of missionaries, during their arrival and later discusses the measures that he took to prevent the spread of Christianity. Sadler further addresses Takugawa’s stature as a military figure and outlines the reasons that led him to accept persecution as a mode of punishment for Kirishitans and rebels.
Reischauer, Ochoa. “A cautious view of Tokugawa.” Hail Japanese history. 11(1977): 11-12. Web. 3 April 2016. Reischauer discusses Tokugawa’s view on western influences and adoption of an autonomous punishment for rebels that are found practicing Christianity in Japan.
Dolby. “Japan returns to isolation.” An age of exploration and Solutions 19 (2007): 543-547 Web. 3 April 2016. Dobly explains the persecution of Christians as being part of an attempt by Tokugawa's leadership to control and cap spread of foreign ideas.
Superuriorum, Paulsen. A brief revelation of the persecution lately made: Against the Catholic Christians in the kingdom. The Epistle journal. 3.4(1978): 231-249. Web. 3 April 2016. Paulsen seeks to discuss Tokugawa's view of western religions and explains his disapproval of the spread of western beliefs in Japan.
Murakami, Naojiro. Letters written by English residents in Japan, 1611-1623, with other documents on the English trading settlement in Japan in the seventeenth century. University of Toronto-Robarts library. 7.6 (1900): 570-572. Web. 3 April 2016. Murakami explains the plight of English residents that had inhabited Japan during Tokugawa's reign.
Misaharu. A collection of documents belonging to the inquisitions of office against Kirishitans. (1932): n.p. Web. 3 April. 2016. University of Toronto-Robarts library. Misharu incorporates documents that belong to Tokugawa's inquisition office and shows their relevance in his bid to cripple spread if Christianity. Campbell, Gordon and Phillip, John. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University journal.6.2 (2004): n.p. Web. 3 April. 2016. Campbell seeks to show Tokugawa' strong military position and his view on Japans invasion buy western missionaries.
Boxer, Cross. ‘Hokosawa and Jesuits’ (1587-1645). Transactions of the Japan Society. Maryland University (2007). n.p. Web. 3 April 2016. Boxer discusses how the Japanese society was influenced by Tokugawa administration to leave Christianity.
Hangemann, Edward. “The persecution of the Christians in Japan in the middle of the seventeenth century.” Pacific Historical review 6.6 (1942). Web. 3 April 2016. Edward explains the signing of the last decree forbidding any Portuguese from undertaking any commercial activity in Japan. This order was supposed to stop more Christian missionaries from accessing Japan.
Kower, Rotem. “Skin as a Metaphor: Early European Racial Views in Japan (1548-1583).”University of Haifa. (2004) n.p. Web.3 April 2016. Kower discusses the antiforeigner tendencies of the Tokugawa’s leadership. The article looks at discrimination against Christian missionaries in Japan.…...

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