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Gke1 Task 3

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A. Discuss the rise of imperialism or colonialism in one area of the world from the following list:
• South America
• North America
• Central America
• India
• Southeast Asia
• Africa
1. Explain how the indigenous people of the area discussed in part A reacted (via protest, rebellion, accommodation, etc.) to imperialism or colonialism.

The rise of imperialism and colonization in India was met with ambivalence by the people. By the 1750's, Britain had established viable relations with India through the East India Trading Company. (Soomo, India and the Indepedence movement, 2013). Items traded were cotton, teas, pepper, and indigo. India was important to Britain for, at that time, it was Britain's only foothold into the East due to growing competition from the Dutch. The EITC governed large areas of India, using private armies and British troops. (Soomo, India and the Indepedence movement, 2013). India was a popular "conquer" for England and held a certain mysticism and romantic allure due to its beautiful adornments, culture, and language. It became known as the "Jewel of the Crown". (Soomo, Bridging World History episode 121: Compexities of Colonialism: Refashioning Colonial Identities, 2013). Trading posts were established with approval from the Indian people. In fact, due to outside conflicts, lack of communication between their own Indian rulers, and inconsistencies within their government, the EITC quickly moved into India's administration without protest from the people. (Soomo, Bridging World History episode 121: Compexities of Colonialism: Refashioning Colonial Identities, 2013) At first, this symbiotic relation benefitted both sides, however soon the Indian culture became threatened and public opinion soon soured. The success in India was dependent on the cooperation of both parties and two different movements began affecting this. First, some of the British believed in embracing the customs of India and accommodating the Indian culture by adopting their language, customs, and garb. These British honored and respected their differences and showed respect for the nation that they lived in. At the same time, there were some Indians who chose to adopt the ways of the English, and they learned the language, dressed in western clothes, and adopted British customs and, at times, the Christian faith. On the other hand, there were British who believed themselves superior to the Indians and who refused to acknowledge their culture. In fact, these British believed the Indians needed to be taught and attempted to impose British culture, clothes, customs, and religion on the Indian people.
The response to this by the Indians was divided. Many accommodated the Europeans so that they may gain status. Clothing was used among the natives to gain rank with the English. (Soomo, India and the Indepedence movement, 2013) These Indians adapted by fitting into the mold, yet they hid away their true customs as a way to succeed with the British. Many Indians refused to yield to the Europeans. These natives reacted by dressing only in Indian garb, taking pride in embracing their culture and refused to be told they were inferior to the westerners. Many movements came into effect after this, one being the "Swadeshi" clothing. Swadeshi, meaning "of our own country" was similar to our nation's "buy America" movement. It was a boycott of all European clothing and their culture, and by 1908 sales of British commodities were down by 21% (Soomo, India and the Indepedence movement, 2013).

B. Describe the causes and goals of one violent and one nonviolent revolution from the following lists:
Violent revolutions
• Russian Revolution of 1917
• American Revolution
Nonviolent revolutions
• Orange Revolution in Ukraine
• Indian Independence Movement
1. Discuss the strategies (i.e., policies, actions, and tactics) of the two revolutions that you discussed in part B.
One non violent revolution that was successful, was the Indian Independence movement. This movement took over one hundred years to accomplish, but the effects were long lasting. When the British took over rule of India, many of the natives accommodated the British by adopting their clothing, culture, and language. In return, many British honored the Indian culture by doing the same and adopting Indian culture and clothing. (Soomo, India and the Indepedence movement, 2013). However, there were many British believed that the Indian culture was primitive and below them. This group set out to impose British culture on the Indians, even going so far as to attempt conversion to western religion. (Soomo, Bridging World History episode 121: Compexities of Colonialism: Refashioning Colonial Identities, 2013) This imposition is what spurred revolution in India.
The first acts of civil disobedience that the Indian people attempted, was the "Swadeshi" clothing movement. This was similar to our nation's "buy America" movement and meant to buy only Indian goods. (Soomo, India and the Indepedence movement, 2013). This signified a commitment of the Indian people to take pride in their culture and goods. Followers of this movement, led by Ghandi, went as far as burning European clothing. Ghandi's goal was to lead his people to become active participants in their government, and, some day lead them to self-governess. Several other Indian leaders came forward including Swami Saraswati's movement to instill pride and community awareness in the people, and Raja Ram Mohen Samaj's fight to end ignorance, dowries, and illiteracy. (Sharma, 2010). King George V, to his credit, responded in a similarly nonviolent way. He himself travelled to India in 1911 and reversed the ill-fated attempt to partition India into two nations. He then built a new capital called New Dehli. He also created more seats in the legislature to be filled only by Indians. The imposition on India, however could not be ignored by its people. When ammunition was supplied to the Indians, that had been dipped in animal fat, the Indian Infantrymen refused to use the ammunition. This was known as the mutiny of Meerut and once again consisted of civil disobedience with no violence. Much of India's success at independence was due to Mohatma Gandhi. Gandhi fought nonviolently and through civil disobedience. Gandhi fought to restore India rule within the government and by 1920, he had succeeded in reorganizing congress. Gandhi believed that the battle for independence must be fought peacefully because the British were, in fact, people too. (Sharma, 2010). In 1947, India became an independent nation.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, many of the Russian people became disillusioned with their Czars. Russia was ruled by an autocracy, where, what the Czar said was irrefutable. (Soomo, The Russian Revolution, 2013). Discontent grew under the rule of Nicholas II and his very unpopular German wife. Nicholas was blind to the hardships his people were enduring and had a habit of involving Russia in very unpopular military conflicts that often left the Russians defeated and demoralized. Due to the prolonged military needs, many companies stopped producing goods for the people and began producing military products in an attempt to make a fast buck. (Wood, 1993). This soon led the people to rise violently against their Czar. In February of 1917, the first Provisional Government overthrew the Czar and the Duma. (Wood, 1993).
Even though the Provisional Government took control, it would be a bloody long battle for control. The Czar and his wife and daughters would be massacred one year late to prevent any threats of retaking the throne. Another organization, the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies fought for control of Russia also. The Provisional government seemed to represent the middle and upper class citizens and this kept their interest in war alive. After one world war, WWII was thrust upon the Russian people. To a war weary nation, this would eventually be the downfall of the Provisional government. (Wood, 1993). The people rioted, thousands taking to the streets in protest against the Provisional government. (Wood, 1993). Arrest warrants went out against Lenin and other leaders The peasantry, while at first not involved in the revolution, tired of poverty and took the change in government as an opportunity to seize control of land that was previously protected. Desertions from the military became common as people refused to fight any offensive wars. (Wood, 1993). With a failed coup from within the Provisional government, the Bolshiviks and Lenin acted and on October 25, 1917, the Soviet party overthrew the Provisional government.
Johnson, R. (2003). British Imperialism.
Sharma, S. (2010). Civil Rights Movement. Sawastik Publishers and Distributors.
Slade, E. (Director). Bridging World History episode 121: Compexities of Colonialism: Refashioning Colonial Identities [Motion Picture].
Soomo. (2013). India and the Indepedence movement.
Soomo. (2013). The Russian Revolution.
Wood, A. (1993). Origins of the Russian Revolution. Routledge.…...

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