Free Essay

Hotel Paris Case

In: Business and Management

Submitted By mdhayes
Words 2507
Pages 11
Chapter 1
What is Statistics?

True/False

1. A population is a collection of all individuals, objects, or measurements of interest.
Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2

2. A sample is a portion or part of the population of interest.
Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2

3. To infer something about a population, we usually take a sample from the population.
Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2

4. The techniques used to find out something about a population, such as their average weight, based on a sample are referred to as descriptive statistics.
Answer: False Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2 AACSB: MD

5. There are four levels of measurement-qualitative, quantitative, discrete, and continuous.
Answer: False Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

6. Ordinal level of measurement is considered the "lowest" level of measurement.
Answer: False Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

7. A store asks shoppers for their zip code to identify market areas. Zip codes are an example of ratio data.
Answer: False Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5 AACSB: REF

8. Ordinal level of measurement implies some sort of ranking.
Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

9. Data that can only be classified into categories is nominal data.
Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

10. The words descriptive statistics and inferential statistics can be used interchangeably.
Answer: False Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2

11. A marketing research agency was hired to test a new DVD player. Consumers rated it outstanding, very good, fair or poor. The level of measurement for this experiment is ordinal.
Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5 AACSB: AS

12. The Union of Electrical Workers of America with 9,128 members polled 362 members regarding a new wage package to be submitted to management. The population is the 362 members.
Answer: False Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2

13. The CIA World Factbook cited these numbers for the U.S:
• Birthrate is 14.14 births per 1,000 population
• Average life expectancy for females is 80 years
• Approximately 290 million persons residing in the United States Each of these numbers is referred to as statistic.
Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Goal: 1

14. If we select 100 persons out of 25,000 registered voters and question them about candidates and issues, the 100 persons are referred to as the population.
Answer: False Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2

15. Statistics is defined as a body of techniques used to facilitate the collection, organization, presentation, analysis and interpretation of information for the purpose of making better decisions.
Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Goal: 1 AACSB: CA

16. Another name for inductive statistics is descriptive statistics.
Answer: False Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2

17. Categorizing voters as Democrats, Republicans and Independents is an example of interval level measurement.
Answer: False Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

18. The order that runners finish in a race would be an example of continuous data.
Answer: False Difficulty: Medium Goal: 4

19. Based on a sample of 3,000 people, the civilian unemployment rate in the United States was 5.5%. 5.5% is referred to as a statistic.
Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Goal: 1
20. The principal difference between the interval and ratio scale is that the ratio scale has a meaningful zero point.
Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Goal: 5

21. The branch of mathematics used to facilitate the collection, organization, presentation, analysis and interpretation of numerical data is referred to as a statistic.
Answer: False Difficulty: Easy Goal: 1

22. The number of children in a family is a discrete variable.
Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

Multiple Choice

23. The main purpose of descriptive statistics is to:
A) Summarize data in a useful and informative manner.
B) Make inferences about a population.
C) Determine if the data adequately represents the population.
D) Gather or collect data.
Answer: A Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2

24. Which of the following is an example of a continuous variable?
A) Family income
B) Number of students in a statistics class
C) Zip codes of shoppers
D) Rankings of baseball teams in a league
E) None of the above
Answer: A Difficulty: Easy Goal: 4

25. The incomes of a group of 50 loan applicants are obtained. Which level of measurement is income?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
E) None of the above
Answer: D Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

26. When TV advertisements report "2 out of 3 dentists surveyed indicated they would recommend Brand X toothpaste to their patients," an informed consumer may question the conclusion because:
A) The sample was only 5 dentists.
B) The sample of dentists is clearly explained.
C) The advertisement does not include the total number of dentists surveyed.
D) The conclusion is not illustrated with a graph
Answer: C Difficulty: Medium Goal: 2 AACSB: EU

27. A bank asks customers to evaluate the drive-thru service as good, average, or poor. Which level of measurement is this classification?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
E) None of the above
Answer: B Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

28. What is a portion or part of a population called?
A) Random survey
B) Sample
C) Tally
D) Frequency distribution
E) None of the above
Answer: B Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2

29. If Gallup, Harris and other pollsters asked people to indicate their political party affiliation - Democrat, Republican or Independent, the data gathered would be an example of which scale of measurement?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
E) None of the above
Answer: A Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

30. The members of each basketball team wear numbers on the back of their jerseys. What scale of measurement are these numbers considered?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
E) None of the above
Answer: A Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

31. A marketing class of 50 students evaluated the instructor using the following scale: superior, good, average, poor, and inferior. The descriptive summary showed the following survey results: 2% superior, 8% good, 45% average, 45% poor, and 0% inferior.
A) The instructor's performance was great!!!
B) The instructor's performance was inferior.
C) Most students rated the instructor as poor or average.
D) No conclusions can be made.
Answer: C Difficulty: Medium Goal: 2 AACSB: AS

32. A questionnaire contained a question regarding marital status. The respondent checked either single, married, divorced, separated or widowed. What is the scale of measurement for this question?
A) Ratio
B) Interval
C) Ordinal
D) Nominal
E) None of the above
Answer: D Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

33. Respondents were asked, "Do you now earn more than or less than you did five years ago?" What is this level of measurement?
A) Interval
B) Ratio
C) Nominal
D) Ordinal
E) None of the above
Answer: D Difficulty: Medium Goal: 5 AACSB: REF

34. Which word is NOT part of the definition of descriptive statistics?
A) Organizing
B) Analyzing
C) Presenting
D) Predicting
E) None of the above
Answer: D Difficulty: Medium Goal: 2

35. The reported unemployment is 5.5% of the population. What type of scale is used to measure unemployment?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval or ratio
D) Descriptive
E) None of the above
Answer: C Difficulty: Medium Goal: 5

36. The Equal Employment Opportunity Act requires employers to classify their employees by gender and national origin. Which level of measurement is this?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
E) None of the above
Answer: A Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5 AACSB: MD

37. What level of measurement are the Centigrade and Fahrenheit temperature scales?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
E) None of the above
Answer: C Difficulty: Medium Goal: 5

38. What type of variable is the number of gallons of gasoline pumped by a filling station during a day?
A) Qualitative
B) Continuous
C) Attribute
D) Discrete
E) None of the above
Answer: B Difficulty: Medium Goal: 3

39. What type of variable is "projected return on an investment"?
A) Qualitative
B) Continuous
C) Attribute
D) Discrete
E) None of the above
Answer: B Difficulty: Medium Goal: 3 AACSB: CA

40. What type of variable is the number of robberies reported in your city?
A) Attribute
B) Continuous
C) Discrete
D) Qualitative
E) None of the above
Answer: C Difficulty: Medium Goal: 3

41. What level of measurement is the number of auto accidents reported in a given month?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
E) None of the above
Answer: D Difficulty: Medium Goal: 5

42. The names of the positions on a hockey team, such as forward and goalie, are examples of what level of measurement?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
E) None of the above
Answer: A Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

43. What level of measurement is the price of an admission ticket to a movie theater?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
E) None of the above
Answer: D Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

44. The final rankings of the top 20 NCAA college basketball teams are an example of which level of measurement?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
E) None of the above
Answer: B Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

45. Your height and weight are examples of which level of measurement?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
E) None of the above
Answer: D Difficulty: Medium Goal: 5

46. Shoe sizes, such as 7B, 10D and 12EEE, are examples of what level of measurement?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
E) None of the above
Answer: C Difficulty: Medium Goal: 5

47. The general process of gathering, organizing, summarizing, analyzing, and interpreting data is called
A) Statistics.
B) Descriptive statistics.
C) Inferential statistics.
D) Levels of measurement.
E) None of the above.
Answer: A Difficulty: Medium Goal: 1

48. The Nielsen Ratings break down the number of people watching a particular television show by age. Age is what level of measurement?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
E) None of the above
Answer: D Difficulty: Medium Goal: 5 AACSB: AS

49. Which of the following is an example of attribute data?
A) Number of children in a family
B) Weight of a person
C) Color of ink in a pen
D) Miles between oil changes
E) None of the above
Answer: C Difficulty: Easy Goal: 3

50. Which one of the following is NOT an example of discrete data?
A) Number of households watching the Home Shopping Network.
B) Number of employees reporting in sick.
C) Number of miles between New York City and Chicago.
D) Number of members of the Denver Lions Club.
E) Number of family members.
Answer: C Difficulty: Medium Goal: 4

51. What level of measurement is a bar code?
A) Ratio
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Nominal
E) None of the above
Answer: D Difficulty: Medium Goal: 5

52. A group of women tried five brands of hair spray and ranked them according to preference. What level of measurement is this?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio
E) None of the above
Answer: B Difficulty: Medium Goal: 5

Fill-in-the-Blank

53. The monthly Consumer Price Index is called a(n) ________________.
Answer: statistic Difficulty: Easy Goal: 1

54. A qualitative variable such as eye color is also referred to as a(n) _____________ variable.
Answer: attribute Difficulty: Easy Goal: 3

55. A scale used to measure a quantitative variable is either _______________ or ________________.
Answer: interval, ratio Difficulty: Medium Goal: 3

56. Ranked data is an example of what level of measurement? ________________
Answer: ordinal Difficulty: Medium Goal: 5

57. What level of measurement is the prime rate of interest? ______________
Answer: ratio Difficulty: Medium Goal: 5

58. The branch of statistics that does not involve generalizations is called ________________.
Answer: descriptive statistics Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2

59. When we make an estimate or prediction, we use ________________ techniques.
Answer: inferential or inductive Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2

60. The branch of statistics in which data is collected, analyzed and presented in a concise format is called _____________ statistics.
Answer: descriptive Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2

61. The branch of statistics from which we draw conclusions from sample data is called _________________ statistics.
Answer: inferential Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2

62. The number of workers reporting sick in any particular week is considered to be _______________ data.
Answer: discrete Difficulty: Medium Goal: 4

63. If we test a small number of light bulbs from a large group, the small group is called a ______________.
Answer: sample Difficulty: Medium Goal: 2

64. Among the many classes held at your college or university, your statistics class has been selected for a study. This one class is referred to as a ______________.
Answer: sample Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2

65. Another name for inferential statistics is ______________ statistics.
Answer: inductive Difficulty: Medium Goal: 2

66. The "lowest" level of measurement is _____________.
Answer: nominal Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

67. The "highest" level of measurement is ________________.
Answer: ratio Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

68. The major advantage of ordinal data over nominal data is that it allows for ___________________.
Answer: ranking, ordering, or "greater than" relationship Difficulty: Medium Goal: 5

69. The principal difference between the interval and ratio scale of measurement is that the ratio scale has a ____________________.
Answer: meaningful zero point Difficulty: Medium Goal: 5
70. Categorizing students as freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors is an example of the ______________ level of measurement.
Answer: ordinal Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

71. The collection of all possible objects of interest is referred to as the ______________.
Answer: population Difficulty: Medium Goal: 2

72. The lowest level of measurement that has some sort of ranking is ____________.
Answer: ordinal Difficulty: Easy Goal: 5

73. A variable that can have any value within a specific range is called _________________.
Answer: continuous Difficulty: Medium Goal: 4

74. The science of collecting, organizing, presenting, analyzing, and interpreting of data is called ____________________.
Answer: statistics Difficulty: Easy Goal: 1

Essay

75. Describe the difference between a population and a sample.
Answer: A population is the entire set of individuals or objects that could be observed or measured. A sample is a subset or portion of a population. Difficulty: Easy Goal: 2

76. A New York newspaper reported the average gasoline prices in four metropolitan areas and used a bar chart to illustrate the differences. What type of statistics was shown? What activities did the newspaper use to make the report?
Answer: The newspaper used descriptive statistics. The statistical activities use to make the report were collecting data, summarizing the data, and presenting the data. Difficulty: Medium Goal: 2

77. A company was studying the demographics of their customers. As part of the study they collected the following variables: gender, marital status, credit rating (low, medium, high), annual income, and age. Label each variable as qualitative or quantitative, discrete or continuous, and nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio.
Answer: gender: qualitative, discrete, nominal
Marital status: qualitative, discrete, nominal
Credit rating: qualitative, discrete, ordinal
Annual income: quantitative, continuous, ratio
Age: quantitative, continuous, ratio Difficulty: Medium Goal: 3, 4, 5…...

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...occurring conflicts to meet either requirements. In such cases automation concepts may become necessary, that are capable to fuse advantages of the combination of human and automation capabilities leading to a certain level of automation [5]. The achievable level of safe and reliable automation thereby depends on the considered processes (tasks) and is initially proposed by early work of Sheridan and Verplank and recently discussed in [5]. When analyzing technical processes that are under investigation these days, several applications can be categorized as semi-automated processes [5–10]. Recent case studies [8] confirm the value and the advantage of Human-Centered-Automation (HCA) ap- 106 proaches, detail challenges of their implementation [9], and identify recommendations to improve Situation Awareness (SA) of human operators in complex environments. Therefore, determining the relevant information [10] is an essential strategy to reduce user’s input and thus allowing human operators to be focused when interacting with dynamical systems. Catching necessary attention and enhancing the user’s attention allocation by reducing the input set of information is essential to improve user assistance in semi-automated technical systems. The Case-based Situation Awareness (CBSA) approach [11] is successfully applied to design context-aware user interfaces [6]. The CBSA approach is a suitable descriptive technique and capable of forecasting cases, while not modeling interaction itself......

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2×05 Emilia Romagna | Nicholas Farrell | Mahershala Ali