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Fundamentalism Describes People or Groups That Defend Tradition and Believe in the Literal Truth of Sacred Texts

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Fundamentalism describes people or groups that defend tradition and believe in the literal truth of sacred texts, they seek to return back to basics and do not like change. Giddens argues that fundamentalism has grown in reaction to globalisation and people are joining fundamentalist movements because in today’s society individuals are constantly faced with choice, uncertainty and risk. Fundamentalism offers individuals security and avoids any rational answers and solely turns to faith based ones. Although fundamentalists hate modernity they contradict themselves as they use modern methods to try get across their point to large audiences. For example they have television programmes this is known as televangelism and shows that they are crafty! Televangelism is a result of globalisation as new technology and and interconnectivity has made it possible for different beliefs from all cultures to get across to wide audiences. This could be a possible factor for church attendance figures dropping as believers do not need to go to chruch to follow their religon; they are now able to do it at home.
Haynes however argues that fundamentalism is not caused by globalisation; He uses the Iran revolution as an example. Due to the country becoming Westernised, conflict in Iran increased, as did violence and oppression. The revolution began and Islamic fundamentalists gained power through the use of religion; this is known as "Cultural Defence". This example shows Fundamentalism in a positive way when opposing globalisation. The community unites through religion (traditional values) in order to protect the country from an external force; They do not want their national identity to be harmed.

This suggests that the relationship between globalisation and religion differs depending on the country. In the UK its clear that people have come away from traditional religion causing…...

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