Free Essay

Explain Why the Dreyfus Affair Polarised France

In: Historical Events

Submitted By eaf166
Words 1741
Pages 7
The Dreyfus Affair that begun in 1894 and continued through till 1906 ultimately resulted in the separation of church and state in France. The accusation that Alfred Dreyfus committed treason by selling military secrets to Germany caused a divide within the French community by pitting the Dreyfusards against the anti-Dreyfusards. It was essentially a campaign against the Jewish community in France and how they were disloyal to France and her people. It was eventually found that the evidence that Dreyfus was convicted on was false and was a ploy by the army to bolster its support for court-martialling Dreyfus. It was this point that caused much of the contention and caused his wife to continue her crusade to have her husband freed from life imprisonment on Devil’s Island.

One of the main issues of contention is that the press was freed from censorship, which caused the press to exaggerate the initial story. It should also be noted that many of the news publication had anti Semitic feelings and were using the fact that Dreyfus was Jewish to bolster the anti Semitic agenda. Edouard Drumont used his publication La Libre Parole to pressure the army and hasten the trial of Dreyfus. It is clear that the press was using the Dreyfus trial to their advantage by circulating false information to get support and profit from the rapid selling of newspapers. As is seen today when a story is in the press that is going to trial the public are manipulated by what is in the newspapers as was the situation in 1894. The press used their power to manipulate the public into supporting the army, which did work for a time but after his wife Madame Dreyfus campaigned to have her husband retrialled the attitude of the public changed and the view of many. It was author Emile Zola that wrote a letter to the president of the republic accusing him of knowledge of Dreyfus’ innocence it was this that really turned the tide with the Dreyfusards.

The second court martial at Rennes resulted in the life imprisonment sentence lifted to 10 years of detention. Although this was an improvement on the original sentence the Dreyfusards did not feel this was good enough and continued to campaign for a complete overturn of all charges. Later that same month Dreyfus was pardoned but was not proclaimed innocent and was eventually allowed back into the army. It was not until 1995 that the French government actually proclaimed him innocent.

The Dreyfus Affair allowed the people of France to make up their own minds about the state of the military and the connection the military had with the state. It was the Dreyfus Affair that did cause the separation of church and state. Having the two combined was clearly causing problems within the populace as they were feeling that the church had total control. The people realised that the press was pushing the anti Semitic message and decided to stand against the church and demand an equal chance for all men. As Dreyfus was a Jew, it was the churches stance was that he was deliberately divulging military secrets to the enemy therefore undermining the churches and the government’s authority. Some say it was a clerical error that caused the entire problem. If this is true why did it take so long for the judicial process to free Dreyfus. Perhaps the answer is that many were anti Semitic and were looking for an excuse to alienate the Jewish community. The French had a chance with the Dreyfus Affair to show their character as a people, after the French Revolution in 1788- 1799 the French had almost become complacent and were used to having the church run almost everything. But when they could see that there was an innocent man under trial and the military was behind it not only to gather support for the army but also because they thought they could use him as a scapegoat for their anti Semitic agenda it made them think twice and once again go against the establishment. It wasn’t just the fact that the church was using Dreyfus’ Jewish heritage, it was that they were knowingly convicting a man of treason when the charges were false and there had been falsified documents to bolster their case against him. the French people could see the injustice and decided that it was time to change things once again. It was hard to do this when the majority of publications were using the non censorship rule and were spreading what ever rumours they could and forcing the hand of the army into sentencing Dreyfus as quickly as possible. As said earlier the public at first supported the claim that Dreyfus had committed treason and were jubilant that he had been sentenced to life on Devil’s Island, this should have been a cause for sorrow. The realisation came when Dreyfus’ wife campaigned to have a retrial. The Dreyfusards used the anti Semitic message to create solidarity and use that to fuel their fight to have the church separated from the state, which they were eventually successful.

In 1897 Emile Zola expressed that she felt that documents used to charge Dreyfus had been doctored, this was in fact found to be true and the culprit Lieutenant-Colonel Hubert Henry was found to have doctored the documents and he later committed suicide after it was made public that he had done so. When the public opinion began to shift in 1898 a second retrial was granted to Dreyfus but this was not good enough for the public who wanted the charges overturned, this is what started to turn the public towards unrest and obviously the French government did not want a violent repeat of the Revolution in 1788 and as a way to placate they granted Dreyfus a pardon but did not completely clear him of the charges. This was seen as an anticlerical move that would take the majority of power away from the church in order to begin the separation of church and state. It was the separation that the people wanted. But on the other hand the republic was using similar tactics as the church were using on Dreyfus. They made up fanciful stories to make the church look like it was in a worse condition that what it was. Therefore in order to get the separation of church and state the republic used the same tactics that got the church in trouble with the public in the first place. It seems a very messy affair. The republicans fought the church mainly because of their frustration at the church using their own prejudice against other religions and the lack of total victory in the case against Alfred Dreyfus. To make matters worse the Republicans believed that the Jesuits covered up the attempt by the military to doctor the documents that led to the arrest of Dreyfus and coupled with their hatred of Catholicism started the ball rolling for the doctrine of laicité, which was a central part of republican politics. It was essentially designed to end Catholic intolerance in a social forum. Therefore it is clear to me that doctrine was set in place to prevent the church from over stepping their bounds but in the same breath it did have some restrictions when it came to clerical law.

It always seems to come to an anti Semitic message when it comes to the Dreyfus Affair the imagery that was used in local papers in France portrays a very anti Semitic message. This helped the republic gather support for separation of state and church. One paper referred to Dreyfus as a modern day Judas as this a great insult in Catholicism the Jewish community could plainly see that the church was having a major go at them this angered the Republicans who were trying to fight for a more equal way at looking at other religions. But there was cartoonist on the Republican side doing the same damage to the church with damaging and derogatory. Therefore once again it seems like it was tit for tat between the two groups.

Therefore I would come to the conclusion that it was the anti Semitic attitudes of the church and military that really caused the beginnings of the unrest around the Dreyfus Affair and the continuing fight to separate the church from the state. The separation of church and state is what distinguished France from the rest of Europe. At that time most European societies still had the church ruling the state it was not separate but when France did this it gave a chance for other religions to express religious freedoms. This is what I se polarised France in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Bibliography

Anonymous, ‘The Dreyfus Affair: A Scandal That Rocked France’, USA Today, Sep 1988, no. 117, iss. 2520, pp. 66-71

Birnbaum, Pierre,’French Jewish Sociologists between Reason and Faith: The Impact of the Dreyfus Affair’, Jewish Social Studies, New Series, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Autumn, 1995), pp. 1-35

Encyclopaedia Britannica online http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/171538/Dreyfus-affair Harris, Ruth, ‘The Assumptionists and the Dreyfus Affair, Past & Present’, No.194, February 2007, pp. 175-211

Hyman, Paula, ‘The Dreyfus Affair: The Visual and the Historical’, The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 61, No. 1 (Mar., 1989), pp. 88-109

Wagner, Monique, “From Gaul to De Gaulle An outline of French Civilization’, Peter Land publishing, 2010, Revised Edition pp177-178 (Background reading)

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. Encyclopaedia Britannica online http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/171538/Dreyfus-affair [ 2 ]. Birnbaum, P.’French Jewish Sociologists between Reason and Faith: The Impact of the Dreyfus Affair’. Jewish Social Studies. New Series. Vol. 2. No. 1 (Autumn, 1995). P. 1
[ 3 ]. ibid. pp2-3
[ 4 ]. Birnbaum, P.’French Jewish Sociologists between Reason and Faith: The Impact of the Dreyfus Affair’. Jewish Social Studies. New Series. Vol. 2. No. 1 (Autumn, 1995). p5
[ 5 ]. ibid, pp5-6
[ 6 ]. Harris, R. ‘The Assumptionists and the Dreyfus Affair, Past & Present’. No.194. February 2007.p178
[ 7 ]. ibid, pp179-180
[ 8 ]. Harris, R. ‘The Assumptionists and the Dreyfus Affair, Past & Present’. No.194. February 2007.p179
[ 9 ]. ibid. p178
[ 10 ]. Hyman, P. ‘The Dreyfus Affair: The Visual and the Historical’. The Journal of Modern History.Vol. 61. No. 1 (Mar., 1989). pp. 88-109
[ 11 ]. ibid. p97
[ 12 ]. ibid. p100…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

J'Accuse, Zola and the Dreyfus Affair

... a Jewish artillery officer in the French army named Captain Alfred Dreyfus was arrested and charged with supplying the German Embassy in Paris with military secrets. After a private trial in which only the military were involved Dreyfus was convicted of treason and was consequently imprisoned on Devil’s Island off the coast of French Guyana. From the outset the case was full of ambiguities and unanswered questions. The evidence used to convict Dreyfus was dubious and the lack of concrete evidence provoked his brother Mathieu to start a campaign to prove Alfred’s innocence. The army had wanted to keep the trial out of the public sphere and deal with it as swiftly as possible but Mathieu Dreyfus ensured that people were made aware of his brother’s plight, even though the public were not always on his side. With the start of Mathieu’s campaign came the involvement of the daily press, and this meant that the Dreyfus case could no longer be kept behind closed doors. Articles informing of the arrest of an army officer charged with treason appeared in the press soon after the court case, but information was incomplete and the newspapers did not know who or what exactly was involved. The matter properly came to the public’s attention on the 31st of October in an evening issue of Le Soir, which identified the perpetrator as Alfred Dreyfus and the following day the press was saturated with articles on the affair. Most notably, on the 1st November 1984 the main headline in La......

Words: 1852 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Explain Why Police Have Lots of Discretion with Juveniles

...Explain why police have lots of discretion with juveniles? give examples! Introduction In recent years there has been growing concern about the incidence and seriousness of juvenile offending. This concern has not been unwarranted. Statistics gathered for the Sourcebook of Criminal Justice indicated a significant increase in the number of juvenile arrests, from year to year, during the late 1980’s and throughout the early 1990’s. One snapshot, in 1996, revealed that the number of juvenile arrests that year represented a 35 percent increase over 1987 while arrests overall had increased only 13 percent over the same time period (Sourcebook, 1997). The percent increase in juvenile arrests for ‘violent offenses’ was even greater over the same time period (see Worden and Myers (1999) “Police Encounters with Juvenile Suspects” report submitted to the National Research Council’s Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control). In addition, media portrayals of juvenile crime as increasing in frequency and seriousness, while not entirely accurate, affect public sentiment about juvenile troublemakers and about what might constitute appropriate responses from the juvenile justice system. Despite evidence of a decline in the number of juvenile arrests as well as evidence of an overall decline in juvenile crime since the mid 1990’s (Lynch 2002), public and political concern about juvenile offending remains high. Evidence of this sentiment is noted by the nationwide......

Words: 568 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Explain Why Britain Signed the Anglo-Germany Agreement

...Explain why Britain signed the anglo-Germany trade agreement One immediate reason for why Britain signed the naval treaty as it served as a warning to France against the pursuit of blatant policies of encirclement aimed at Germany made evident after signing the franco-russian treaty of mutual assistance in1935 , . Britain feared that these policies would encourage rather than avert war. And so signed the anglo-german trade treaty as a way of maintaining and – Germany. Moreover, a key reason for why Britain signed the Anglo Germany naval agreement was because of British self interest once Hitler came into power he expressed a desire for a peaceful understanding with Britain, and even referred to Britain as a potential ally, Britain took advantage of the German willingness to agree to a naval treaty which allowed for a German navy to be 35% the size of the Royal Navy, as it acted in British self interest this was because the British government believed a German navy of this strength would not be a threat to Britain as they was able to maintain their naval superiority twice as great as in 1914. Furthermore, it can be said that it was the far east situation which was the main factor pushing the British government towards a naval agreement with Germany, particularly since Japan had withdrawn from the Washington and London naval treaties. By signing the Anglo German trade agreement Britain not only protected their naval superiorty against germany. But also......

Words: 394 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

France Period

...HISTORY OF FRANCE • 13th century Spreading the weight of vaults over a series of ribs, columns, and pilasters, Gothic architecture allows the dissolution of the wall. Windows in cathedrals and churches are filled with stained glass; the shimmering colored light transfigures the vast interiors. Depicting biblical stories, scenes from the lives of the saints, or single figures, stained-glass windows complement the sculptures on the exterior and the rites and ceremonies observed within. • 1209 The Albigensian Crusade is launched by Pope Innocent III with the help of Cistercian monks. While the original spark for this war springs from papal desire to extinguish the growing problem of heresy in the region surrounding Toulouse, the political struggle between the independent southern territories and lords from northern France, joined after 1226 by Louis VIII, plays itself out in a war. In 1229, Count Raymond VII of Toulouse, who had been Louis VIII's main adversary, is compelled to cede territory to the king's control. • ca. 1210–1250 Artists at Chartres install an elaborate and extensive program of stained-glass windows in the cathedral under construction there. In addition to religious and historical subjects, the intensely colored windows depict numerous scenes of tradespeople at work, including bakers, furriers, wheelwrights, and weavers. These tradespeople were likely contributors—through hefty taxes—to the construction of the church. • 1226 Louis IX (d. 1270),......

Words: 10574 - Pages: 43

Premium Essay

Explain Why Cohabitation Has Increased

...Explain why cohabitation has increased in the UK (20) Cohabitation is when two unmarried people in a romantic relationship live together, they may also have children. Cohabitation is profoundly reshaping family life, this is because of the sharp increased in the UK since the 1960s, this is for many different reasons some of these include; the change in society’s culture and morals, birth controls becoming available, the drop of number of people getting married. The increase in duel working relationships and also the increase in abortion and women working. Cohabitation has increased because of the change of society’s norms and values, this means what was once not acceptable is now acceptable, for example in the 1950’s women were not allowed to ‘show a lot of skin’ on dates, and had to be courted by men, this was acceptable in society. However women now regularly go out ‘showing a lot of skin’ and regularly have one night stands, this is because it is accepted into society’s every day life. This shows society’s become more laid back as time goes on; this courses both men and women to take a more laid back approach when it comes to marriage and romance. Cohabitation has also increased due to birth control becoming available in the 1960s. This is because couples no longer had to waited to get married before entering into a sexual relationships, this also meant couple didn’t have to worry about the consequences of unprotected sex. This is also more socially acceptable now a day......

Words: 364 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Explain Why the Conservatives Lost the 1906 General Election

...Explain why the conservatives lost the 1906 General Election There are three main reasons the conservatives lost the 1906 General Election, one of the main reasons was the tariff reform. The Tariff Reform was a pressure group setup in 1903 to protest against unfair foreign imports to protect British industry from foreign competition. It was launched by Joseph Chamberlain; he wanted to reintroduce tariffs, with a lower level tariff for goods coming into Britain from the empire than for goods imported from non-empire countries. This policy was knows as imperial protectionism. Chamberlain argued, this would protect British jobs, help pay for social reforms and strengthen Britain’s position in the world be integrating the empire into an effective unit. At this time Balfour was the conservative prime minister and he was a very weak leader with not very many political skills he was also a weak leader, at this time he did not understand the working men’s reaction to the tariff and he allowed Joseph Chamberlain to make the Tariff Reform a key unionist policy from 1903 onwards this is showing us he could not control Joseph Chamberlain showing he was a weak and unsuitable leader. The Tariff Reform did damage the conservatives as there was a split in the party with people moving over to the liberals as the middle class and working class feared dearer foods and falling in living standards. The liberals voted for free trade so did disagree with the Tariff Reforms, Winston Churchill......

Words: 632 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Explain Why Bismarck Introduced the Anti-Socialist Laws

...Explain why the anti-socialist law was introduced in Germany in 1878 (12 marks) Bismarck introduced the anti-socialist laws due to a number of factors all stemming from his underlying fear of the threat of socialism and the pragmatic nature in which he found the opportunity to exploit socialism and introduce the new laws swaying the public opinion away from socialism. One reason why Bismarck introduced the anti-socialist laws in 1878 was due to socialism being a political and social threat to the unity of the German empire and the position of the German classes e.g. the Junker class. Ever since the early 1870’s Bismarck had felt a growing alarm at the rise of socialism within Germany and was disturbed by the progress made by the socialists in the Reichstag elections with the SPD winning half a million votes and 12 seats in 1877. He knew that the SPD would impose a tremendous threat to his aim of withholding power in the hands of aristocracy and of course himself. Beside other statesmen after the Paris Commune, Bismarck dreaded one last grasp of the socialist movement on German politics. It would have given too much power to the people. Furthermore another reason why Bismarck introduced the anti-socialistic laws was because the opportunity was provided to him with the two assassination attempts on the Kaiser in 1878. Bismarck drew no clear distinction between anarchy and socialism and therefore it is clear as to why the SPD lost support. The public alarm at the......

Words: 515 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

A Peaceful Woman Explains Why She Carries a Gun

...A Peaceful Woman Explains Why She Carries A Gun. Linda Hasselstrom is a peaceful woman but feels safer when she is carrying a pistol. When she travelled alone she found herself and many women nearby in some fearful and dangerous situations. She believes that getting a gun changes the balance of power and provides a measure of safety. So due some events in the past she has been convinced to own a pistol so her reasons for getting a gun is fear, vulnerability and her main reason is getting harassed. She is scared for her safety especially when travelling alone because there was a woman on a street she lived by, her car had a flat tire so she called for help on the CB radio only for her cry for help to be responded by a man who left her raped and beaten. There was also a time when she got home from a teaching class only to find tire marks in her yard, garbage in her driveway and an empty gas tank just the a light shone from inside her house which made her take caution before entering her house. After that day she decided to take martial art training with her husband but gave up after considering the possibility of her winning against an attacker and seeing a news article where well-trained female martial artists still got raped and beaten. Vulnerability, she feels defenceless and powerless. She saw a man with a shotgun walking through a field below her house she tried to get him to leave so she asked......

Words: 599 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Explain Why There Were Two Revolutions in Russia

...Explain why there were two revolutions in 1917? In Russia in 1917 there were two revolutions which took place. The first revolution was in February 1917 and the second in October 1917. There were many factors that led up to the first revolution as people were not satisfied with how the country was run. The people wanted to get rid of the Tsar and Tsarina and this had a large impact leading towards the first revolution. The second revolution took place because the Provisional Government (PG) was weak and did not stick to their promises. The reason for the February revolution was because the majority of Russian people were extremely unhappy. Tsar Nicholas II was an autocrat, this meant that he had all the power and made all of the country’s decisions. The Tsar also used the Okhrana (the secret police) to help him find out and deal with any opposition. The most important reason for the February 1917 revolutions was that the peasants were unhappy. The peasants in Russia made up 85% of the population and they were very poor. This is partly to do with the fact that they had to do subsistence farming. This meant that they only produced enough food for themselves and had little or nothing left over to sell, they had a very basic diet and many were left starving. The peasants had a very low life expectancy of just 40 years old as many died from typhus and diphtheria. The peasants hated aristocracy as they lived extravagant lifestyles whilst they were suffering. Another reason...

Words: 286 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Explain Why the Monasteries Were Dissolved During the Reign of Henry Viii

...“Explain why the monasteries were dissolved during the reign of Henry VIII (June’ 12)” There were many factors to why the monasteries were dissolved during the reign of Henry VIII ranging from personal needs to governments need for the money. One of the reasons why the monasteries were dissolved during the reign of Henry VIII was because he needed the money to finance his army. This was a precaution in the event of an invasion by the Catholics power in Europe. Any attack was considered war and it was likely that Spain and France would join forces so to prevent this Henry had dissolved the monasteries to take the money to build a stronger army with it. Also Henry didn’t have any money as he used it previously against France if he had not done this he would have probably not dissolute the monasteries. Another reason why Henry had dissolved the monasteries during his reign was because he wanted to assert his place in power. This idea ensured that no one remained in doubt that Henry was the one who was in charge of England. Furthermore, the most loyal to the Pope were usually in the monasteries. This had removed the threat of clerical allegiance. An additional reason that the monasteries were dissolved in Henry the VIII reign was because to secure the loyalty with the nobles. He did this by taking the land he ‘acquired’ by dissolving the monasteries. Henry knew when the land was granted or purchased the nobles would resist to attempt to restore the Papal authority as...

Words: 470 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Explain Why Managers Are Important to Organizations

...Explain why managers are important to organizations Why are managers important? * Organizations need their managerial skills and abilities more than ever in these uncertain, complex and chaotic times. * Managerial skills and abilities are critical in getting things done. * The quality of the employee/supervisor relationship is the most important variable in productivity and loyalty. Tell who managers are and where they work Who are manager? * Someone who coordinates and oversee the work of other people so that organization goals can be accomplished. * First – line Manager – Individuals who manage the work of non – managerial employees. * Middle Managers – Individuals who manage the work of first – line managers. * Top Managers – Individuals who are responsible for making organization – wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that effect the entire organization. Describe the functions of managers Where do managers work? * Organization – A deliberate arrangement of people assembled to accomplish some specific purpose (that individuals independently could not accomplish alone). * Common characteristics of organization: * Have a distinct purpose (goal) * Are composed of people * Have a deliberate structure What do managers do? * Management involves coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively. * Efficiency is doing things right......

Words: 565 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Explain Why Foreign Aid Is Sometimes Ineffective

...Explain why foreign aid is sometimes ineffective The international aid doctrine has been one of the main economic components in the foreign policy jigsaw since the end of the Second World War as it has been widely used according to the evolution of geopolitical matters and ‘development thinking’. According to the OECD, foreign aid usually takes the form of a grant or a loan made to a developing country by the ‘official sector’ of a donor country in order to ensure economic growth as well as stable development for the recipient country (Kanbur, 2006). Despite the major role played by international aid during the second half of the 20th century, it has been strongly criticised and coined as infective in many cases due to the negative externalities that it sometimes creates. Therefore, in this essay, we will argue that there are both theoretical and empirical arguments explaining why foreign aid is not always successful. Indeed, we will first look at the economic theory behind these transfers, looking at how conditional and unconditional transfers can often prove to have adverse effects. Secondly, we will analyse empirical evidence, such as aid dependency or corruption which also play an active role in explaining why aid is sometimes rendered ineffective. When looking at foreign aid transfers in a purely theoretical way, one of the main reasons for explaining why it is sometimes ineffective is that an inflow can change domestic production patterns towards a distorted sector...

Words: 1587 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Antisemitism and Catholic Colonial Algeria in the Time of Dreyfus

...1894 to 1899, Captain Albert Dreyfus, an Alsatian Jewish artillery officer, languished in prison on Devil's Island after the French Army General Staff wrongfully convicted him of treason and espionage. The campaign for his release, organized by his family and supporters, along with revelations of an army cover-up, saw the so-called “Dreyfus Affair” become the major focal point of French public discourse at the turn of the century. Partisan camps of “Dreyfusards” and “anti-Dreyfusards” waged a war of words against each other as they debated Dreyfus' innocence and, implicitly, what it meant to be French in the Third Republic. Marked by an effusion of antisemitic vitriol, this debate has been characterized by Frederick Brown as a polarizing battle between two rival visions of France.[1] This battle at times extended to the streets, as it did in response to the publication of Émile Zola's 1898 “J'accuse.” Zola's open letter indicted the Army General Staff for antisemitism and cover-up, and prompted reactionary riots across France, the most violent of which occurred in French colonial Algiers. There, the burning of Zola in effigy sparked a riot in which 158 shops were destroyed, six Jews were assaulted (two fatally), and 9 rioters, 47 police, and a large but unknown number of Jews were seriously injured.[2] As the site of some of the only murderous violence during the Affair, colonial Algeria deserves particular attention. Examining the Dreyfus Affair from the perspective of......

Words: 11536 - Pages: 47

Premium Essay

Explain Why There Was No Successor to Lenin

...Explain why there was no successor to Lenin in 1924? (12 marks) Lenin's concerns over who was to replace him were largely due to ego, he thought that noone was capable of seeing Russia's problems, or the "correct" Marxist solution as clearly as he could. Lenin's ego was the main reason why no one candidate emerged whilst he was alive. He was concerned about all the the prospective candidates, seeing such flaws in their characters that he thought none of them were suitable for the position. He outlined all of his concerns in his testament. In many ways he was right, Bolshevism was, in reality, Lenin's project, anyone who disagreed with him was either thrown out of the party, branded a Menshevik, or worse. ! Lenin's stroke in 1922, the senior Bolsheviks could not agree on an individual who had After the intellectual and moral authority to replace Lenin, so they compromised, and picked three leaders - Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev to rule until he either got better or died. This was made official once Lenin died. ! arguments with fMarxists went back to his early days in exile, when he disagreed with His the founders of the Russia Social Democratic Labour Party Georgi Plekhanov and Pavel Aksel'rod, this disagreement led him to form his own faction of people who followed his ideas - the Bolsheviks. ! and policy were divided among party members at all levels.The issue was the Ideology survival of the Revolution and thus,by extension,the party......

Words: 716 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Dreyfus Model

...The Dreyfus Model Introduction: Dreyfus brothers have stated a theory which depicts the stages of an individual's progression in achieving professional expertise. They have been broken down into a series of five stages: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. The phenomenological model states that an expertise in any skill and medical skill, in particular, cannot be captured by the rule-based expert system. It argues that the expertise is said to be an unconscious and automatic performance which cannot be programmed. Thus, the progression is explained to be a gradual transition from a strict rule adherence to an intuitive mode of judgement. The authur assumes that intuition arises though expertise. Thus an expert system would not be able to rise over the level of competence. Dreyfus emphasises on experience (non-analytical) over rules(analytical). The main theme revolves around the following five stages: The Novice: Dreyfus Model explains that a novice should follow memorise and follow rules without feeling any responsibility of judgement or perception. He would need to be monitored either by self-observation or through instructional feedback. This would help the novice concentrate and internalise the rules and procedures. Dreyfus believes that the task environment is decomposed into context-free features so that a beginner can easily follow the instructions without actually knowing the desired skill. In this stage the beginner is merely following......

Words: 890 - Pages: 4

Candy Boy | 1x92 Dragon Ball Super | Nu Kopen