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Diversity and Inclusion Task 1

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Diversity and Inclusion
Task 1

The six key components of the 1975 PL 94-142, Education for All Handicapped Children Act (now known as IDEA – Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) are: 1) A free appropriate public education (FAPE)

This ensures that children with disabilities receive an education befitting their particular disability with no cost to the parent of guardian of the children. It also includes related services that benefit the children receiving special education due to their disabilities.

2) The least restrictive environment (LRE)

This ensures that children with disabilities are given the highest level of education that they can perform in successfully. Children with disabilities will be placed amongst children without disabilities whenever possible.

3) An individualized education program (IEP)
An IEP uses documentation to track the academic progress of students with disabilities. It is tailored specifically to meet the varying needs of each individual student. It consists of goals and instructional objectives that are updated annually, special services rendered for each child, and measurements starting with the child’s current level of academic functioning and continuing to monitor any progress made throughout their education. 4) Procedural due process
This pertains to the rights of parents/ guardians. It includes confidentiality as well as the right to access any documentation pertaining to their child. It also gives parents and guardians a voice in regard to any changes in their child’s educational classification or placement. In the event of a disagreement between parents/ guardians and their child’s educational planning, parents/ guardians have the right to obtain legal counsel and receive an impartial hearing. 5) Nondiscriminatory assessment
This ensures that children are assessed fairly and placed appropriately by administering a multitude of tests to determine the child’s level of academic functioning. 6) Parental participation

This component actually mandates parents/ guardians to be fully involved in their children’s educational planning and development.

The IDEA reauthorizations are: * PL 99-457 (1986)

This basically takes all of the above components of PL 94-142 and extends them downward to include infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. The concept was that developmental delays could be addressed as early as possible and services could start being offered at a very young age for the benefit of the child and their future education.

* PL 101-476

This amendment to PL 94-142 renamed the Education for All Children Act to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). It introduced programs to help transition students into life after school, such as counseling and vocational assistance. Another aspect of this amendment was the categorization of autism and traumatic brain injury as distinct disabilities. This amendment also enabled parents/ guardians to file lawsuits against states that violate IDEA.

* PL 105-17 (1997)

This amendment organized IDEA into four categories. It also redefined some of the terminology and clarified some of the existing concepts within IDEA.

* IDEA 2004: PL 108-446

This amendment was focused primarily on improving the education of students with developmental disabilities. It shifted the focus of IDEA from simply ensuring students with disabilities are receiving educations to improving the quality of their education.

The mandated IDEA guidelines and processes for referring a student with a suspected disability for evaluation for special education services begin with a referral. There is a step before referral called a pre-referral intervention which has become a common first step in the process however it is not a mandated IDEA process. A referral can come from an educator, concerned parent, administrator, etc. If a student is having difficulty meeting their educational expectations and it is suspected that a disability may be preventing this student from doing such, a referral may be initiated. Once a referral is accepted and it is decided that the student should be evaluated for a disability, a written request for this evaluation is sent to a parent/ guardian for approval. Parents/ guardians must approve this request for an evaluation to take place. If this approval is granted, the evaluation must be done by a multidisciplinary team consisting of at least one teacher. This team is responsible for developing an evaluation that encompasses general cognitive and academic development as well as those areas specific to the individual student as noted in their referral. As part of this evaluation/ assessment process there are two types of tests that are implemented. Norm-referenced tests evaluate the student by seeing how they compare to the academic level of the average student by using a standardized method of testing. Criterion-referenced tests take into account the students strengths and needs of the individual student by comparing their performance with a particular level of mastery. Throughout this process a tremendous amount of data is collected. If an individual is shown to require special educational services, this data is used to create an IEP (Individualized Education Plan). The IEP will outline the students strengths, needs, educational goals (long and short term), as well as track their progress and update accordingly.…...

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