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3. According to my research it’s hard to say that freewill exist, but according to my belief and religion we are taught that every human being has freewill. I firmly believe in freewill because I was raised too. I also believe that our choices are influence by past and current conditions. Philosophers who distinguish freedom of action and freedom of will do so because our success in carrying out our ends depends in part on factors wholly beyond our control. Furthermore, there are always external constraints on the range of options we can meaningfully try to undertake. As the presence or absence of these conditions and constraints are not (usually) our responsibility, it is plausible that the central loci of our responsibility are our choices, or “willings.”

4. My objection to my own position is that we are bound by law. If I freely decide to murder someone. I’m sure I would be deterred because I’m reminded of the consequence punishable under the laws of the land. A belief in free will touches nearly everything that human…...

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...Gregory Cayo Time value of money & inventing Davenport University/ Finc 510 Time Value of money plays a major role in our lives. Whether you are an investor or a worker, somehow you still have to deal with it. As an investor, when starting an investment with a present value, the future value would eventually make profit in the next year or so. In other words, compounding is the name given to a starting investment that generates interest. Additionally, many jobs have 401(k), which allow workers to save and invest their money after their retirement. Some companies are already stockholders. Therefore, workers can be asked to work beyond their retirement deadline when there is a crash in the market. As a result, workers might no longer benefit from their 401 (k) saving. However, they would rather be part of the government retirement plan, which offer a lot lower than the 401(k) retirement plan (Ehrhard & Brigham, 2011). Financial problems are being solved easier when using spreadsheets on excel. The use of spreadsheets provides a visual concept of time value of money including all the transactions that are made by a company. By using spreadsheets, all the calculations are being made using a specific formula respectively. It is also helpful to use a time line when solving finance problems. Whether the problem involves excel or not, a time line is usually required to set up all the formula needed. A Time line tends to simplify the amount of work in a much simpler......

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...Introduction The time value of money concept is fundamental to the analysis of cash inflow and outflow decisions covering periods of over one year. Additionally, the concept of time value of money is important to financial decision-making because it emphasizes earning a return on invested capital, recognizes that earning a return makes $1 worth more today than $1 received in the future and it can be applied to future cash flows in order to compare different streams of income. A dollar to be paid or received in different time periods will have different values. For instance, a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in two years from now. This is because we can invest the dollar today, which will earn us a rate of return (interest) and create an increased value in two years. This process is called compounding and it involves taking a dollar today (present value), and investing it so that it grows into a larger amount in the future (future value). Additionally, managers must also understand factors which affect time value of money such as annuities which could include interest rates, opportunity costs, future and present values of money, and compounding. According to Brealey, Myers & Marcus, 2004, “each time value of money has five variables: interest rate or return, time or number of periods, future value, present value, and amount of payments either made or received” (pg. 812). The two key components of time value of money are present value (PV) and future value......

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...Time Value of Money: Simple Interest versus Compound Interest Outline I. Applications of Time Value of Money 1.1 Example One 1.2 Example Two 2. Interest 2.1 What is Interest? 2.2 Three Variables of Interest 1. Principal 2. Interest Rate 3. Time 2.3 Why is Interest Charged? 3. Simple Interest 3.1 What is Simple Interest? 3.2 Simple Interest Formula 4. Compound Interest 4.1 What is Compound Interest? 4.2 Compound Interest Formula 5. Compound Interest Tables 1. Future Value of $1 2. Present Value of $1 3. Present Value of an Ordinary Annuity of $1 4. Present Value of an Annuity due 5. Present Value of a Deferred Annuity 6. Conclusion 7. References Abstract The time value of money (TVM) is based on the principle that "a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future, (Mott, 2010, pp.31). Waiting for future dollars involves a cost -the cost is foregoing the opportunity to earn a rate of return on money while you are waiting" (pp.31). TVM was developed by Leonard Fibonnacci in 1202 and is one of the basic concepts of finance. One hundred dollars today has a different buying power than it will have in the future. For example, $100 invested in a savings account at your local bank yielding 6% annually will grow to $106 in one year. The difference between the $100 invested now-the present value of the investment-and its $106 future value represents the time value of money,......

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...Time Value of Money Table of Contents Abstract………………………………………………………………………………3 Time Value of Money………………………………………………………………..4 Future Value and Present Value…………………………………………………......5 Challenges…………………………………………………………………………...6 Summation…………………………………………………………………………..8 References…………………………………………………………………………...9 Abstract Time value of money operations are the backbone of financial decisions in business. The basics of their operation lie in interest calculations that can be used to determine the value of money five years ago, today and even well into the future. These calculations can be tricky and are weighed with outside challenges that can affect them positively and negatively and give a good framework of when, where and how money should be invested and capital allocated. Time Value of Money It is generally stated that money today is worth more than the money of tomorrow. This simple statement of finance is the basis for understanding the time value of money and how it relates to opportunity costs, sunk costs, present and future values and discount rates. (Wilson, 2010). There are many factors which affect money, but predominantly inflation, risk, and opportunity loss are the factors which affect the time value of money and are the influences which directly affect a manager’s ability to understand and use financial information relating to present and future values to make sound decisions. Future Value (Fv) and Present Value (Pv) In economics, the time......

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...COMPANY LIMITED REPORT CONTENTS Summary Report Detailed Report: PAGE 1 2 2 4 7 Rating Profile Instrument Structure Assessment ANNEXURES BoD Profile Standard Rating Scale I II April 2012 www.pacra.com STRUCTURED FINANCE The Pakistan Credit Rating Agency Limited RATINGS (APRIL 2012) KARACHI ELECTRIC SUPPLY COMPANY LIMITED [KESC] RATING RATIONALE & KEY DRIVERS SECURED, RATED, LISTED TFC (I) OF PKR 300MLN TFC (II) OF PKR 1,200MLN TFC (III) OF PKR 500MLN PRELIMINARY AA AA AA TFC (I) Tenor Issue size (PKR mln) Greenshoe option Profit Rate Profit payment Principal repayment TFC (II) TFC (III) 13 months 36 months 60 months 300 13.00% Monthly Bullet 1,200 700 14.75% Quarterly Bullet 500 300 15.50% Quarterly Bullet ANALYSTS Samiya Mukhtar +92 42 35869504 samiya@pacra.com Rana Muhammad Nadeem +92 42 35869504 nadeem@pacra.com The rating primarily draws its strength from the security structure of the instrument. This includes, inter alia, first parri passu charge with 1.2x minimum throughput of receivables from specific 250 corporate consumers and first pari passu charge with 1.2x minimum throughput of excess proceeds (after meeting certain pre-agreed financial obligations) entitled to KESC relating to consumer bills collections of 495 specific entities. The amounts so received would be directly deposited into Debt Payment Account (DPA), which will be gradually built over a period prior to each repayment date to avoid......

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...12/9/2012 Chapter 9 The Time Value of Money 1 Chapter 9- Learning Objectives Identify various types of cash flow patterns (streams) that are observed in business. Compute (a) the future values and (b) the present values of different cash flow streams, and explain the results. Compute (a) the return (interest rate) on an investment (loan) and (b) how long it takes to reach a financial goal. Explain the difference between the Annual Percentage Rate (APR) and the Effective Annual Rate (EAR), and explain when each is more appropriate to use. Describe an amortized loan, and compute (a) amortized loan payments and (b) the balance (amount owed) on an amortized loan at a specific point during its life. Principles of Finance 5e, 9 The Time Value of Money © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2 1 12/9/2012 Time Value of Money The principles and computations used to revalue cash payoffs at different times so they are stated in dollars of the same time period The most important concept in finance used in nearly every financial decision Business decisions Personal finance decisions Principles of Finance 5e, 9 The Time Value of Money © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 3 Cash Flow Patterns Lump-sum amount – a......

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...INDIA rejected the application for Stage-2 (Final) Environmental Clearance and withdrew all the previous clearances for mining in Niyamgiri Hills given to Vedanta Alumina Ltd. (VAL) a subsidiary of Sterlite Industries INDIA Ltd. (SIIL) citing various facts and reasons. This report provides an in depth analysis of the factors that lead to the debacle of Vedanta Alumina Lanjigarh Project. In the collation and presentation of data Secondary sources have been largely used. Vedanta, being a big Corporate house with ample experience was well aware of the rules and legislations prescribed under the law but deliberately Indulged in malpractices and ignored the key issues when it came to the Implementation of the Robust Business Strategy as a part of unnecessary haste. This project is a complete failure as the main purpose of setting up of refinery at Lanjigarh was the mining from nearby Niyamgiri Hills which was rejected by MOE&F, INDIA. Main factors that contributed to the failure of Vedanta Project are primarily indulging in unethical and illegal practices to kick-off the project and ignoring the key stakeholders of the project i.e. Dongria Kondhs who are the inhabitants of the Niyamgiri Hills (Proposed mining Lease Area). The only ray of hope for Vedanta to make this project a success in terms of hindsight is to abide by the existing Rules and Legislation, satisfying Key stake holders and then pursue the matter again with MOE&F, INDIA. 2 Table of Contents Serial number 1...

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...The time value of money: The underlying principle is that a dollar worth today is worth more than a dollar in the future simply because, we can invest that dollar and earn a return on it. When financial managers make key operating decisions, it is certainly important for them to worry about the time value of money simply to understand the worth of a financial decision made by them. It is actually a key metric for the discounted cash-flows model which allows organizations to declare the value of an investment today, based on the expected return from the investment in the future. Importance: The fact of the matter is that capital budgeting is directly linked to time value of money, by that I mean, any investment that the firm intends to make has strategic objectives behind it. All of the investments, not necessarily bring in positive cash-flow in year 0 or year 1. It may be years before the project begins yielding a positive cash-flow. To understand the business perspective of whether or not an investment is worth upfront and whether the cash-flows composes the appropriate vision and direction of the organization. Time value of money is also directly linked to the discount rate, the discount rate is the rate used to convert the future money into present value that is to determine what the value of $1 at the given time in the future is worth today. There are multiple factors that can affect the discount rate some of them are; the interest rate at which a company can borrow......

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...TIME VALUE OF MONEY Future Values and Compound Interest Interest is the price paid for the use of borrowed money You have $100 invested in a bank account. Suppose banks are currently paying an interest rate of 6 percent per year on deposits. So after a year, your account will earn interest of $6: Interest = interest rate × initial investment = .06 × $100 = $6 You start the year with $100 and you earn interest of $6, so the value of your investment will grow to $106 by the end of the year: Value of investment after 1 year = $100 + $6 = $106 Notice that the $100 invested grows by the factor (1 + .06) = 1.06. In general, for any interest rate r, the value of the investment at the end of 1 year is (1 + r) times the initial investment: Value after 1 year = initial investment × (1 + r) = $100 × (1.06) = $106 What if you leave this money in the bank for a second year? Your balance, now $106, will continue to earn interest of 6 percent. So Interest in Year 2 = .06 × $106 = $6.36 You start the second year with $106 on which you earn interest of $6.36. So by the end of the year the value of your account will grow to $106 + $6.36 = $112.36. In the first year your investment of $100 increases by a factor of 1.06 to $106; in the second year the $106 again increases by a factor of 1.06 to $112.36. Thus the initial $100 investment grows twice by a factor 1.06: Value of account after 2 years = $100 × 1.06 × 1.06 = $100 × (1.06)2 = $112.36 If you keep your money invested for......

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..."Time Value of Money and Annuity" Please respond to the following: • From the e-Activity, create a personal scenario that exemplifies the time value of money that includes the opportunity cost involved. According to Investopedia, the time value of money is the concept that money available today is worth more than the same amount of money in the future based on its earning potential up until the time the future amount is received. It is the potential of money to grow in value over time. The basic understanding is that a bird in hand is worth two in the bush. Money is worth more to the user when it is available immediately because money can be invested or earn interest. It applies to many contracts where delayed payment requires compensation for the time value of money. Suppose you were to receive $100 today or the same amount in one year. If you were to invest the $100 at an annual interest rate of 8%, it would increase by a factor of 1.08 to $108 in a year. If you were to divide the $100 by the same factor, the $100 received in a year would be worth $92.59 today. The time value of money, also referred to as the present discounted value, is clearly illustrated. The sooner you have money, the more worthy it is because you can put it to use. • Describe one (1) real-life example that shows the manner in which a person can use an annuity for retirement planning. An annuity is an insurance product that pays out income. You make an investment in the annuity, and it then......

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...Time Value of Money Terminology Terminology (AKA jargon) can be a major impediment to understanding the concepts of finance. Fortunately, the vocabulary of time value of money concepts is pretty straightforward. Here are the basic definitions that you will need to understand to get started (calculator key abbreviations are in parentheses where appropriate): Banker's Year A banker's year is 12 months, each of which contains 30 days. Therefore, there are 360 (not 365) days in a banker's year. This is a convention that goes back to the days when "calculator" and "computer" were job descriptions instead of electronic devices. Using 360 days for a year made calculations easier to do. This convention is still used today in some calculations such as the Bank Discount Rate that is used for discount (money market) securities. Compound Interest This refers to the situation where, in future periods, interest is earned not only on the original principal amount, but also on the previously earned interest. This is a very powerful concept that means money can grow at an exponential rate. Compounding Frequency This refers to how often interest is credited to the account. Once interest is credited it becomes, in effect, principal. Note that the compounding frequency and the frequency of cash flows are not always the same. In that case, the interest rate is typically adjusted to an effective rate that is of the same periodicity as the cash flows. For example, if we have quarterly cash......

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...Examine the concept of time value of money in relation to corporate managers. Propose two (2) methods in which time value of money can help corporate managers in general. The time valuation of money is the idea that money available now could be worth more than the same amount in the future, because that current money has the possibility of earning money in the future. Think if the expression, “It takes money to make money!” If you are guaranteed to have $100.00 now or $100.00 in 3 years, you would probably take the money now. However, the $100.00 you could have now can be utilized to make even more money in the future through investing. This concept is very important in the business world as corporations are always looking to increase investing opportunities that will prove profitable. Time valuation enables corporate managers to determine two major aspects of investments; How much to invest and the rate of return on that investment. A company needs to know how much they need for an initial investment and how much that investment will yield over a given period of time. This is also where compounded interest plays a major role, the more the interest is compounded the greater the yield. Examine the pros and cons of a sinking fund from the viewpoint of both a firm and its bondholders. Determine the fundamental manner in which this knowledge could be helpful to a financial manager. Provide a rationale for your response. Sinking funds are a method of repaying funds that......

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...Time value of money is the concept that shows the value of money which decreases day by day. There are so many factors which contribute to the time value of money such as inflation and increasing interest rates. The time value of money is sued to solve the problems which are related to the loans, mortgage, leases, saving and annuities. In the investment, time value of money is used to compare the alternatives of investment (Weil, 1990). The time value of money is based on the concept that money that anyone has today is worth more than the expectation which one will receive in the future. The money which is hold in the present is worth more because it can be invested and can earn the interest. For example, one can invest the dollar for one year at a 6% annual interest rate and accrue &1.06 at the end of the year. Then it can be said that the future value of the dollar is $1.06 given an interest rate and the present value of the $1.06 it is expected to receive in one year is only $1 (Drake, & Fabozzi, 2009). Interest rates and series of payments are included in the transactions. If the time value money is not used in past then there may be risk in the transaction. This helps in reaching at the comparable value of the money. that anyone has today is worth more than the expectation which one will receive in the future. The money which is hold in the present is worth more because it can be invested and can earn the interest. For example, one can invest the dollar......

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...Time Value of Money Managerial Finance II/FIN476 October 21, 2007 Time Value of Money The Time Value of Money (TVM) serves as a foundation for all other notions in finance. It influences business finance, consumer finance and government finance. Time Value of Money (TVM) results from the concept of interest. Time Value of Money (TVM) is an important concept within the financial management. It compares investment alternatives and then to solve problems, which involving loans, mortgages, leases, savings, and annuities. “In determining the future value, we measure the value of an amount that is allowed to grow at a given interest rate over a period of time” (Block & Hirt 2005). “Why would any rational person defer payment into the future when he or she could have the same amount of money now? For most of us, taking the money in the present is just plain instinctual. So at the most basic level, the time value of money demonstrates that, all things being equal, it is better to have money now rather than later” (Croome 2003). The concept of Time Value of Money (TVM) is that the dollar that company has today is worth more than the promise or expectation that the company will receive a dollar in the future. Money, which a company holds today, is worth more because the company can then invest it and earn interest. Therefore, a company should receive some compensation for foregoing spending. For instance, a company can invest their dollar for one year......

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...In this paper, Team C will discuss the concept of the time value of money and the importance of this concept in business. Also, we will provide a demonstration of the use of the formula used to calculate the present and future values of money to get the present value of $100 using different periods of time and interest rates. Time Value of Money In the world of business, it is essential to know what TVM represents and how it helps make better choices in how we spend our money. TVM is also known as Time Value of money which is a given amount of interest earned in a period of time (Wikipedia, 2011). Each member in group “C” will use 100 as our present value and we will choose an interest rate and period. Time value of money concept is used to determine present and future values of money. “The time value of money refers to the relationship between time, money, and the rate of interest.” (Letsche, 2011). The formula consist of four components FV = Future Value, PV = Present Value, i = the interestrate per period and n= the number of compounding periods (TeachMeFinance.com). In business, TVM is used to evaluate expected returns on investments and monitoring the company’s cash flow. “However, understanding the time value of money is also very important for you as an self-employed business person to make sure you are able to realize your spending, purchasing and retirement goals.” (Loughran, 2011). On a personal level, individuals can use TVM to calculate interest that will...

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