Free Essay

Eployment Test - Papi N

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By rrpl
Words 2179
Pages 9

Laura Reyes Rodríguez

Sheridan College Institute of Technology
And Advanced Learning

November 21st, 2013


1. A description of the test.

The Personality and Preferences Inventory-Normative (PAPI-N) is a personality questionnaire designed to assess needs and behavior patterns relevant to the workplace. (Sanz et al., 2006)

The PAPI-N was originally designed by Dr Max Kostick in the 1960’s, based on Murray’s need-press theory of psychogenic needs, which is one of the most influential theories in personality psychology (The British Psychological Society, 2006). According to Murray, our personalities are a reflection of behaviours controlled by needs. Some of those needs are temporary and change constantly, while other needs are deeply founded in our nature. Murray suggested that these psychogenic needs function on the unconscious level, but play a major role in our personality. (, 2013). Dr. Kostick original idea was to create a tool that could be used by non-psychologist, and because of that he avoided the use of clinical terminology in the interpretation. PAPI was originally conceived as an ipsative test for use as a counselling and discussion tool. After several revisions, PAPI has extended its application and now there are two versions of the PAPI, the PAPI-I, which is an ipsative version, and the PAPI-N, which is a normative version. This is the suitable one for a work environment, where there is a need to make judgements about a person in order establish comparison with others.

The assessment indicates how an individual is likely to react in a given work or team situation. PAPI-N maps out an individual’s personality, providing valuable information about their preferences and typical behaviour at work. This allows HR professionals to assess whether an individual has the qualities needed to be successful in a role, a team, or a business culture and enables areas for development to be identified (, 2013). The test was primarily designed for use with managers, professional, senior technical staff, white-collar supervisors and graduate trainees, among other administrative and professional roles.
The PAPI-N comprises 126 single statements. Respondents are required to indicate the extent to which they agree/disagree with the statements on a seven point rating scale. The PAPI-N incorporates a six-item ‘Social Desirability’ scale, which measures the tendency of respondents to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others. Scores are initially computed on 20 scales; 10 role scales and 10 need scales. Needs are considered as internal determinants of behaviour that leads the aim to achieve need satisfaction and avoid need frustration. On the other hand, roles refer to situational characteristics that put pressure on the person to behave in certain ways. Roles are considered as determinants of behaviour which include external influences. These 20 personality dimensions measured by PAPI-N are clustered together in seven key areas: agreeableness, active dominance, conscientious persistence, openness to experience, seeking to achieve, sociability and work tempo.

Role Scales | Need Scales | Leadership role (L) | Need to control others (P) | Organized type (C) | Need for rules and supervision (W) | Attention to detail (D) | Need for change (Z) | Conceptual thinker (R) | Need to finish a task (N) | Social harmonizer (S) | Need to be noticed (X) | Ease in decision making (I) | Need to belong to groups (B | Work pace (T) | Need to relate closely to individuals (O) | Emotional restraint (E) | Need to be forceful (K) | Role of the hard worker (G) | Need to achieve (A) | Integrative planner (H) | Need to be supportive (F) |
PAPI-N allows to create an ideal job profile. This profile reflects the personality characteristics required to perform the job/role effectively. Candidate’s results for the 20 scales are compared to the expected results previously identified for high performers. Some of the advantages of the job profile are: * Focusses the PAPI user on those areas deemed important. * Provides a common language between HR and line managers/supervisors
Can be used to facilitate development of the role as well as the person.
PAPI is scored automatically and immediately through Cubiks online system. Cubiks is a company based in UK which owns the property rights of the test
While completing PAPI-N, the respondent is required to choose the option that best reflects the degree to which the statement describes how he/she is at work.
The results are expressed in a variety of reports that are automatically generated after the completion of the test. * Wheel report: Provide a visual representation of the individual’s personality profile, mapped out as a PAPI wheel diagram. * Manager-Recruiter narrative report: Provides a concise interpretation of the individual’s responses to the PAPI questionnaire grouped into seven broad areas of behaviour. This report is written in a user-friendly language for non-experts. * Job profile report: Visually illustrate how the respondent’s PAPI profile relates to the requirements of the role * Competency Based Interview Guide Report: Relate the results from PAPI to the competencies of specific importance to the role, offering interviewers targeted questions as well as hints and tips to help them focus interviews on the most vital areas. * Respondent Feedback Report: Provides candidates a personal feedback report on the assessment.

This is an example of the kind of questions that can be found in PAPI-N * I always work very hard * Absolutely disagree * Greatly disagree * Slightly disagree * Neither agree or disagree * Slightly agree * Greatly agree * Absolutely Agree

As PAPI-N is an online assessment and is protected under copyright legislation, it was impossible to obtain a copy of the test for the purpose of this assignment.

2. How is the test used by the employer? Where does it fit in the selection process? Is it used as a knockout test?

PAPI-N is used as an initial step in the recruitment process by Actual Group, an HR consulting firm based in Spain, the Dominican Republic and several countries in Latin America. The test was introduced to me by Natalia Batista, CEO of the firm in the Dominican Republic.

According to Mrs. Batista, the evaluation process follows these steps:

1. The hiring company is responsible for provide an ideal profile for the job. 2. The candidate is contacted and requested to complete the PAPI-N questionnaire online. The test can be completed in approximately 15-20 minutes. a. After completing the test, the online platform is able for providing results in the form of different reports which are considered by the HR professional. However, Actual Group always takes into account the Manager-Recruiter Narrative Report. 3. The candidate is also requested to complete an analysis exercise in order to assess competencies related to analytic skills (such as analytical thinking, logical judgment) 4. Based on the results from both evaluation tools, the candidate can continue or not to the following step, which is a competency-based interview.

As we can see in the process, PAPI-N is used as a knockout test, but combined with another evaluation tool such as an analysis exercise.

3. Validity and Reliability
In 2006, Cubiks conducted a construct validity study in order to explore the relationship between PAPI-N and the Trait Descriptive Adjectives (TDA-100) developed by Goldberg (1992), a measure of the Big Five personality factors.

The TDA-100 measure consists of 100 unipolar trait descriptive adjectives and participants have to rate how accurately each descriptor describes themselves on a nine-point scale, where 1 = extremely inaccurate, 5 = neither accurate nor inaccurate and 9 = extremely accurate.

Sample: 65 employees (21 male and 44 female) aged between 20 and 60 from two organizations within the telecommunication and business services sectors took part in the study. Employees’ occupations ranged from management to administrative, office-based positions in London, UK.

Results: According to this research, there’s a number of relationships between PAPI-N and TDA, which suggest that PAPI correlates significantly with the Big Five scales. However, a perfect relationship is not possible considering that PAPI is an assessment of personality in the work context, whereas the TDA is a general personality measure (See Appendix I)

The most significant correlations between scales are:
Conceptual Thinker / Intellect 0.75
X Need to be noticed / Surgency 0.66
C Organized Type / Conscientiousness 0.70

It was no possible to found the original document that supports the reliability of PAPI-N English version. Nevertheless, is important to highlight that there is evidence of a study in regards of the psychometric factors of PAPI-N, conducted by Lewis and Anderson in 1998. This study is discussed in the results of a research conducted in 2006, in which the authors commented that internal consistency of the Spanish version of PAPI-N is adequate and similar to that obtained with English version of PAPI-N by Lewis and Anderson –“all 20 scales with alphas exceeding .70, 14 of them with alphas of above .80” - (Sanz et al. 2006).

The 2006 study by Sanz et al analyzed the reliability and factorial validity of the Spanish PAPI-N. Results suggested that the factorial validity of the Spanish version is consistent across samples and similar to that found in the Personality Research Form, a well-validated measure of Murray’s needs.

Sample: participants were 420 job applicants in a variety of sectors of the economy. The sample comprised 239 women and 181 men (age range = 20-50 years; age mean = 25.1), and most of them (87.6%) held university qualifications.

Results: Internal consistency reliability of twelve PAPI-N scales (G, L, I, T, D, C, E, N, P, X, B, F) is higher than .80, and for the remaining PAPI-N scales (H, S, A, O, Z, and W) is higher than the standard of .70, with two exceptions: R (.66) was close to the standard, but K was low (.41). (See Appendix II)

Overall, PAPI-N shows adequate coefficients of validity and reliability compared to well-known test such as Personality Research Form and TDA-100. Due to these facts, PAPI-N is a solid and reliable tool for the purpose of evaluate and compare different candidates.

4. Would support its continued use by the employer?
PAPI-N is an assessment tool that provides significant benefits for both employers and candidates: * Is founded on a solid theoretical base * Comprehensively covers aspects of personality relevant to the workplace * Is simple to administer, complete and score * Avoids clinical terminology and interpretation * Several researches and studies support its high coefficients of validity and reliability. * Provide results fast and accurately
Another good point regarding good practices is that the employer uses PAPI-N with other assessment tools, in order to obtain more accurate imputs that can provide high quality information for the decision making process.
On the benefit of the candidate, PAPI-N is a user-friendly application that can be accessed online, anywhere at any time, which is an advantage for those candidates with limited availability to attend future employer’s premises at specific times (foreign candidates, those who are currently working, etc.)
Considering all the benefits provided by PAPI-N, I would recommend that the employer should keep using this test as one of its assessment tools.


Table 2. Correlations between PAPI and the TDA-100 (N=65)

Figure 1. Example of a Job Profiler report

Figure 2. Example of a Wheel Report with a description of the factors


Cubiks (20). Cubiks assessment reliability and validity series V06.14. Self-assessment of needs and behaviour patterns at work: the psychometric properties of the Personality and Preference Inventory - Normative (PAPI-N™) Retrieved from Cubiks (2006) Cubiks assessment reliability and validity series V06.14. Investigating the relationship between PAPI-N™ the lexical Big Five personality factors. Retrieved from

Cubiks (2013) Corporate Website. Retrieved from (2013) Theories of Personality. Retrieved from

The British Psychological Society (2013). Search Test and Results.

Table 1. Correlations between PAPI and the TDA-100 (N=65). Adapted from “Cubiks assessment reliability and validity series V06.14. Investigating the relationship between PAPI-N™ the lexical Big Five personality factors”, by Cubiks, 2006, p.3. Copyright 2006 by Cubiks.

Table 2. Factor Analyses of the PAPI-N Scales. Adapted from “Cubiks assessment reliability and validity series V06.14. Self-assessment of needs and behaviour patterns at work: the psychometric properties of the Personality and Preference Inventory - Normative (PAPI-N™)” by Cubiks, 2006, p. 5. Copyright 2006 by Cubiks.

Figure 1. Example of a Job Profiler Report. Adapted from Merit Solutions Psychometric Assessments. 2013. Retrieved from

Figure 2. Example of a Wheel Report with a description of the factors. Adapted from Merit Solutions. PAPI – Psychometric Testing Services. 2013. Retrieved from…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...Test Data   Elvis Presley ± ISSUnit 1 ± Match Risks/ThreatsDr. Grubb12-13-2011 Risks or Threats: 1. Violation of a security policy by a user.C. Place employee on probation, review acceptable use policy (AUP) and employeeManual, and discuss status during performance reviews.2. Disgruntled employee sabotage.I. Track and monitor abnormal employee behavior, erratic job performance, and use of ITinfrastructure during off-hours. Begin IT access control lockout procedures based onAUP monitoring and compliance.3. Download of non-business videos using the internet to an employee-owned computer.A. Enable content filtering and antivirus scanning at the entry and exit points of theinternet. Enable workstation auto-scans and auto-quarantine for unknown file types.4. Malware infection of a user¶s laptop.L. Use workstation antivirus and malicious code policies, standards, procedures, andguidelines. Enable an automated antivirus protection solution that scans and updatesindividual workstations with proper protection.5. Unauthorized physical access to the LAN. N. Make sure wiring closets, data centers, and computer rooms are secure.Provide no access without proper credentials.6. LAN server operating system vulnerabilities.F. Define vulnerability window policies, standards, procedures, and guidelines.Conduct LAN domain vulnerability assessments.7. Download of unknown file types from unknown sources by local users.B. Apply file transfer monitoring, scanning, and alarming for unknown......

Words: 372 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...members along with their age and state where they reside. Determine and print the average age of your family and print the names of anyone who live in Texas. 2. What is the required output? What is the necessary input? How you will obtain the required output from the given input? Clearly describe variable names and definitions. Include all necessary formulas and example calculations. 3. Display pseudocode of your overall design including the Main module and the order of the module, subprogram and function calls. 4. Create a Hierarchy chart for the overall program in raptor 5. detailed pseudocode for each module, subprogram and function. 6. Add pseudocode comments with all major functionality and most minor functionality commented 7. Show test plan covering all major functionality and most minor functionality. Multiple Input and expected output provided for most modules. SOLUTION: Analysis: For this program, user will be asked for name, age and state of their family members, one by one, until the user decides to stop entering this information. To achieve the given task (printing average family age and identifying residents of Texas), following modules need to be created: * Main module: This module will be the one running on program startup. It will be responsible to get user input and call appropriate modules to calculate and display average family age and display family members those are residents of Texas * calcAverageAge module: This module will take family......

Words: 919 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...information about open source software licenses at licenses/index.html. Who Should Read This Book? This book is intended for three types of readers: You might be a developer already experienced with programming for the GNU/Linux system, and you want to learn about some of its advanced features and capabilities.You might be interested in writing more sophisticated programs with features such as multiprocessing, multithreading, interprocess communication, and interaction with hardware devices.You might want to improve your programs by making them run faster, more reliably, and more securely, or by designing them to interact better with the rest of the GNU/Linux system. n 1. GNU is a recursive acronym: It stands for “GNU’s Not UNIX.” xxi n n You might be a developer experienced with another UNIX-like system who’s interested in developing GNU/Linux software, too.You might already be familiar with standard APIs such as those in the POSIX specification.To develop GNU/Linux software, you need to know the peculiarities of the system, its limitations, additional capabilities, and conventions. You might be a developer making the transition from a non-UNIX environment, such as Microsoft’s Win32 platform.You might already be familiar with the general principles of writing good software, but you need to know the specific techniques that GNU/Linux programs use to interact with the system and with each other. And you want to make sure your......

Words: 80064 - Pages: 321

Free Essay

Test incentives to hospitals and eligible professionals for the “meaningful use” of certified EHR technology to improve patient care. The 15 eCQMs selected for hospital reporting in the Meaningful Use program Stage 1 are a subset of quality measures included in the hospital IQR program. Across the 15 quality measures, more than 180 data elements are required. The rapid cycle policy development and EHR certification process included a number of factors that likely have affected the accuracy of the eCQM measure results, such as: ■ existing measures modified for calculation by EHRs without robust testing to determine if all of the data were available in existing EHRs; ■ known errors in the eCQMs and lack of implementation within EHRs to test the feasibility of data collection or validation of results; and ■ lack of mature e-specification development and updating process. For additional information on eCQM selection and development, please see the full eCQM case study report by iParsimony, LLC, on the AHA website. Case Study Sites Each of the organizations visited was well situated for success in eCQM adoption. Each showed a strong commitment to health information technology (IT) as a means to enhance its ability to provide safe, effective, efficient, timely, patientcentered and equitable care. Each was externally recognized by national programs for its level of EHR adoption, with significant efforts preceding the Meaningful Use program by five to 10 years. All exhibited a......

Words: 3750 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

N/a N/a

...The new law will also establish a Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, effective January 2011, to oversee and test these and other innovative payment methods. Priority will be given to models that both improve quality and reduce costs, such as medical homes, accountable care organizations that assume responsibility for quality and cost across the continuum of patient care, funding for care coordination, and bundled payment for hospital acute and post-acute care. By increasing primary care payment rates, and making low-interest student loans more available, the Affordable Care Act also aims to increase the supply of primary care physicians and advanced practice nurses, making it easier for patients to find a primary care provider. Better access to community health centers able to serve more patients. Federally qualified health centers provide comprehensive primary care and mental health services to some of our nation's most vulnerable individuals and families. Recent Commonwealth Fund analysis shows that of the 16 million patients who received care from health centers in 2007, 90 percent were at or below 200 percent of the federal poverty level, 45 percent had public insurance, and 40 percent had no insurance at all. The Affordable Care Act expands funding to community health centers by $11 billion over five years beginning in 2010; provides state grants for health care providers that serve a large percentage of medically underserved populations; and......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

N Word

...The N-word dates back to the early 17th century, so why is it still such a big deal in literature, music and daily conversations? Joseph Henry Jackson once said, “Did you ever hear anyone say, ‘That work had better be banned because I might read it and it might be very damaging to me’?” Today s younger generation is far more comfortable with the N-word. It is often used in slang as a term of endearment or to show comfort and trust around someone. This often causes confusion in older generations and upsets them for the reason that they were raised in a time period where it was taught to use the N-word as a derogatory term to belittle someone’s humanity or social status in a community. The N-word, to some, is the ugliest racial slur created, and its purpose was to vilify African Americans. But to others, it is a reminder of the tumult their ancestors faced and how far they have come. In 1837, the “n-word” was already considered a huge slur when Hosea Easton wrote The Condition of Colored People of the United States: and the Prejudice Exercised Towards Them. He writes that the term would be perfectly harmless in theory, but instead, it is used with the intent to deliberately make African Americans feel inferior. The word has the same definition today, and that suggests that the word itself has not evolved at all from 1837 until now. Rather, people have evolved around the word and have become aware of the word’s vindictiveness....

Words: 263 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...| | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------- Top of FormBottom of Form | | | | | | | 19-08-2011 TOEFL Test | | | | | |   |   | |   |   | Structure and written expression test 6 | 2373 Views |   |   | 1. The rock-fill dam, essentially an embankment like the earth -fill dam, uses rock instead of earth _____~, (A) and providing stability (B) to provide stability (C) stability is provided (D) provides stability2. The telegraph, invented in the mid-nineteenth century, remained even into the 1970's _____ of telecommunication.(A) a principal system (B) a system was principal (C) that was a principal system (D) a principal system whe3. Royal jelly, a secretion produced by worker bees, is fed to _____destined to become queen bees.(A) those that (B) be those (C) those of (D) those4. _____ is necessarily limited to areas of productive soils, tillable topography, and adequate moisture, where the growing season is long enough for plant germination and maturation.(A) Farm (B) Farming (C) When farming (D) To farm5. Among the most famous products of the Aesthetic Movement were the Tiffany lamps, first _____in 1899.(A) had been producing (B) had been produced (C) produced (D) were producing6. Refrigerating meats _____ the spread of bacteria.(A) retards (B) retarding (C) to retard (D) is retarded7. The islands of the Florida Keys are joined to the mainland by an overseas highway _____ a railroad destroyed in the......

Words: 1104 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...Tests of Hypotheses: z-test and t-test 0801-HypothesisTests.doc Page 1 of 4 NOTES TESTS OF HYPOTHESES As was mentioned earlier, sometimes we cannot survey or test all persons or objects; therefore, we have to take a sample. From the results of analysis from the sample data, we can predict the results from the population. Some questions that one may want to answer are 1. Are unmarried workers more likely to be absent from work than married workers? 2. Are the sixth graders in a certain school significantly less skilled in their mathematical abilities than the average student in the district? 3. In Fall 1996, did students in Math 163-01 score the same on the exam as students in Math 163-02? 4. Is there any difference between the strengths of steel wire produced by the XY Company and Bob’s Wire Company? 5. A hospital spokesperson claims that the average daily room charge for a specific procedure is $622. Can we reject this claim? WHAT IS A HYPOTHESIS? Hypothesis: A statement about the value of a population parameter developed for the purpose of testing. Examples of hypotheses, or statements, made about a population parameter are: The mean monthly income from all sources for systems analysts is $3,625. Twenty percent of all juvenile offenders ultimately are caught and sentenced to prison. Hypothesis testing: A procedure, based on sample evidence and probability theory, used to determine whether the hypothesis is a reasonable statement and should not be rejected, or......

Words: 1347 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...could be discrete or continuous * The ensemble which is the set of all possible time functions produced by the random experiment * The time parameter t which could be continuous or discrete * The statistical dependencies among the random processes X(t) when t is changed. Based on the above descriptions, we could have four different types of random processes: a) Discrete time, discrete value: We measure time at discrete values t = nT with n = 0, 1, 2, . . As an example, at each value of n we could observe the number of cars on the road x(n). In that case, x(n) is an integer between 0 and 10, say. Each time we perform this experiment, we would get a totally different sequence for x(n). b) Discrete time, continuous value: We measure time at discrete values t = nT with n = 0, 1, 2, . ... As an example, at each value of n we measure the outside temperature x(n). In that case, x(n) is a real number between −30◦ and +45◦, say. Each time we perform this experiment, we would get a totally different sequence for x(n). c) Continuous time, discrete value: We measure time as a continuous variable t. As an example, at each value of t we store an 8-bit digitized version of a recorded voice waveform x(t). In that case, x(t) is a binary number between 0 and 255, say. Each time we perform this experiment, we would get a totally different sequence for x(t). d) Continuous time, continuous value: We measure time as a continuous variable t. As an example, at each value of t we...

Words: 2863 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay


...(Panzar, J.C. and J. N. Rosse, 1987; Rosse, J.N. and J.C Panzar, 1977). Non-structural approaches have been developed in the context of the new empirical industrial organization (NEIO) literature. This study is based on structural approaches expecting to uncover the advantage of enhancing banks operational efficiency against bank concentration. The next section presents basic arguments of structure conduct performance hypothesis (SCH) and efficient structure hypothesis (ESH), application in banking industry and their findings. SCP was first introduced by Mason in 1939 as a method of analyzing markets and firms (Worthington, Ian, Chris Briton, and Andy Rees, 2001). As explained in the SCP, the market concentration fosters collusion among large firms in the industry which subsequently leads to higher profits. Hence, SCP pointed out that changes in market concentration may have a positive influence on a firm’s financial performance (Goldberg, Lawrence G. and Anoop Rai, 1996). Furthermore, SCP recognized the consequent positive relationship between market concentration and performance as a result of anti-competitive behavior of firms with large market share (Berger, Allan N. and T. Hannan, 1989). The relative market hypothesis (RMPH) which is a special case of SCP posited that only firms with large market shares and well differentiated product lines are able to exercise market power to gain superior profit on non-competitive price setting behavior (Berger, Allan N., 1995). An......

Words: 8694 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

In N Out

...In-N-Out Burger Review | | | | | Santosh Gowda | | | IN – N – OUT BURGER 1. Feedback found on page 141. “. . . They were given specific on-the-job training during slow periods and a considerable amount of feedback on their performance.” 2. Communication found on page 136-137. “. . . Rich had relied heavily on verbal and visual communication techniques.” 3. Giving back to Community found on page 156 “. . . It came from Rich’s belief that improving the lives of children was the cornerstone to creating a better society.” Giving back to Community found on page 157. “. . . Rich looked to fund outlets that shared his desire to help, supporting several groups that aided victims of child abuse, organizing several fund-raisers. He was said to have denoted thousands of dollars to the Make-A-Wish Foundation, the organization that granted wishes to terminally ill children.” Giving back to community found on page 157. “. . . In 1984, they established the Child Abuse Fund specifically to raise awareness of and channel funds to abused and disadvantaged children in the cities and counties where in IN-N-Out Burger did business.” Giving back to community found on page 93. “. . . Harry and Esther believed in serving the communities in which In-N-Out operated. The Snyder’s made any number of charitable donations, and their efforts at promotion were often connected to grassroots community and philanthropic endeavors.” 4. Rumors found on page 197. “. . .......

Words: 2935 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Test ii. The style of music preferred by each of 30 randomly selected radio listeners. iii. The lengths of 50 randomly selected cars. iv. The classification of a student (First, Upper Second, Lower Second, Third, Pass, Fail) in the course 04a: Statistics 1. (8 marks) (b) The number of raisins in each of 16 mini boxes for two brands are shown below: Brand A: 22 Brand B: 26 27 20 29 24 31 25 26 29 25 33 24 35 31 27 i. Find the mean and the mode for each brand. ii. Find the upper quartile of Brand A and the lower quartile of Brand B. iii. The mini boxes were made in 8 different machines corresponding to each column in the table above. Calculate the Spearman rank correlation coefficient and interpret its value. (13 marks) (c) A test is taken by some students, their marks are recorded and we are interested in the properties of the sample mean. Under the assumption that the marks follow a Normal distribution with exact mean 65 and variance 144, calculate the probability that the mark of a randomly selected student i. is greater than 67.5 exactly; and ii. lies between 63 and 67 exactly. (4 marks) (d) A sample of 160 students was taken and each student was questioned regarding their preferences for a number of courses. The course in Economics was chosen by 75 students. Calculate a 95% confidence interval for the proportion of students in favour of Economics in the population. (3 marks) UL12/0218 Page 2 of 6 D00 UL12/0218 D01 Page 2 of......

Words: 2576 - Pages: 11

Free Essay


...called its order. For example, when analyzing some algorithm, one might find that the time (or the number of steps) it takes to complete a problem of size n is given by T(n) = 4 n2 - 2 n + 2. If we ignore constants (which makes sense because those depend on the particular hardware the program is run on) and slower growing terms, we could say "T(n) grows at the order of n2" and write:T(n) = O(n2). In mathematics, it is often important to get a handle on the error term of an approximation. For instance, people will write ex = 1 + x + x2 / 2 + O(x3) for x -> 0 to express the fact that the error is smaller in absolute value than some constant times x3 if x is close enough to 0. For the formal definition, suppose f(x) and g(x) are two functions defined on some subset of the real numbers. We write f(x) = O(g(x)) (or f(x) = O(g(x)) for x -> C such that |f(x)| to be more precise) if and only if there exist constants N and C |g(x)| for all x>N. Intuitively, this means that f does not grow faster than g. If a is some real number, we write f(x) = O(g(x)) for x -> a if and only if there exist constants d > 0 and C such that |f(x)| C |g(x)| for all x with |x-a| < d. The first definition is the only one used in computer science (where typically only positive functions with a natural number n as argument are considered; the absolute values can then be ignored), while both usages appear in mathematics. Here is a list of classes of functions that......

Words: 2121 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

In N Out

...Inside the Marketing Strategy of the In-N-Out Burger Chain By: Nichole Fitzhugh Ted Watterson Cathy Nguyen Chris Nguyen Kieu Le California State University, San Marcos Marketing 302 Professor George Sharghi May 5, 2011 Introduction While cruising the freeway along the Sothern California coastline, it is becoming increasing possible to spot a giant sign with a yellow boomerang; this brightly illuminated boomerang is most associated with the infamous restaurant In-N-Out. It was founded by Harry and Esther Snyder in 1948, and established in Baldwin Park, California. Since then, the restaurant has continued to satisfy and entice customers from all over, including the East, West, North, and South coasts. Its popularity stems from its simple yet appetizing menu, which consists of three types of burgers: hamburger, cheeseburger, and the Double-Double. They also carry fresh cut fries, and three varieties of drinks, including milk, shakes, and sodas. In-N-Out’s arguably most unique item is its “spread,” also referred to as its special sauce. The Businessweek article, In-N-Out Burger’s Marketing Magic, outlines the restaurant’s marketing strategies. In-N-Out does not advertise on television, but relies on advertising through their billboards, bumper stickers, t-shirts, and satisfied fans. The yellow boomerang is wielded as an arrow to point in the direction of their restaurant. However, their most successful marketing...

Words: 2407 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay


...incentive to learn English, the global language of the 21st century. 12 The meaning of globalization varies widely among individuals but the majority of respondents think globalization is the death of distance Please indicate which of the following features describes globalization (a process that involves economic, political, and cultural interaction among nations) in your opinion. Expansion in international trade 11% The death of distance (distance is not a factor in making and maintaining contact with someone else around the world) 29% All nations have equal opportunities in the international market place 25% Ablity of professionals to work from anywhere in the world 14% Growing dependency among nations 21% n=191 Global Citizenship English is not only a language but an instrument for global connectivity The modern application of English for practical purposes has transformed it into a 'technology for globalization'. Nearly eighty percent of the respondents think that English has evolved from a language into a technology for globalization. With increasing internet access and usage among the general population, English language is no longer just the privilege of the upper echelon in our society. English is now deemed a necessary skill for all Bangladeshi youth to keep pace with global trends. International non-governmental organizations, which are deemed lucrative places to work in for the youth, require its personnel to......

Words: 21662 - Pages: 87

Wyścig z zabójczą grypą (2009) | Voir tout | Bingbing Fan