Premium Essay

Distinguishing Republics and Kingdoms in Ancient India

In: Historical Events

Submitted By NikitaSaurabh
Words 1049
Pages 5
The state is defined as a political organism, which unites and co-ordinates social forces according to precise rules. There were two types of states prevailing in ancient India.

Kingdom or monarchies enjoyed immense popularity and were the most prevalent form of government in ancient India. They are defined as a state having a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in one individual, who is the head of the state, the king.
A republic on the other hand is referred to as state in which the supreme power rests in the people and their representatives or officers, as opposed to one governed by a king or similar ruler; a commonwealth. Although while classifying a system as republic, we must keep in mind that a republic need not always be democratic as was the case in ancient India where power vested not in the whole body of citizens but in a small aristocratic class. Thus Sparta, Athence, Rome, Medieval Venice have all been described as republics though none of them possessed that full democratic character which is now considered the distinguishing feature of a republic.
Speculation regarding the origin of kingship occurs in the Vedic literature. Aitareya Brahmana refers to war between the devas(gods) and danavas(demons) in which gods were repeatedly defeated. The gods then realized the reason for their defeat was the absence of a leader to lead them while their counterparts had one, the king. They decided to try this experiment, elected a king in either Indra or Varuna, which the texts are unclear about and triumphed over the demons. This clearly indicates that the kingship arose out of a military necessity, and that a king must be a capable general whose leadership must be acknowledged by all.
Some writers have averred that monarchy was the only form of government known to ancient India, dismissing republics as nothing more than tribal…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

History of India

...India, or Bharat, the fifth largest and the second populated country in the world, is one of the few countries which can boast of an ancient, deep-rooted and diverse culture, which stretches back to 5000 years. In ancient times, India was known as 'Bharata Varsha', the country of the legendary king of Puranic times called Bharat, and was believed to be a part of the island continent called 'Jambu Dvipa'. Geologically speaking, India formed part of the Gondwana land and was attached to Antarctica and Australia, before it was liberated from the Antarctica complex about 135 million years ago and started drifting towards the north and finally joining South Asia about 45 million years ago. The Siwalik foothills of the north-western Himalayas served as home to the fossil primate genus known as Ramapithecus, which lived some 14 million years ago. Researches have also found that a species resembling the Australopithecus lived in India some 2 million years ago. Some anthropologists believe that the Chotanagpur region witnessed the transformation of Homo Erectus to Homo Sapiens. This claim is based on the findings of hand axes and blades in the region of Pathalgarwa and the discovery of Harappan pottery in the nearby areas. Early Civilisations Extensive archaeological excavations carried out at Mohenjodaro in the present Pakistan in 1922 brought to light the existence of a highly sophisticated and urbanized culture known as the Harappan Civilization in India, which dominated the......

Words: 3382 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Comparing the Orthodox Hindu Traditions with the Heterodox Traditions of Buddhism and Janism in Ancient India

...Compare the orthodox Hindu tradition with the heterodox traditions of Buddhism and Jainism in ancient India. Traditionally, schools of Indian philosophy are identified as orthodox or non-orthodox depending on whether they regard to the Veda as a soul source of knowledge. During the Medieval period many Hindu intellectual traditions were classified into a standard list of six orthodox schools, all of which accept the testimony of the Vedas. These schools are often coupled into three groups for both historical and conceptual reasons: Nyaya-Vaishesiki, Samkhya-Yoga, and Mimamsa-Vedanta. These systems mentioned accept the authority of Vedas and are regarded as “Orthodox” schools of Hindu Philosophy. Schools that do not accept the authority of the Vedas are categorized by Brahmins as “Unorthodox” or “Heterodox” systems for example, Jainism and Buddhism. Hindu Tradition has always privileged diversity, discovering any form of orthodoxy in Hinduism may seem to be impossible. Nevertheless, there are ideas within Hinduism that fulfill the notion of orthodoxy, such as those designated by the word astika, or assenting to the authority of the Vedas. Almost all Hindus would acknowledge the singular importance and basic religious authority. Moreover, believers would probably insist that the most important marker of orthodoxy is religious activity and interpretation approved by the local Brahman. Scholars acknowledge that some rituals are not put forward in the Vedas, cremation for......

Words: 649 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ancient India Caste System

...Their Indian class set up is historically one of the main specifications in which people of india are socially separated through class, religious beliefs, location, group, sex, and spoken language. Even Though this or other forms of distinction appear in all the human communities, it might be an issue once one or more of these specifications cover one another and turn the only foundation of organized ranking and unequal entree towards valuable sources such as riches, earnings, power and ranking. The Indian class set up is thought of as a sealed setup of social stratification, which means that a individual's social state is required that class these people were born into. There are boundaries at discussion as well as conduct with individuals out of some other social standing. This document is going to be going through the various aspects of the Indian class setup as well as results in India today. The class set up is the group of individuals towards a few hierarchically rated classes named varnas. They're categorized in accordance to career and figure out use of riches, power, and opportunity. Their Brahmans, normally priests as well as students, are in the best. Following tend to be the Kshatriyas, or governmental rulers as well as military. They're accompanied by the Vaishyas, or sellers, as well as the fourth was the Shudras, who are normally employees, peasants, craftsman, as well as servants. At the very bottom part is the regarded as the untouchables. These people......

Words: 625 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ancient India

...Ancient India The civilizations of the Indus River Valley were a very unique group for a number of reasons. As with most ancient civilizations, the social, political and economic systems were guided by religious beliefs. For ancient Indians; however, religious practice literally dictated most levels of social organization and political direction. Also, the same basic religious beliefs are still practiced today, giving researchers a deep understanding of this religious tradition. Another unique aspect of ancient India is the nature of its ruins. There are a number of urban centers that appear to be abandoned, yet not destroyed. The intact nature of these sites creates an intriguing picture of an advanced society set in the ancient world; with nuance and details usually lost to time still available for study. One of the earliest cities of ancient India is Mohenjo-Daro. Located on the Western edge of the subcontinent, Mohenjo-Daro was a walled city built along the Indus River, which was typical of the time. It was a particularly large city, with approximately 50,000 residents. For purposes of illustrating the social structure and lifestyle of early Indians, it serves as the perfect example. Constructed of mud and bricks, the city had two distinct areas; the citadel and the city proper. The citadel served as a meeting area for military operations and as a hide out for citizens during attacks. Its location on a hill, high above the town proper suggests both its......

Words: 1626 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

India

... 1. India India never invaded any country in her last 10,000 years of history. It is the only society in the world which has never known slavery. India was the richest country on Earth until the time of the British in the early 17th Century Robert Clive’s personal wealth amassed from the blunder of Bengal during 1750’s was estimated at around £401,102 It has been estimated that the total amount of treasure that the British looted from India had already reached £1,000,000,000 (£1Billion) by 1901. Taking into consideration interest rates and inflation this would be worth close to $1,000,000,000,000 ($1Trillion) in real-terms today.  2. Vedic Civilization Indus & Saraswati Civilizations Rise of Jainism and Buddhism Mauryan Period Golden Age of Indian Arts & Sciences Muslim Invasions The Mughal Empire Portuguese Invasion The British East-India Company The British Empire India's Freedom Struggle Independence Modern India 2020 Vision A Brief History of Time  3. India India invented the Number System. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta . The place value system, the decimal system was developed in India in 100 BC. Aryabhatta was the first to explain spherical shape, size ,diameter, rotation and correct speed of Earth in 499 AD. The World's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. Students from all over the World studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the......

Words: 5560 - Pages: 23

Free Essay

Ancient History

...Indus Valley Civilization – The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BC; mature period 2600–1900 BC) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the Ghaggar-Hakra River, which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan. The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India, and is now in Pakistan. A uniform culture had developed at settlements spread across nearly 500,000 square miles, including parts of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Baluchistan, Sindh and the Makran coast. It was a highly developed civilization and derived its name from the main river of that region— Indus. |Year |Site |Discovered by | |1920 |Harappa |Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni | |1922 |Mohenjodaro |R. D. Banerjee | |1927 |Sutkagen dor |R. L. Staine ...

Words: 16723 - Pages: 67

Premium Essay

Kingdom of Aksum

...Theresa Gbekia Mr. Riemers World history 20/October/ 2013 The kingdom of Aksum lasted for about eight, hundred years. The kingdom's unremitted location allowed easy access to areas across the red sea, into the Indian Ocean and beyond. This remarkable kingdom was one of the first civilizations in the continent of Africa. Although Aksum had influential customs regardless the kingdom was found off of its indigenous African heritage, having created their mixed ethnicities/customs, a writing system, money currency and religion. Aksum was mostly populated with the indigenous Africans. It was long after the development of Aksum had there been any mixture of other ethnicity. The expansion of Aksum also welcomed other races and people. For example the people of southern Arabia were conquered by Aksum, the different races mix along with the rest of the other ethnicity Aksum took over in the African lands such as the Cushitic speaking people and Nilo-Saharan speaking people. With prove according to the book, the heritage of the world civilization, the people of Aksum are product of genetic mixing of southern Arabia and the first there indigenous African that were already there. It is apparent that the Ethiopian and Entrain look like mixed breed compare to other African nations. In result of this many people disregard Ethiopian and Entrant’s civilization as an African civilization but consider the fact that Aksum was long before any Arab arrival. Customs and daily life of people......

Words: 878 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Ancient India

...Table of Contents Section A – Ancient India Timeline of History The Importance of the Gupta Dynasty The Importance of the Mughal Dynasty The Taj Mahal and its Importance The Importance of the Ganges River The Caste System Section B – Contributions from India to Trinidad and Tobago Why did the Indians come to Trinidad How did they come to Trinidad The Legacies they left behind Timeline of History 400 BC Gautama 'Buddha' founds Buddhism 333 BC Persian rule in the northwest ends after Darius III is defeated by Alexander the Great. Alexander had established the Macedonian Empire after inheriting the Persian Achaemenid Empire. 326 BC Ambhi, king of Taxila surrenders to Alexander. Porus who ruled parts of the Punjab, fought Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes River. 321 BC Mauryan Empire is founded by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha after he defeats the Nanda dynasty and Macedonian Seleucid Empire. Mauryan capital city is Patliputra (Modern Patna in Bihar) 305 BC Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleucus Nicator of the Seleucid Empire. 304 BC Seleucus gives up his territories in the subcontinent (Afghanistan/Baluchistan) to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants. Seleucus offers to marry his daughter to Chandragupta to seal their friendship. 273 BC Ashoka the Great, grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, ascends as emperor of the Mauryan Empire. 266 BC Ashoka conquers and unifies most of South Asia, along with Afghanistan and eastern Iran...

Words: 3079 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Republic Day India

...Republic Day honors the date on which the Constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950 replacing the Government of India Act (1935) as the governing document of India.[1] The Constitution was passed by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 but was adopted on 26 January 1950 with a democratic government system, completing the country's transition toward becoming an independent republic. 26 January was selected for this purpose because it was this day in 1930 when the Declaration of Indian Independence (Purna Swaraj) was proclaimed by the Indian National Congress. It is one of three national holidays in India, the other two being Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Celebrations 2.1 Delhi Republic Day parade 2.2 Beating Retreat 3 Gallery 4 Chief guest 5 See also 6 References History[edit] President Rajendra Prasad (in the horse-drawn carriage) readies to take part in the first Republic Day parade on Rajpath, New Delhi, in 1950. India achieved independence from British rule on 15 August 1947 following the Indian independence movement noted for largely peaceful nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience led by Mahatma Gandhi. The independence came through the Indian Independence Act 1947 (10 & 11 Geo 6 c 30), an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth (later Commonwealth of Nations): India and......

Words: 877 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

India

...ndia officially the Republic of India (Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma (Myanmar) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; in addition, India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history Four religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism—originated here, whereas Zoroastrianism and the Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam arrived in the 1st millennium CE and also helped shape the region's diverse culture. Gradually annexed by and brought under the administration of the British East India Company from the early 18th century and administered directly by the United Kingdom after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by non-violent resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi. The Indian economy......

Words: 2854 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Assignment 2: Comparing Sculptures of Ancient India and Greece

...Assignment 2: Comparing Sculptures of Ancient India and Greece Assignment 2: Comparing Sculptures of Ancient India and Greece Andelle Gregoire World Cultures I Abstract Overall, Greek and Indian art had many similarities and differences. Even though they lived far away and had different beliefs, their depicted the same topics: Gods and goddesses, animals, royalty, myths, everyday life, and sports. Jewelry wise, they both used a lot of gold, although Indians used more beads and gems. In sculpture, Greeks mostly used stone, and Indians used a variety of materials. Their paintings were also very similar. Architecture was quite different. Greek architecture used the golden ratio, and their buildings were usually made of marble. They used Doric and ionic columns to hold the roof of the building up. Indian buildings had elaborate designs carved in them, like people dancing, or gods and goddess. Comparing Sculptures of Ancient India and Greece Indians and Greeks alike loved showing myths and gods on their sculptures and pottery, but they styles were different, as the Greek used the red-figure pottery style, with black backgrounds and red figures that only were shown after they were fired in the kiln. Indians used simple but beautiful painted, unglazed pottery. Indians, too, did not put as much emphasis on sports in sculpture than the Greeks. Ancient Greeks has sculptures depicting gods and goddesses, royalty, animals, and sports, like Olympic events. Greek pottery......

Words: 1472 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Ancient Thracians

...The ancient Thracians (Ancient Greek: Θρᾷκες, Latin: Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting areas including Thrace in Southeastern Europe.[1] They spoke the Thracian language – a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. The study of Thracians and Thracian culture is known as Thracology. Contents 1 Etymology 2 Mythological foundation 3 Origins and ethnogenesis 4 Identity and distribution 5 History 5.1 Archaic period 5.2 Classical period 5.3 Hellenistic period 5.4 Roman rule 5.5 War 5.6 Barbarians 6 Religion 7 Physical appearance 8 Extinction 9 Famous individuals 10 Archaeology 11 Gallery 12 See also 13 References 14 Sources 15 External links [edit] EtymologyThe first historical record about the Thracians is found in the Iliad, where they are described as allies of the Trojans in the Trojan War against the Greeks.[2] The ethnonym Thracian comes from Ancient Greek Θρᾷξ (plural Θρᾷκες; Thrax, Thrakes) or Θρᾴκιος/Ionic: Θρηίκιος (Thrakios/Thrēikios), and the toponym Thrace comes from Θρᾴκη/Ion.: Θρῄκη (Thrakē/Threkē).[3] Both names are exonyms developed by the Greeks.[4] [edit] Mythological foundationIn Greek mythology, Thrax (by his name simply the quintessential Thracian) was regarded as one of the reputed sons of the god Ares.[5] In the Alcestis, Euripides mentions that one of the names of Ares himself was Thrax since he was regarded as the patron of Thrace (his golden or gilded shield was kept in his......

Words: 1757 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Greek Sculpture and Ancient India

...body to statues molded in the likeness of Greek gods. In comparison, Indian sculpture captures the ancient Indian ideology of the release from the physical and the emphasis on the spiritual, and sculptures were not only dedicated to the gods, but were worshipped. Ancient Greek and Indian sculptures were such an important part of communicating cultural views of the time that it continues to this day to inspire modern day art. Ancient Indian sculptures can trace its beginnings to the Harappan civilization of the Indus River region (ca.2600-ca.1500) and it is thought they learned to make bronze and metal figures from Mesopotamians. India’s National Museum in New Delhi houses one of the oldest known artifacts, a copper image of a young woman whose features included a wide nose and thick lips, which was the physical traits typical of the Harappans. Her relaxed pose leads us to believe she is a dancing girl and this style would be seen in future Indian sculpture. After the fall of the Harappan culture, Indian art was influenced by the remaining Harappan populous and the Greeks. The Greeks influence Indian art when in 326 B.C.E, Alexander the Great conquered much of northwestern India and the Greek style became popular in India. The Greek style, in turn, was influenced by both the Mycenaean’s and the Egyptians. The most important periods of Ancient Greek sculpture were Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic. The Archaic sculpture was rigid in......

Words: 422 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

India

...India is officially well known as “Bharat Ganarajya” or “Republic of India”. India is a country situated in “South Asia” according to the stats of geographical area India is world’s seventh largest country. India is also known well it’s population, in population India is on second number. India is world’s most populous democracy country. By reweing map of India we cam to know that in south India is bounded by “Indian Ocean”, in the south west area it is bounded by ‘Arabian Sea’ and on the south east India is bounded by “Bay of Bengal” an India’s border Pakistan, Nepal, China, Bangladesh and Barma countries are situated . “Andaman Nicobar Islands” of India’s shares sea border with ‘Indonesia’ and ‘Thailand’. India is a home of ancient ‘Indus valley civilization’ and also having strong routes of its history and culture. India is a world famous for its ancient history and culture. In India world’s four largest religions are present – ‘Hinduism’, ‘Janism’, ‘Sikhism’. Before few times ago the ‘Muslim’ and ‘Christianity’ also took place in India during the 1st millennium. India is a country having the mixture of all religions in its nature known as “Indians”. In the early 18th century India was administrated by ‘British East India Company’ directly for many years and after many movements and struggle India announced Independent country in the year 1947. India economy is world’s 10th largest economic country in many fields such as “Nominal GDP”, “Purchasing Power......

Words: 344 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

United Kingdom

...UNITED KINGDOM GEOGRAPHY OF UNITED KINGDOM  The United Kingdom (UK) is located just west of the mainland of Europe. It is made up of several islands, the largest of which is Great Britain. Great Britain is made up of Scotland in the north, England in the southeast and Wales in the southwest. Northern Ireland is the northwestern part of Ireland, a separate island nation just west of Great Britain, but it is also part of the UK. There has been violence in Northern Ireland for centuries because of religious and political conflict there. Because ocean waters surround the UK, it has a mild, rainy climate. The country's farmers produce about 60 percent of the food the UK needs. From 1980–90 the farming became more mechanized, with farmers using machinery to plant and harvest crops. The productivity of UK farms increased during that period by about 10 percent. More farmers raise livestock than crops, and some of the world's best beef and lamb is raised in the UK  Location: Western Europe Land Area: 241,590 sq km British Coastline: 12,429 Km Regions in United Kingdom: England: 47 boroughs, 36 counties, 29 London boroughs, 12 cities and boroughs, 10 districts, 12 cities, 3 royal boroughs Northern Ireland: 24 districts, 2 cities, 6 counties Scotland: 32 council areas Wales: 11 county boroughs, 9 counties, 2 cities and counties Bordering Countries to United Kingdom: Republic of Ireland History and Food  The United Kingdom (UK) has also been called the......

Words: 2477 - Pages: 10

Application | Greys Anatomy T-15 | Jagobd - Bangla TV(Official)