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Denmark Globalization

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1. ¿Cómo logra Dinamarca el desempleo tan bajo en el 2008?
El desempleo en Dinamarca se logra a través de políticas fiscales prudentes que iban en beneficio de promover el desarrollo de la infraestructura y legislación laboral que reformaba el marco laboral donde el gobierno, el empresariado y los sindicatos contribuían todos para el desarrollo y beneficio de la sociedad danesa. No fue un cambio de corto plazo sino fue un cambio de que se inició muchos años atrás y donde el enfoque de todos los ciudadanos era el de formar una sociedad de bienestar pero que sea sostenible en el tiempo. 2.1 Explique las causas del éxito del modelo de Dinamarca.
La principal causa del éxito del modelo de Dinamarca para obtener un desempleo tan bajo es la utilización del modelo de flexiseguridad. Según el portal web ABC.es (2012) la actual primer danesa Thorning-Schmidt indicó en la reunión en Copenhague que el modelo que combina flexibilidad y seguridad es un sistema que ayuda a reducir el desempleo crónico en países como España. En la sociedad danesa la fórmula es bastante sencilla, es muy fácil contratar y despedir lo que facilita la movilidad y capacidad de adaptación para los empresarios. El empresariado cuando desea despedir a un trabajador le da tres meses para buscar un nuevo trabajo y no recibe ninguna indemnización. Durante este plazo el gobierno conjuntamente con la empresa ofrecen cursos de capacitación y de reincorporación al sistema laboral, en caso el trabajador no logre conseguir trabajo el gobierno con el empresariado subsidian a través de un bono de desempleo a los trabajadores desempleados. El gobierno ha creado un conjunto de estímulos fiscales en impuestos donde promueve la inversión de determinados sectores y a los sectores que más deterioran el medio ambiente aplica un impuesto mayor.
En conclusión las causas del éxito del modelo danés netamente se debe a la relación estrecha entre todos los actores del mercado, el empresariado tiene la flexibilidad para contratar y despedir sin ningún inconveniente por lo que no tiene miedo a contratar, el gobierno ayuda subsidiando a los trabajadores desempleados y ofrece un bienestar social para todos sus ciudadanos, los sindicatos y los trabajadores se sienten en la libertad de no tener miedo a ser despedidos ya que es cuestión rutinaria el cambio de trabajo. 2. ¿Debería Dinamarca apostar por una mayor integración con las políticas de la Unión Europea y el Euro, continuando una política de balance muy fina entre autonomía e integración o debería forjar su propio camino?
Debería apostar por la integración ante la Unión Europea porque cuenta con buenas estrategias para seguir con beneficios de la globalización. Tiene un mercado laboral flexible en conjunto con un estado de bienestar que tiene un seguro salarial muy elevado, tiene una de las economías más sólidas con un nivel de desempleo muy bajo, dando lugar a que los daneses se sientan a gusto de trabajar en el país. El sector público también muestra solidez financiera, encabezando las primeras posiciones sobre competitividad, el pueblo danés posee una democracia muy marcada apostando siempre por el derecho personal a la libertad.
Dinamarca a lo largo de los años ha demostrado independencia y prosperidad bajo sus propios lineamientos, por ejemplo al mantener su moneda lo cual le permite controlar su economía. Dinamarca debería mantener su política de acuerdo a como le ha ido dando frutos, actualmente las economías europeas están atravesando un problema serio al no poder aplicar políticas económicas para salvar sus economías. Dinamarca debería mantener su propio camino pero no desligarse de sus principales socios comerciales que son la Unión Europea para lo cual debe seguir perteneciendo pero bajos sus condiciones. 3.2 ¿Qué rol juega la inmigración a este fenómeno?

Los inmigrantes fueron la base fundamental para el desarrollo de este modelo de globalización y bienestar social, los investigadores calificaron a Dinamarca como un país próspero para los negocios y se convirtió en un atractivo país para los emigrantes, gracias a la bonanza de las políticas fiscales y llegando a dar refugio a personas de países en desarrollo, llegando a depender de los inmigrantes para cubrir puestos de trabajo.
La adaptación a la globalización implica necesariamente que los daneses tengan que ceder en base a sus políticas de inmigración, lo que determinaría que mayor número de personas tengan acceso a los programas sociales y muchos daneses pueden ver con malos ojos que sus impuestos se empiecen a gastar en nuevas personas a lo cual no tenían derecho bajo las normas actuales. 3.3 ¿Qué problemas culturales educativos, políticos y sociales concurren con la inmigración turca y de musulmanes en general.
La inmigración turca y musulmana esta generando una subcultura dentro de la cultura danesa la cual trata de instaurar su cultura por encima de la danesa, los musulmanes y los turcos culturalmente tienen culturalmente muchas diferencias con la cultura danesa, la cual promueve la democracia, la igualdad de géneros, la libertad de expresión y diferentes derechos liberales que se han ido adoptando a lo largo de los años, esto genera un problema social, político muy fuerte dado que muchas libertades de los daneses se ven menguados con lo que los musulmanes piensan que son sus libertades. Por el otro lado si Dinamarca quiere adaptarse a un mundo globalizado necesita adaptar su cultura para poder integrarse con los musulmanes y turcos y poder llevar nuevamente su aspecto social al equilibrio que ha venido teniendo a lo largo de los años. 3.4 ¿De qué manera esta inmigración musulmana afectará la fortaleza de la economía Danesa y su perspectiva en una economía global?
Depende de la conducta que el gobierno quiera establecer en función de la política migratoria que quiera aplicar, si es muy restrictivo en cuanto a su política perdería la oportunidad de integrarse a un mundo cada vez más globalizado y esta mano de obra específica que necesita Dinamarca para seguir manteniendo su sociedad de bienestar se podría ver afectada. En caso su política migratoria sea muy flexible existe la posibilidad que el gasto social sea muy elevado y tenga que reducir la sociedad de bienestar que tiene por tener que dar acceso a un mayor número de personas.
Lo mejor es mantener una política migratoria que mantenga lo que Dinamarca necesita para seguir manteniendo su sociedad de bienestar pero que no genere un gasto excesivo ni tampoco la creación de subculturas que desvirtúen la cultura danesa que se ha adoptado a lo largo de los años. 3. ¿Está Dinamarca creciendo debido a o a pesar del estado de bienestar?
Su crecimiento sigue todavía latente, a partir de la crisis del 2008 se nota que existe una disminución de este crecimiento al igual que los demás países en el resto del mundo, pero esta economía no se ha visto igualmente afectada dadas las políticas que se han instaurado lo cual integra a todos los actores del mercado y esta flexibilidad que goza todo el pueblo danés le permite mantener su sociedad de bienestar.
Dinamarca si no tuviera el estado de bienestar no hubiera podido mantener su crecimiento, dado que la flexiseguridad le ha permitido mantener un empresariado que tiene la flexibilidad de contratar y despedir, además le permite negociar con el trabajador todos los beneficios que tiene. El trabajador se siente con seguridad de no quedarse desamparado por el gobierno y que dada la capacitación que tiene el desempleo es algo rutinario. 4.5 ¿De qué manera el capitalismo global y la globalización son parte fundamental del modelo Danés?
El capitalismo global y la globalización son el pilar del modelo danés dado que sin el empresariado y sin poder proveer de servicios al resto del mundo que son sus compradores dado que el principal producto que posee Dinamarca es el desarrollo de tecnología la cual se aplica no sólo en Dinamarca sino en el resto del mundo. Esto ha generado que muchas empresas se concentren en Dinamarca donde pueden desarrollar este conocimiento y es por eso que este capitalismo global es el que da los ingresos para la sociedad del bienestar del gobierno danés.
La globalización le ha permitido a Dinamarca que pueda ofrecer al mundo sus servicios y que sea una economía que pueda ofrecer lo que el mercado requiere y esto a la vez trae más trabajo y desarrollo de la sociedad danesa. 4.6 En última instancia cuánto de Estado de Bienestar y cuánto de globalización adoptó el modelo Danés?
La sociedad danesa inicialmente optó por el Estado de Bienestar pero este no era sostenible en el tiempo dado que la globalización es la que provee de mayores ingresos y que este estado sea sostenible en el tiempo, por lo que adoptó un estado de equilibrio por el cual el estado de bienestar es para todos los trabajadores pero cada uno de ellos sabe su rol dentro de la economía, por el que tienen el derecho a ser protegidos por el estado pero tienen la obligación de responder a las necesidades del mercado, es decir el empresariado que si está globalizado requiere de personal altamente calificado y esto lo provee el gobierno al promover políticas educativas de acorde a lo que el empresariado esta buscando.

4. Conclusiones. En síntesis, ¿Estado de bienestar o Globalización? ¿qué elegiría la sociedad Danesa?
Un equilibrio entre los dos, el estado de bienestar requiere un mayor compromiso de estado en el que se compromete a mantener los requerimientos del mercado para poder seguir su desempeño en el largo plazo, la globalización requiere que Dinamarca sea aún mucho más flexible y que siga a la altura de lo que ha venido demostrando en la actualidad por lo que es necesario que Dinamarca tenga políticas migratorias que sean más flexibles pero que no dañen la cultura danesa.
La sociedad danesa se tiene que adaptar a este nuevo cambio, el equilibrio entre el estado de bienestar que es lo que mantiene a la población danesa con todas las flexibilidades que ha demostrado hasta el momento, mientras que la globalización le va a permitir desarrollar aún mas esas habilidades y capacidades que piensan desarrollar.

BIBLIOGRAFIA
Serbeto, E. (2012, 13 de enero) La flexiseguridad danesa ¿solución al desempleo crónico español?. ABC.es Recuperado de http://www.abc.es/20120113/economia/abci-modelo-laboral-flexibilidad-seguridad-201201121832.html…...

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