Premium Essay

Enhancing the Ability to Think Strategically: a Learning Model. Management Learning,

In: Business and Management

Submitted By latonya
Words 296
Pages 2
The Ability to Think Strategically
In the article “Enhancing the ability to think strategically: A learning model,” the authors demonstrate a model of thinking which “depicts a dynamic, interactive and iterative experiential learning process (Casey & Goldman, 2011).” The theoretical foundations of the model is grounded using three literatures. The article provides a framework for identifying individual factors, work experience and organizational factors that contributes to knowledge strategy. Cognition, strategy and adult learning are the three literatures used to illustrate the framework.
According to authors cognitive science literature has two different views about strategic thinking, the acquirable view and the inherent view. The acquirable view focuses on thing a person learn along the way. For instance, before someone can become a manager they must start from the bottom and build their way to the top. The focal point of the inherent is the on “limitations imposed by an individual’s cognitive capacity (Casey & Goldman, 2011).” In reference to cognitive science the authors discussed the importance of experience. Although the journey may be long, it is important for the individual to experience it because it will help them in the long term. According to the article “the purpose of strategic thinking is to discover novel, imaginative strategies which can re-write the rules of the competitive game (Casey & Goldman, 2011).” Two views are used in the article to support strategy the rational and emergent view. Strategy focuses more on logical and planning with the rational view; whereas, it focuses on patterns with the emergent view. Adult learning is the final literature use to support the model. Adult learning discusses the cycle of learning from experience. It is consistent with unique situations which require strategic thinking.
The authors concluded that…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...JBR-07661; No of Pages 11 Journal of Business Research xxx (2012) xxx–xxx Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Journal of Business Research Antecedents and outcomes of strategic thinking Byeong-Joon Moon ⁎ Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea, School of Management, Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t This study focuses on the factors that influence strategic thinking at the organizational level. Based on previous research on strategic thinking in diverse management fields including marketing strategy, strategic management, and human resource management, this research provides a hypothetical model that links the firm's internal and external variables regarding strategic thinking at the organizational level, which in turn links to marketing performance. The results of empirical analysis provide evidence that the attitude of firms' management toward risk taking, the CEO's emphasis on strategic thinking, interdepartmental teams in the organization, and marketing competency foster strategic thinking at the organizational level, but formalization in the organizational structure impedes it. Contrary to the proposed hypotheses, centralization in the organizational structure is positively related to strategic thinking at the organizational level. The results also show that market turbulence and technological turbulence foster strategic thinking at the organizational level and there is a positive relationship......

Words: 10686 - Pages: 43

Free Essay

Learning Time Management

...Learning Time Management Learning Time Management Jennifer Simmons COM/156 9/1/2013 Linda Daley Time management is a skill that everyone is capable of mastering and yet few take the time to improve. This skill is a crucial part in becoming successful whether it is in completing school, getting everything done at home, or even just completing all the tasks assigned at work. All people are born with a sense of time management; some learn how to use it to aid in getting the most amounts of tasks completed with the least amount of stress possible and still finish with a quality product while others choose not to work on it or improve in any aspect. For those who struggle with time management, it can be really hard to know which techniques will help manage time better and which ones are just going to be a waste of time. According to Peter Bregman (2011) proper time management helps to visualize priorities so that they can be broken into manageable, digestible chunks so that time can be spent where it should be every day. Thankfully there is not guessing as to what to do to improve and there are quite a few proven skills that can be learned with a little practice. Four of the skills that can help manage time no matter where they are applied are; make a plan, maintain a lifestyle that provides the most energy, eliminate the unnecessary, and to reduce interruptions. One technique that is......

Words: 1691 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Knowledge Management & Organisational Learning

...1. Introduction For many years, organisations have been anxious about constructing, attaining, converse knowledge and improving the consumption of knowledge. However, in the early 1990s, Knowledge Management (KM) started emerging as human beings are unable to utilise their full potential of their brains. This leads to organisation are unable to totally exploit the knowledge that all human beings hold. In today’s global economy, Knowledge has become essential and it creates significant competitive advantage for any organisation (Gunnlaugsdottir, 2003). By using KM, organisations are able to attain or construct valuable knowledge and to make it accessible to those who can utilise it correctly to accomplish utmost efficient procedure in order to completely control organisational performance. Organisational Learning (OL) is corresponding to KM. In the early centuries, OL are referred to as decoding suggestion from learning into practice that direct performance (Levitt and March, 1988). In other words, OL has to execute with embedding what has been taught into the framework of the organisation. 2. Definition of Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning 3.1 Knowledge Management Knowledge management (KM) refers to the process in which organisations acquire or create useful knowledge and make it available for employees to utilize at the proper time and place in order for them to achieve the most effective usage in for optimal organisational performance. It......

Words: 2758 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Capability Maturity Model of E-Learning

...Maturity Model of e-Learning Process Yong Zhou Software Engineering Institute, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China Email: Received April 12, 2012; revised May 27, 2012; accepted June 10, 2012 ABSTRACT ePCMM (e-Learning Process Capability Maturity Model) is used for evaluating the capability and maturity of an institution engaged in e-Learning based on e-Learning key process areas. It is a stepwise process improvement which can be implemented by both staged model and continues model. Introduction The e-Learning Maturity Model (eMM) model was developed in New Zealand by Marshall [1]. The method is based on gathering evidence about 5 processes categories in the eLearning lifecycles and takes a holistic view of maturity, addressing multiple aspects. Staged model of ePCMM The staged model of ePCMM is defined in 6 maturity levels (ML). The staged model of ePCMM provides a roadmap to organizational process improvement. Each stage of maturity level covers every e-Learning process area. 1. Initial: Ad hoc 2. Deliverable: Set up e-Learning process and make delivery 3. Planed : Have a clear and quantitative goal on e-Learning program 4. Defined : Define process for e-Learning development and support 5. Managed: Quality assurance on e-Learning resource and delivery 6. Optimizing :Keep improving on all aspect of e-Learning process The staged model of ePCMM has two advantages: 1) The staged model......

Words: 798 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Mental Model Essay - Organisational Learning

...How can your mental models about your world both assist and limit your perceptions when you meet a person for the first time? Mental models are psychological representations of real, hypothetical, or imaginary situations (Princeton, 2013). The first known recorded postulation of the mental models theory came from the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce, who stated that reasoning is a process by which humans "examine  the state of things asserted in the premises, forms a diagram of that state of things, perceives in the parts of the diagram relations not explicitly mentioned in the premises, satisfies itself by mental experiments upon the diagram that these relations would always subsist, or at least would do so in a certain proportion of cases, and concludes their necessary, or probable, truth.” Similarly the Scottish psychologist Kenneth Craik suggested that the human mind constructed small scale models of the world for which it used to anticipate events, to reason and to underlie explanation. Modern Cognitive scientists have since debated that the human mind constructs mental models due to perception, imagination and knowledge. Mental models are created through various avenues such as personal experience, social values, religious beliefs, cultural attitudes and norms. Therefore mental models are how we determine and make sense of reality; these can be range from simple generalisations to immensely complex ideas and theories. These models......

Words: 898 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Discuss the Behavioural (Learning) Model of Psychopathology

...All behaviours are learned through processes of classical and operant conditioning. • Classical conditioning- learning by association. For example, Little Albert had a fear of sudden loud noises as all children do. In this case, at the same time he was given a rat and the loud noise started which later made him to associate the rat with a sudden noise. Although he also showed a fear of a rat even when there was no noise at all. But before the experiment Little Albert showed no fear at a rat which means that the fear was learned. • Operant conditioning – learning through reinforcement. If a behaviour is rewarded it is much more likely to be repeated again and again. For example, if a child starts to scream and goes into a panic attack parents will receive a lot of attention which will be of course rewarding for them. This can after lead to the behaviour to be repeated in the future. But this can also be seen as an abnormal way of getting what the human wants. However, behaviourists are focusing only on the influence of external factors which means that they didn’t look at the factors such as genetics. The model has made a variety of treatments but they don’t always address straight to the causes of abnormality but only changing the symptom. Also, it is absolutely impossible to explain many phobias because this model is told that learning needs to be direct and personally experienced. But this criticism is not very reliable because nowadays SLT proposes that a child......

Words: 268 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Learning Leadership from Management

...Learning leadership from management In the process of learning leadership, I have a very confusing define of leadership. The book defines leadership as social influence. But why do we learn social influence in MBA program. I have read some books about leadership, but none of them actually told me what leadership is. All the books cover what leaders do. It is relatively unhelpful because they didn’t tell me what leadership really is. The best way to be a good car mechanic is not to learn what other mechanics do, but study what cars are. So I connect leadership with management. I would like to study the role of leadership in Management. Management is the spirit of business process. The purpose of good management is to make plan, strategic and setting short-term goals, organize the resources of the company, control the daily operation and delegate to employees, lead the market. Management has so many aspects that leadership is also one of its parts. What’s the difference between leadership and management? What’s more important to an organization? The very thing that most people believe is that leadership and management are not the same things. * "To manage means to bring about, to accomplish, to have charge of or responsibility for, to conduct." * "Leading is influencing, guiding in a direction, course, action, opinion. The distinction is crucial." -Warren Bennis Warren Bennis is one of the nation's foremost authorities on leadership. He described the difference......

Words: 1176 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Knowledge Management & Organizational Learning

... Knowledge Management & Organizational Learning Knowledge has always been available to mankind. Many people have had their concerns and doubts about how to effectively create, acquire, communicate and improve on how to re-use knowledge. Within the last two decades a unique field called Knowledge Management (KM) has transpired. With the sudden emergence of KM, a brand new realization has been presented to society. It’s a known fact that human begins have not been able to draw on the full potential of their brains. (King 2008). Just like with the human brain it’s also the backbone on how companies and organizations are started. Is it possible through KM, for organizations to seek and obtain potentially useful knowledge? Can it be made available to those when needed and appropriate for them to achieve maximum effective usage in order to make an influential and impactful gain in an organizations performance? To understand if KM could help an organization maximize potentially useful knowledge and achieve influential gains and performances one has to fully understand knowledge. Knowledge is commonly defined as a “justified personal belief”. Knowledge is separated into two distinctive fundamentals, tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is knowledge that a person already possesses and helps determine how they already think and act. It links physical and cognitive skills, and cognitive......

Words: 2081 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Learning Disabilities

... Learning Disabilities and the Classroom Ionie Bailey Grand Canyon University: SPE 359 Professor: Lois Jackson August 10, 2014 Within each classroom the dynamic that is shared between students and their teachers should be easily seen by anyone. In order for a classroom to be effective and accessible for all students including those with learning disability, the teacher must implement various rules and regulations that is strong yet flexible.” Even though student’s with learning disabilities make up about fifty percent the student’s population who is receiving special education services in the United States. (Learning Disabilities)” I observed Mrs. Elam’s third grade class; students in her classroom had one or more disabilities which include ADHD, Downs, Autism, EBD and auditory processing which is can be associated with learning disabilities. Mrs. Elam has various methods to ensure that the students are learning and classroom rules are being followed. The method that I observed that was effective for classroom behavior is they yellow, red, green method also known as the stop light method. How it works, each student has a clothes pin with their name listed on it for individual reprimands. For those students with other behavioral disabilities such as EBD or ADHD, the teacher has implemented a behavioral and goals chart with day by day goals, Students with Downs and Autism and are assigned to a paraprofessionals who assist, maintain and keep tracks of their daily......

Words: 1091 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Knowledge Management in Organizational Learning

...Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning William R. King Katz Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh For centuries, scientists, philosophers and intelligent laymen have been concerned about creating, acquiring, and communicating knowledge and improving the re-utilization of knowledge. However, it is only in the last 15–20 years or so that a distinct field called “knowledge management” (KM) has emerged. KM is based on the premise that, just as human beings are unable to draw on the full potential of their brains, organizations are generally not able to fully utilize the knowledge that they possess. Through KM, organizations seek to acquire or create potentially useful knowledge and to make it available to those who can use it at a time and place that is appropriate for them to achieve maximum effective usage in order to positively influence organizational performance. It is generally believed that if an organization can increase its effective knowledge utilization by only a small percentage, great benefits will result. Organizational learning (OL) is complementary to KM. An early view of OL was “encoding inferences from history into routines that guide behavior” (Levitt and March, 1988, p. 319). So, OL has to do with embedding what has been learned into the fabric of the organization. 1 The Basics of Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning To understand KM and OL, one must understand knowledge, KM...

Words: 4815 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay


...ENTREPRENEUR WORKBOOKS Business Planning and Financing Management Series Building Block 2 The Business Plan and Executive Summary MaRS is a member of MaRS Discovery District, © December 2009 See Terms and Conditions MaRS – Business Planning and Financing Management Series  THE BUSINESS PLANNING AND FINANCING MANAGEMENT WORKBOOK Introduction: What to expect In his book Outliers, Canadian author Malcolm Gladwell looks at the relationship between statistical probabilities and the chance of success in your chosen field of work or sports. His essential claim is that you need around 10,000 hours of practice to become really good in a particular field. This workbook guide will not take 10,000 hours to complete, so you should not expect that you will become an expert in business planning and financing management by going through the activities outlined within. Rather, the purpose of the workbook guide is to help you understand and focus on the key issues in the field of business planning and financing management, and to introduce you to frameworks within which to think and discuss essential areas of your business. The process offered will provide sufficient grounding in the topic so that you will know what questions to ask advisors and consultants, and, in the case of consultants, how to evaluate their work. Additionally, this workbook guide provides a launch point for a number of vital business decisions you will have to make to develop your start-up. As a best......

Words: 5454 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Learning Strategy and Knowledge Management

...E-Learning Strategy 1 E- Learning Strategy and Knowledge Management (Insert Your Full Name Here) (Insert Your Institution’s Name Here) April 18, 2016 E-Learning Strategy 2 E- Learning Strategy and Knowledge Management Introduction The role of the Human Resource department in the workplace has shifted dramatically as these consultants, specialists and teams apply proven methods of management to what would otherwise be an extensive and unproductive employee base. The field of human resources encompasses the type and level of management necessary for the active and effective recruitment, hiring, day-to-day employment practices, job termination policy, job description policy and much more (Hesselbein, Goldsmith, and Somerville, 2001). While the requirement to maintain a strong and productive labor field had never truly been lost on the savvy employers of the past, the recent advances in human resources knowledge have actually brought this field into the active role that it entails in order to implement positive changes upon a company’s strength and capability among its competitors. It is through the development and conveyance of an understanding of positive, hands-on techniques that, when successfully executed within a company’s employees, a human resources team can actually change conditions on the ground, human resources professional everywhere have started to notably widen profit margins to a greater extent, by increasing not only competence, but......

Words: 6084 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

How People Think Strategically

...How People think Strategically If you find yourself resisting "being strategic," because it sounds like a fast track to irrelevance, or vaguely like an excuse to slack off, you're not alone. Every leader's temptation is to deal with what's directly in front, because it always seems more urgent and concrete. Unfortunately, if you do that, you put your company at risk. While you concentrate on steering around potholes, you'll miss windfall opportunities, not to mention any signals that the road you're on is leading off a cliff. This is a tough job, make no mistake. "We need strategic leaders!” is a pretty constant refrain at every company, large and small. One reason the job is so tough: no one really understands what it entails. It's hard to be a strategic leader if you don't know what strategic leaders are supposed to do. Adaptive strategic leaders — the kind who thrive in today’s uncertain environment – do six things well: Anticipate Most of the focus at most companies is on what’s directly ahead. The leaders lack “external vision.” This can leave your company vulnerable to rivals who detect and act on ambiguous signals. To anticipate well, you must: • Look for game-changing information at the periphery of your industry • Search beyond the current boundaries of your business • Build wide external networks to help you scan the horizon better Critical Thinking “Conventional wisdom” opens you to fewer raised eyebrows and second guessing. But if you swallow every......

Words: 568 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Human Resource Management for the Learning Factory

...Tecnologia e Società” cofinanziato dal FSE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FOR THE LEARNING FACTORY by Harry Barton and Rick Delbridge Cardiff Business School University of Wales, United Kingdom Paper prepared for International Workshop Lean Production and Labour Force in the Car Industry: The Forms of Implementation of an Epoch-Making Model March 25-27, 2000 University of Calabria – Rende (Italy) 20   Introduction It is conventional wisdom that the factories of the future will be sites of continuous improvement, innovation and knowledge creation (Leonard Barton, 1992; Cooke and Morgan, 1998), with the focus being on the development of a set of strategies and organisational forms based on high skills, organisational flexibility and trust, often termed “high-performance work practices.” (OECD,1998). This view has been formulated followingresearch into developments in large manufacturing organizations within the world’s motor industry (Womack et al, 1990; MacDuffie, 1995) and in particular, Japanese manufacturers (Fruin, 1992; Kenney and Florida, 1993), where human resources (HR) and work practices are often considered central to the success of the Japanese automotive producers (Pil and MacDuffie, 1999). Such views raise fundamental questions regarding the role of labour in such manufacturing systems and, as a direct consequence, there has been increasing interest in the Human Resource Management of these organisations (Arthur, 1992; Osterman,......

Words: 5697 - Pages: 23

Free Essay

Learning Organisation

...concept learning organisation has gained much prominence in the last few decades. It seems organizations are recognizing the importance of organisational learning as a whole rather than few individuals within the organisation that have expertise. Organisational learning not only improves the knowledge of employees, but skills and behaviours as well. Although it takes time; effort by management; and financial means the benefits and opportunities created by a learning organisation far outweighs its limitations. In order to assess the progress of Standard Bank in becoming learning organisation, the following will be covered in my essay. Firstly I will define the concept learning organisation; secondly I will address the characteristics of a learning organisation; thirdly I will identify the progress of Standard Bank in becoming a learning organisation with regards to the characteristics; furthermore I will identify barriers to organisational learning at Standard Bank; and lastly I will provide recommendations of Standard Bank’s efforts in becoming a learning organisation. 2.1 Learning organisation defined According to Senge (1990:3) learning organisations are “organisations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together.” According to Garvin (1993:82) “a......

Words: 3515 - Pages: 15

Jurassic World 2 El Reino Caído Bluray.nuevo y precintado | Koukaku no Pandora | 1 pot de ludwigia sp white tres rare nouveaute 2018 nano crevette poisson