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Millennium Health Goals

INTRODUCTION
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) placed health at the center of development. This represents the dedication by governments globally to cut hunger, reduce poverty, solve poor health, and deal with the lack of education among others. Of the eight millennium development goals, three of these goals are directly related to health. Without significant commitments and dedication from rich and developing nations, these goals will never be met. This paper will capture issues related to MDGs realization especially the realization of reduced child mortality rate in my community in Massachusetts.
Achieved MDGs
According to World Health Organization (WHO) (2013) several MDG targets have been achieved while others are close to reach. For instance, the fraction of individuals who live in abject poverty has been halved (World Bank 2014). The World Bank notes that the percentage of individuals who subsist on resource below $ 1.25 each day dropped from 47% in the year 1990 to 22% in the year 2010 (Gwatkin,2002 ). In addition two billion people gained access to clean drinking water. Health wise, remarkable gains have been achieved in the fight against tuberculosis and malaria. This is good news to the health sector. Between the year 2000 and 2010 the mortality rates from malaria fell considerably by more than 25%. 1.1 million deaths related to malaria were averted. Between the year 1995 and 2011 a total number of 51 million patients suffering from tuberculosis were successfully treated. This treatment saved 20 million lives (Rechel, Shapo & McKee, 2002). These examples show that some MDGs are almost achieved since the year 2015 is fast approaching. A lot is also left to be done to improve heath and achieve the Millennium health goals.
Millennium health goals
According to FAO and WHO, health related millennium goals are: one- eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; goal four -reduce child mortality; goal five - improve maternal health; and goal six -combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases (WHO, 2013). Others include goal seven-ensuring a sustainable environment and finally goal eight which aims to develop a global partnership for development (WHO, 2013).
Reducing child mortality
In general, reducing child mortality rates by two thirds before the year 2015 is the furthest (Bryce, Black, & Victoria 2013). This is because it is the most complex involving cultural and economic factors. Caribbean, Europe, central Asia, Latin America, North Africa and some countries in the Mediterranean region are on the track reducing the child mortality rates. Some countries are also dragging behind on this fight. They include those in South-East Asia and sub –Saharan Africa. With the rate of progress so far, it is difficult to achieve this goal until the second half of the next century. Lack of this progress can be attributed to mother to child HIV transmission but mostly it is due to underinvestment (Sen, 2001). Most of these governments invest less in reducing malnutrition, and mortality caused by diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, vaccine-preventable diseases and prenatal diseases.
Reducing child mortality is so important to a nation. Child survival is still so low despite the progress in recent decades. Every year, the world loses over 10 million infants and children to preventable causes. For example, the number of newborns who succumbed in the year 2002 was twice the number of adults deaths from malaria and tuberculosis combined.

Why reducing child mortality is important to a nation
Children are at the highest risk of dying within 28 days from their birth. Effective neonatal period is required to reduce these deaths. It is important to reduce child mortality because child mortality leads to loss of lives and cause grief among patients reducing population and wastage of resources. Loss of life drags the economy back and also denies these newborns right to live which is a universal right for every human, adult or a child.
Reducing child mortality is a goal that each person in our society should have in mind (Bryce, Black, & Victoria 2013). For example, in my local community in Massachusetts the infant mortality rate declined within 1995 to 2000. From 2000 to 2005 was a period of stagnation and then has declined since then. (Mathews, MacDorman & Division of Vital Statistics, 2013). According to National Vital Statistics Reports (2013), in the year 2009 infant mortality rate were 6.9 deaths per 1000 live births. This was 3% lower than the 6.61 in the year 2008. Also, it was 7% lower than the rate in 2005 (6.86) (Mathews, MacDorman & Division of Vital Statistics, 2013). Some groups for instance declined non-Hispanic black (9%) and non-Hispanic white (7%) women (Mathews, MacDorman. & Division of Vital Statistics, 2013).
Low cost interventions
In order to reduce child mortality rate some cheap methods can be employed. They include breastfeeding; insecticides medicated materials, zinc and vitamin A supplements, complementary feeding, immunization and improved delivery procedures (Andrus et al, 2008). In treatment antibiotics for pneumonia, rehydration therapy, anti-malarias and newborn resuscitation can go a long way to reduce child mortality. In addition mothers can avoid lifestyles such as smoking and drinking which pose a danger to healthy births. Attending prenatal care and immunization against diseases such as tetanus can also reduce child mortality.
Child mortality and community
In my community, reducing child mortality is so important. Societies that do not care for newborns do not value life. Life should be embraced and preserved at all cost. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa should do more to increase the probability of children survival beyond five years. According to World Health Organization (WHO) we can use the following strategies to reduce child mortality and impact positively to health in our communities: Cause of death | Risk factors | Prevention | Treatment | Pneumonia | Malnutrition Underweight birthsNon breastfed infants Overcrowding | Vaccination Enough nutrition Cutting pollution | Good health careAntibiotics Oxygen for the sick | Diarrhea | Poor breastfed childrenUnsafe water and foodMalnutrition Poor hygiene | Exclusive breastfeedingSafe food and water Vaccination and adequate nutrition Good sanitation and hygiene | ORS salts Zinc supplements |

Nursing role in reducing child mortality rates
Nursing has a vital role in reducing child mortality. One way to reduce mortality is by mothers beginning to nurse children within one hour of birth. This breastfeeding within one hour reduces mortality rates by incredibly 60% (Rechel, Shapo & McKee, 2002). This is because most infants do not make it beyond one month of birth. Colostrum, which is mother’s milk one hour after birth, is so important because it has hundreds of antibodies protecting the infant from diseases. Exclusive breastfeeding also reduces child mortality by incredible 22% (Rechel, Shapo & McKee, 2002).
Conclusion
Most of the MDGs will not be achieved unless efforts are increased by all the stakeholders. With the current trend sub-Sahara, will not reduce child mortality rates. The MDGs is one area that we can hold our governments accountable. Developed countries must also play their part. These nations should start new collaborations to foster achievements of these goals.

References
Andrus,K. J. et al (2008). Immunization and the Millennium Development Goals: Progress and Challenges in Latin America and the Caribbean. Health Affairs 27(2) 487-493
Bryce, J., Black, R. E., & Victoria C. G. (2013). Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5: progress and challenges. BMC Medicine 11(225). 1-4. Gwatkin D. (2002).Who would gain most from efforts to reach the Millennium Development Goals for health?An inquiry into the possibility of progress that fails to reach the poor. Washington DC: World Bank Press.
Mathews, T. J. , MacDorman M. R. & Division of Vital Statistics. (2013). Infant Mortality Statistics From the 2009 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports, 61(8) p1-28.
Rechel B, Shapo L, McKee M. (2002). Appropriate health related Millennium Development Goals for the Europe and Central Asia Region: impacts and policy implications. Washington DC: World Bank Press.
Sen, A. (2001). Development as freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
World Bank. (2014). World Bank Presents Views on Post-2015 Framework for MDGs. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2014/03/13/world-bank-presents-views-on-post-2015-framework-for-mdgs
World Health Organization. (2013). Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Retrieve from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs290/en/…...

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