Free Essay

Ethics

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By yhet0101
Words 2042
Pages 9
ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER FRAUD

Electronic funds transfer systems have begun to proliferate, and so has the risk that such transactions may be intercepted and diverted. Valid credit card numbers can be intercepted electronically, as well as physically; the digital information stored on a card can be counterfeited.

Of course, we don't need Willie Sutton to remind us that banks are where they keep the money. In 1994, a Russian hacker Vladimir Levin, operating from St Petersburg, accessed the computers of Citibank's central wire transfer department, and transferred funds from large corporate accounts to other accounts which had been opened by his accomplices in The United States, the Netherlands, Finland, Germany, and Israel. Officials from one of the corporate victims, located in Argentina, notified the bank, and the suspect accounts, located in San Francisco, were frozen. The accomplice was arrested. Another accomplice was caught attempting to withdraw funds from an account in Rotterdam. Although Russian law precluded Levin's extradition, he was arrested during a visit to the United States and subsequently imprisoned. (Denning 1999, 55).

The above forms of computer-related crime are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and need not occur in isolation. Just as an armed robber might steal an automobile to facilitate a quick getaway, so too can one steal telecommunications services and use them for purposes of vandalism, fraud, or in furtherance of a criminal conspiracy.1 Computer-related crime may be compound in nature, combining two or more of the generic forms outlined above.

The various activities of Kevin Mitnick, as described in Hafner and Markoff (1991) are illustrative.

Problem areas

• Telecommunications

• Electronic vandalism, terrorism and extortion

• Stealing telecommunications services

• Telecommunications piracy

• Pornography and other offensive material

• Telemarketing fraud

• Electronic fund transfer crime

• Electronic money laundering

Legal areas

Here are just a few rhetorical questions about the law relating to search and seizure of electronic evidence. These were formulated in October 1998 at a special expert working group meeting convened in Tokyo under the auspices of the United Nations and with the involvement of the Australian Institute of Criminology.

(a) Investigative issues

(i) Does the law distinguish between the search and seizure of stored data in a computer, and the interception of data that is being communicated from one computer to another or within a computer system?

(ii) Can a person voluntarily provide law enforcement agents with electronic data that may afford evidence of a crime? Can a person voluntarily permit law enforcement agents to undertake a search for such data, rather than provide it to them? Could continuing cooperation of this nature by a person with law enforcement have a legal effect on the ability of law enforcement to obtain or use the data?

(iii) In most jurisdictions, the ability of law enforcement to obtain data that may afford evidence usually requires some form of prior judicial approval. What legal authority is required for obtaining electronic stored data without the consent of the persons concerned?

(iv) Electronic data under most jurisdictions is considered as being intangible. The law of some jurisdictions may only permit seizure of tangible material. In such cases, intangible data can only be obtained by seizing the physical medium (e.g., data on diskette or other storage medium) on which the data is stored and found. Do your nation's laws provide for the seizure of intangible data without seizure of the physical medium which it is found?

(v) In some cases, the precise location of electronic data within a computer system may not be apparent. How specific must be the description in the judicial authority (e.g., search warrant) of the place to be searched or the data to be seized?

(vi) In most jurisdictions, the scope of a warrant should be as narrow as possible. The precise location of the electronic data may not be immediately apparent at the time a warrant is sought, or even when law enforcement agents arrive at the scene. Does the law provide guidance on whether to seize the entire computer system, or merely one or more of its components? What practical criteria do law enforcement use to make this decision? How would this be done in practice?

(vii) Does your law obligate a suspect or a third person to provide access (including passwords) to a computer system that is the target of a lawful search? If not, what practical measures or tools can be employed by law enforcement to gain access?

(viii) Seizure of, or during the course of a search the shutting down of, an entire computer system may be extremely intrusive, and particularly burdensome to an ongoing business. What practical circumstances would justify seizing or shutting down a complete system rather than merely taking a copy of the data? Does the law provide for copying of relevant data as an alternative to seizure, and can the copy be regarded as admissible evidence? Would the law permit the seizure of the entire data base for the purpose of subsequently identifying the relevant data? What practical means can be used to copy large volumes of data?

(ix) In the course of a search, law enforcement authorities may come across incriminating data related to the crime under investigation, but which was not originally specified within the scope of the warrant. Can this data be legally seized without obtaining another warrant?

(x) In the course of a search, law enforcement authorities may come across electronic data relating to a crime different from that which is under the current investigation. Can this data be legally seized without obtaining another warrant?

(xi) Does the law permit seizure of data, without a warrant, under exigent circumstances, such as when there is risk of erasure or destruction of data? Alternatively, are law enforcement agents able to secure the premises or computer system, pending the obtaining of a warrant?

(xii) In some cases, the data sought may be located on another computer system that is networked to the system currently being searched. Does the law permit an extension of the search into the connected system in order to search and seize relevant data within the scope of the warrant? Can the warrant include an authorization to extend the search to the connected system? Alternatively, can law enforcement obtain a second warrant to extend the search from one system to the other?

(xiii) Are there any circumstances under which the law permits stored data to be obtained by means of a judicial order to deliver such data to law enforcement authorities, as opposed to the law enforcement authorities themselves searching and seizing it?

(b) Stored transaction data

(i) Records of service use, also known as transaction data, may be kept by some telecommunication carriers and internet service providers. Some carriers or ISPs may, for business or security purposes, retain such data for a period of time. In some jurisdictions, the cooperation of Internet service providers (ISPs) in identifying suspects may be obtained informally. Can this data be voluntarily provided to law enforcement agents by carriers and service providers? Does the law provide a means by which this data can be compulsorily obtained by law enforcement authorities?

(ii) Which types of transaction data does law enforcement require? Which types of transaction data do telecommunications carriers retain? For how long do the carriers or ISPs retain such data? Are there any laws or regulations which require them to retain such data, or to dispose of it after a certain period of time?

(c) Electronic communications

(i) Does the law permit law enforcement to collect current or future transaction data (including the source or destination of communications)? Can this authority for collection of current and future transaction data be achieved by satisfying legal conditions less onerous than that required to intercept the content of communications? What practical or technological means can be used to collect such data? Does law enforcement have the capability to undertake such techniques?

(ii) Even when one is able to determine the location from which a communication originates, identifying the human source of the communication may prove to be challenging. What legal and/or technological tools are available for this purpose?

(iii) How is the ability to collect such current or future transaction data affected if the communication crosses jurisdictional borders, including international borders?

(iv) Does the law permit interception of communications for the purpose of obtaining their content? Does the law permit this interception in respect of communications between computer systems or their components, as well as between persons? Does law enforcement have the practical capability to undertake such investigative techniques?

(v) In some cases, search or interception may be more efficiently and more effectively carried out by representatives of the telecommunications or ISP industry rather than law enforcement personnel. Does the law provide authority or obligation for private organizations or individuals to engage or assist in interception or search on behalf of the state? How does this affect the admissibility of the data as evidence in judicial proceedings? If there is no such authority or obligation, are there trained law enforcement personnel to undertake this task, and how would they do so?

(d) Analysis of data

(i) What legal, practical or technical means are available to preserve the data seized or intercepted in order to ensure its presentation and admissibility in judicial proceedings? What procedures should be followed?

(ii) If the data seized are encrypted, what legal, practical or technical means are available to allow law enforcement to decrypt data? Does law enforcement have legal authority to decrypt seized data using technical means? Can an order be sought from a judicial authority to compel decryption by the suspect or a third person? Can an order be sought to compel a suspect or a third person to hand over the encryption key or algorithm to law enforcement?

(e) Human rights and privacy safeguards

(i) Can a person to whom compulsory measures are applied, as above, challenge the lawfulness of such measures before a court, either before or after execution?

(ii) What legal protections exist for law enforcement agents who are undertaking a coercive investigative measure such as a search and seizure, or interception?

(iii) Which types of remedies may be ordered by a judicial authority?

(iv) How would such remedies be obtained or enforced in the context of a trans-border search?

(v) To what extent would legal protections or immunities apply to law enforcement from another country who are undertaking a trans-border search in your country?

What do to protect your dealership, and recommend that you consider the following protections:

• Establish commercially reasonable security agreements with your bank concerning EFT transactions (such as a call-back procedure). • Limit the number of check signers. • Perform daily bank reconciliations. (Some notification requirements to the bank of defalcations are only 24 hours or you’re totally on the hook.) • Sign up for bank-provided software (it’s surprisingly inexpensive) that prevents an unauthorized outsider from tapping your account with an ACH debit. • Sign up for positive pay capability (also surprisingly inexpensive), which is a process whereby only those checks you electronically communicate on a batch basis to the bank are paid by the bank. • Effectively use your available ACH password-level controls. • Establish the separate “locked” floor plan offset account. • Reconsider whether it’s worth the fraud risk to leave large amounts of excess cash in the dealership. (Keep in mind that these funds are also at risk for a potential court imposed freeze if a serious litigation storm hits the corporation). • Seek out higher dishonesty insurance coverage on check signers or anyone else with cash-handling or accounting responsibilities.
Conclusion

Dealers are particularly vulnerable to EFT fraud, if reasonable protections are not in place. Our discussions with bankers indicate that EFT fraud is a current “hot topic” in their industry and that they are very interested in meeting with their customers and assisting them in considering various protections available to minimize fraud risk. Our experience is that many CPAs and bankers aren’t well-versed on the subject of EFT fraud exposure and what a dealer can do about it. We feel our firm is in a position to assist you in discussing these matters with your bank and to help you in evaluating other internal controls that can be implemented on a cost-efficient basis.

CYBERCRIME LAW…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Ethics MGT 498 November, 2012 Ethics Edward O Wilson, an American biologist and theorist proposed that in the end, success or failure will come down to an ethical decision; one on which those now will be judged for generations to come (ThinkExist, 2012). Organizations require members to adhere to the established guidelines and ethics to maintain compliance with internal and external directives. The ability of the company to remain profitable without sacrificing ethics is a competitive advantage that will ensure consumer loyalty and enhance its reputation. Additionally, ethical decision-making contributes to a company’s fulfillment of corporate social responsibility. This analysis will describe how ethics and social responsibility influence the development of a strategic plan. Furthermore, it will provide an example of an unethical action and present an alternative method for handling the situation. Influence of Ethics The Free Dictionary.com (2012), defines ethics as a set of principles of right conduct or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession (Ethics). Although many believe that ethics and business cannot exist simultaneously, the cost of unethical behavior in organizations is unacceptable. According to Wheelen and Hunger (2010), a survey by the Ethics Resource Center of 1,324 employees of 747 U.S. companies found that 48% of employees surveyed said that they had engaged in one or more unethical and/or illegal actions during the...

Words: 940 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Drucker (1981), he takes us through a journey of evolution of Business Ethics and represents several controversial positions. While explaining the ethics in Western Culture he states that there was agreement on the following statement: “There are only one ethics, one set of rules of morality, one code, that of individual behavior in which the same rules apply to everyone alike” (Drucker, 1981, Page 19). He discusses the examples of "a poor mother", "nepotism in China" and "paid extortion" to articulated the impact of social, economical and cultural norms on implementing this on everyone. He considers practices of questionable morality under different circumstances as ethical. Casuistry (Drucker, 1981, Page 22) was the first attempt to think about social responsibility and embed it in a set of distinctive ethics for people in power. According to Drucker, ethics for people in social responsibility is a cross-benefit calculation involving demand of individual conscience and position. For then, demand of ethics can be excepted if actions result in benefit for other people. Drucker then moves on to introduce The Ethics of Prudence (Drucker, 1981, Page 27) as other major tradition in the West. He proposes that Ethics of Prudence appropriate to a society of organizations. Prudence, the consciousness not to do the wrong thing will enable the leader to exhibit a role model behavior. According to Drucker, Ethics of Prudence do not spell out the “right” behavior, but wrong behavior......

Words: 2217 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Ethics is a very big issue that involves diverse views and beliefs. Ethics has become more widespread with the public in today’s business world. There are three main theories of ethics. The first is the virtue theory which is all based around good quality ethics and sometimes simplified into being character based ethics. The next theory is the utilitarianism theory which is best described as the group theory. The third theory is the deontological theory. These are the three basic ethics theories of today. Virtue ethics describes the character of a moral instrument as a source of power for ethical behavior. A person's character is the entirety of their personality. Character qualities can be good, bad or somewhere in between. They can be commendable or not. The worthy characteristics are called virtues. Utilitarianism is an ethical way of life in which the happiness of the greatest number of people in the society is considered the maximum good. According to utilitarianism the moral worth of an action is determined by its resulting outcome. There is debate over how much thought should be given to actual consequences, potential consequences and planned consequences. Deontological ethics is an approach that focuses on the right or wrong of an action itself contrasting the rightness or wrongness of the penalty of those actions. These three ethical theories address ethics and morality with some similarities and some differences. One of the major differences between virtue theory...

Words: 522 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Names for Theory | Real-world Example | Workplace Example | Duty-based Ethics | Regardless of consequences, certain moral principles are binding, focusing on duty rather than results or moral obligation over what the individual would prefer to do (Treviño & Nelson, 2007, Ch. 4).In ethics, deontological ethics, or deontology (Greek: deon meaning obligation or duty), is a theory holding that decisions should be made solely or primarily by considering one's duties and the rights of others. Some systems are based on biblical or tenets from sacred. | Deontology, pluralism, moral rights, rights-basedCategorical imperativeGolden rule | C * I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is the right thing to do. | It is my duty to follow through with instructions my boss gives me, even if I do not agree with the concept. It is my moral obligation to respect authority figures. | Consequence-based Ethics | A consequence-based approach to ethics gives priority to the value, outcome of a decision we attach to the results of an action. Where the end justifies the means as the main determining factor if an action is being ethical or not. Williams, (1998) said it best it is a theory of “good states of affairs”. (para 1)“In ethics, telos also comes from Greek, this meaning end or purpose. “Many ethicists call this type of ethical approach goal-based, because the people who practice this type of ethics approach believe there is an intricate design to the universe, and......

Words: 1554 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Ethic

...1 Virtue Theory, Utilitarianism, and Deontological Ethics. Judith Glowinski ETH/316 - 4/16/2013 MARY CARTER 2 When comparing the similarities and differences between virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontology we find that they all deal with how one judge’s morality and ethics. These theories all include judging in different aspects, whether it is in the moment, what happens after, or over a lifetime. The ethics and morality behind these theories all deal with what is right, or what is best for the present, then separate paths as the theories work toward the future. With virtue ethics a person strives for excellence performing duties, and acquiring traits that others would admire. With utilitarianism a person makes a decision based on the best results, and what is best for the most amounts of people. With deontology a person makes a decision depending on what he or she thinks is morally correct, not necessarily based on the best results for the people, but more for the wellbeing of that person. The similarities between the three theories all deal with results. These theories all work toward the best result depending on what someone believes the best result may be. Many people will take different sides when it comes to a decision that benefits either the present or future, whether a person’s decision is the best for the moment or best for the future is what differentiates these theories. Putting the best interest of the team before one’s personal......

Words: 645 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Shanice Naidoo 212538675 Ethics 101: Essay African ethics and its characteristics This essay seeks to explain what African ethics is as well as its characteristics. In order for that to be done, we must first explain what African ethics is and the foundations upon which it is built. African ethics refers to the values, codes of conduct and laws that govern the moral conduct of people within a given society. African ethics as a whole tends to place its focus on mankind. In this essay paper, we will also seek to explain the concept of Ubuntu, which is a concept that is strongly embedded in African ethics. African ethics is founded on three main concepts, firstly, God; followed by the community and lastly human dignity. According to the norms of African ethics, God is the pivotal focus in one’s life. Africans believe that God is the only one that can judge man because he has created it. They believe that humans should behave in a loving and forgiving manner because God loves and forgives them. It is held that any troubles that people encounter, such as, bad health; natural disasters etc., are not of God but rather of the devil or evil spirits ‘Satan’. Community in African ethics refers to the society as a whole or a certain group of people that one belongs to. The central focus here is the welfare and interests of each member of the community rather than that of the individual. They hold the view that being a member of the community by nature; the individual is......

Words: 1045 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Ethics

...Running head: Ethics and the College Student 1 The Ethics and College Student Title Page: BY MAURICE M. OWENS ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to see the college students’ view of ethics. There was enough evidence to say that college students’ perceive ethics instruction, and those who teach it, to be relevant and beneficial in shaping their own ethical behaviors. Students’ attitudes towards cheating is measured by their perception of cheating in high school, college, and non-major classes. The use of technology has an impact on college ethics since it is easier to cheat in online/hybrid classes and when some kind of technology is used in a course. College students believe that they are living in an ethical campus environment, where their faculty members are mostly ethical in nature and that it is never to late to learn about ethics in college. The Ethics and College Student Title Page: 2 Ethics is truly and important asset within today’s society, there are so many ways you can define ethics. I will say that to me ethics is about your upbringing, starting from the day you were born. Ethics will keep together and organization or it will dismantle and organization, you must enforce structure and guidelines. There are three strong principles when we talk about students and ethics. I call this (R, A, O) Responsibility, Accountability and Ownership. Students must be Responsible and withhold the obligations and the integrity of the school in......

Words: 1052 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ethics

...ETHICS IN JAPANESE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Romanian Economic and Business Review – Vol. 2, No. 2 Caraiani Gheorghe, Maduţa Gyongyver Gheorghe Caraiani is Professor of International Business at the Romanian American University in Bucharest. Maduta Gyongyver is Assistant Professor of English Language at the Romanian American University in Bucharest. Abstract At first sight it is easy to understand that “ethics in business” is a field which aims at explaining problems of moral aspect which come up currently in the activity of economic agents from a market economy. Considering the cultural variety of moral values and principles lengthwise and crosswise the planet and, since the adopted policies led to many unacceptable effects, the idea of drawing up international ethic codes appeared more and more substantial through the explicit agreement of some governmental and non-governmental associations in which the big transnational corporations have the main role. The company system in Japan is so strict that it is quite hard, sometimes even impossible for a company to do business with another company with which it does not have personal, tight and previously established relations. The Japanese philosophy is that only the company in which the human relations are good will succeed in while the one with bad human relations will go bankrupt. In order to understand a Japanese company and to be able to cooperate with it, it is really useful for one to see it as an exclusive club, a......

Words: 3419 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Kathleen F. Brochu Manage Principles Dr. M. Miller Research Paper “Ethics” Should Ethics be taught in the Corporate Environment? By Kathleen Brochu Table of Contents Cover Page Title: “Ethics” Should ethics be taught in the corporate environment? By: Kathleen Brochu Introduction What is Ethics? Can ethics be taught? Whose responsibility is it? Body Meaning of Ethics How one learns ethics How to promote ethics in the work place Conclusion Higher production rates Caring Employees Improved Companies relationships Today’s business environment is not only fast-paced, but also highly competitive. In order to keep pace and stay ahead, possession of several key work ethics is a plus for achieving a successful career. Holding key traits such as attendance, character, teamwork, appearance, and attitude add value to both you as a person and your company. Successful careers come in many flavors, but work ethics are a main ingredient in most recipes for success. Ethics are not born in a vacuum. Ethics are more like a jigsaw puzzle that is thrown together over time, that when complete makes up who you are and what you believe. From our earliest days of life, we start to learn from those around us. These learned behaviors add to the traits that we are already born with and help to shape us into the person we will become. As part of this learning process, we develop what will become our norms. Norms are our......

Words: 1184 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Ethics Essay ETH/316 May 21, 2014 University of Phoenix Ethics Essay This week's reading assignment covered many aspects of ethics. In this written assignment, we are asked to compare the similarities and differences between three types of ethical behavior, virtue, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics. To understand the three separate ethic behaviors, I must first define them. Virtue ethics deals with a person’s character, their inward behavior. If a person’s character is good, then so are his or her choices and actions. A person should always strive for excellence in everything that they do. Virtue ethics is not team-based; it’s all about the good of a particular person and how he or she think and act on a daily basis. An example of virtue ethics is, me being in line at the grocery store, the person ahead of me does not have enough money to complete his purchase, so I pay the difference to help him out. Utilitarianism ethics is different from virtue ethics because it promotes the greatest amount of good to a group. Utilitarianism is not individually based, it is more people based. Best described when a person sacrifices a little, in order to get more in return. A personal example of utilitarianism could be the time I was babysitting my niece and two nephews. Instead of me watching basketball on the television, I allowed them to watch a children’s movie in order to gain peace and quiet throughout the house. I gave up the television for the greater...

Words: 450 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Ethics Kellie Jackson Arthur Murphy Ethics Utilitarianism - Utilitarianism is the ethical doctrine that the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall utility. It is thus a form of consequentialism, meaning that the moral worth of an action is determined by its outcome—the ends justify the means. Utility — the good to be maximized — has been defined by various thinkers as happiness or pleasure (versus suffering or pain), though preference utilitarian’s like Peter Singer define it as the satisfaction of preferences. (David 2008) Deontology - Deontological ethics or deontology meaning 'obligation' or 'duty') is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, as opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions. It is sometimes described as "duty" or "obligation" based ethics, because deontologists believe that ethical rules "bind you to your duty". (Kant 1785) Deontological ethics is commonly contrasted with consequentialist or teleological ethical theories, according to which the rightness of an action is determined by its consequences. Virtue Ethics - Virtue ethics is a branch of moral philosophy that emphasizes character, rather than rules or consequences, as the key element of ethical thinking. In the West virtue ethics was the prevailing approach to ethical thinking in the ancient and medieval periods. The tradition suffered an eclipse during the early modern......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethics

...Running Head: Business Ethics Main Title: The Cultural Dimensions of Business Ethic Monroe College Contents Rationale 3 Introduction 3 Some Factors which may Influence Business Ethics 3 How Peoples Action can Affect Business Ethics 4 How Structure Affects Business ethics 4 How Culture, Norms and Laws Affect Business Ethics 5 Unethical Practices and How They May Affect a Business 5 Recommendations 7 Conclusion 8 Sources 10 Rationale The purpose of this paper is to discuss and address cultural aspects of business ethics. It will also examine how these cultural aspects may affect businesses and shape societies view on these organizations. Recommendations will also be made for example, on the aspect of setting companies policy while taking morals and ethical matters into consideration. Introduction Ethics is a huge area of interest, study and debate. According to Dictionary.com, Ethics is a body of moral principles or values governing or distinctive of a particular culture or group. Business ethics can be described as the behavior that a business adheres to in its daily interactions with society .The ethical standards of a business can be examined by looking into the firm’s human rights policy, its regulations of bribery and corruption, and its execution and compliance of its codes of ethics. The ethical standards of business can vary significantly depending on the country it is headquartered in. These standards apply not......

Words: 2043 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Ethics

..."Building a code of ethics to make a strong organization has many requirements to make it successful, organized, and valued."-Vivek Wadhwa. One main concept an organization needs to have to drive its success is a code of ethics. Having a code of ethics will manage an organization throughout its expansion and outset. The code of ethics will guide and teach the organization stay on board to its vision, plans, and goals but doing it in a manner or alignment that will protect the organization and its employees. Serving in the military, working in human resource, has introduced and taught a code of ethics for its organization which has many requirements to make it successful, organized, and valued. Working for the military has ethical fundamentals that help address or solve issues and situations that happen. Being in the military there is a certain look that soldiers must represent; this includes the proper uniform attire, attitude, and behaviors. If a soldier goes against what is expected of him or her there are different approaches and regulations that must be considered. For instance, when a soldier violates the law in his or her workplace like lying on documents or stealing, the outcome is an article15 and chances of getting promoted. The code of ethics for the military offers information on reporting suspected violations in reference to enforcement of the provisions of joint ethics. Having a code of ethics in the military keeps soldiers, as well as their families,......

Words: 853 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethics

... Computer Ethics By Brenda B. Covert |    | | 1     Ethics is a short, two-syllable word of six letters that affects every segment of our lives. Ethics is a moral code involving a clear understanding of right and wrong. Another word for ethics is values. When people talk about ethics, they may be focused on one specific area, such as business, medical, political, environmental, religious, or personal ethics. Today we are going to focus on another important area of ethics: computer ethics.   2     If you have good computer ethics, you won't try to harass or hurt people with your computer, and you won't commit crimes such as information theft or virus creation. The problem that often arises when some of us are on a computer is that we don't see the harm in snooping in another person's private information or trying to figure out their passwords. It seems smart to copy and paste information into a school report and pretend that we wrote it. (Even if the information were public property --which most of it isn't-- that would be dishonest.) The crimes committed with hacking or gaming scams may not seem harmful because the victims lack faces. Flaming (aiming abusive, insulting messages at another person online) seems risk-free since we are anonymous. Indulging in obscenities and other offensive behavior online might feel empowering simply because no one knows who we really are. No one is going to come knocking on the door and demand a physical confrontation. However, every one of...

Words: 1135 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ethic

...value system or what could be called their personal ethics structure. One’s personal values, or ethics structure, are developed over a lifetime and is ever evolving. There are many factors that come into play during the development of one’s ethics structure. The process begins at childhood. The people that a person comes into contact with, influences inside the home such as parents, siblings, and neighbors. As one grows older and ventures out into the world outside the home teachers, friends and even enemies all help to shape one’s value system. Any type of communication with anyone that we come in contact with has the potential to shape our value system or our ethics structure. Good. Ethics Development One’s beliefs, values or ethics begin forming at an early age and continues throughout one’s life. Most often, those values learned early on are the ones that stay with you in some form or another throughout one’s life. My development started at an early age. I grew up in a very close community. My neighborhood was an extension of my family. Family togetherness, education and sports were very influential aspects that helped shape my ethics structure and continue to guide my actions to this day. Over time, my various experiences have continued to help evolve and shape my value structure. Both positive and negative experiences have played a large role in my value system. Good. Defining Ethics What are ethics? Ethics are the principles, norms, and standards......

Words: 1463 - Pages: 6

Dharma Bhai [ Bolly4u wiki ] HDRIp Hindi Dubbed 720p 900MB mkv | RJ Cyler | The Last Witness